Merge branch 'jc/mkstemp-more-careful-error-reporting'
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-commit.txt
1 git-commit(1)
2 =============
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-commit - Record changes to the repository
7
8 SYNOPSIS
9 --------
10 [verse]
11 'git commit' [-a | --interactive | --patch] [-s] [-v] [-u<mode>] [--amend]
12 [--dry-run] [(-c | -C | --fixup | --squash) <commit>]
13 [-F <file> | -m <msg>] [--reset-author] [--allow-empty]
14 [--allow-empty-message] [--no-verify] [-e] [--author=<author>]
15 [--date=<date>] [--cleanup=<mode>] [--status | --no-status]
16 [-i | -o] [-S[<keyid>]] [--] [<file>...]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Stores the current contents of the index in a new commit along
21 with a log message from the user describing the changes.
22
23 The content to be added can be specified in several ways:
24
25 1. by using 'git add' to incrementally "add" changes to the
26 index before using the 'commit' command (Note: even modified
27 files must be "added");
28
29 2. by using 'git rm' to remove files from the working tree
30 and the index, again before using the 'commit' command;
31
32 3. by listing files as arguments to the 'commit' command, in which
33 case the commit will ignore changes staged in the index, and instead
34 record the current content of the listed files (which must already
35 be known to git);
36
37 4. by using the -a switch with the 'commit' command to automatically
38 "add" changes from all known files (i.e. all files that are already
39 listed in the index) and to automatically "rm" files in the index
40 that have been removed from the working tree, and then perform the
41 actual commit;
42
43 5. by using the --interactive or --patch switches with the 'commit' command
44 to decide one by one which files or hunks should be part of the commit,
45 before finalizing the operation. See the ``Interactive Mode'' section of
46 linkgit:git-add[1] to learn how to operate these modes.
47
48 The `--dry-run` option can be used to obtain a
49 summary of what is included by any of the above for the next
50 commit by giving the same set of parameters (options and paths).
51
52 If you make a commit and then find a mistake immediately after
53 that, you can recover from it with 'git reset'.
54
55
56 OPTIONS
57 -------
58 -a::
59 --all::
60 Tell the command to automatically stage files that have
61 been modified and deleted, but new files you have not
62 told git about are not affected.
63
64 -p::
65 --patch::
66 Use the interactive patch selection interface to chose
67 which changes to commit. See linkgit:git-add[1] for
68 details.
69
70 -C <commit>::
71 --reuse-message=<commit>::
72 Take an existing commit object, and reuse the log message
73 and the authorship information (including the timestamp)
74 when creating the commit.
75
76 -c <commit>::
77 --reedit-message=<commit>::
78 Like '-C', but with '-c' the editor is invoked, so that
79 the user can further edit the commit message.
80
81 --fixup=<commit>::
82 Construct a commit message for use with `rebase --autosquash`.
83 The commit message will be the subject line from the specified
84 commit with a prefix of "fixup! ". See linkgit:git-rebase[1]
85 for details.
86
87 --squash=<commit>::
88 Construct a commit message for use with `rebase --autosquash`.
89 The commit message subject line is taken from the specified
90 commit with a prefix of "squash! ". Can be used with additional
91 commit message options (`-m`/`-c`/`-C`/`-F`). See
92 linkgit:git-rebase[1] for details.
93
94 --reset-author::
95 When used with -C/-c/--amend options, or when committing after a
96 a conflicting cherry-pick, declare that the authorship of the
97 resulting commit now belongs of the committer. This also renews
98 the author timestamp.
99
100 --short::
101 When doing a dry-run, give the output in the short-format. See
102 linkgit:git-status[1] for details. Implies `--dry-run`.
103
104 --branch::
105 Show the branch and tracking info even in short-format.
106
107 --porcelain::
108 When doing a dry-run, give the output in a porcelain-ready
109 format. See linkgit:git-status[1] for details. Implies
110 `--dry-run`.
111
112 --long::
113 When doing a dry-run, give the output in a the long-format.
114 Implies `--dry-run`.
115
116 -z::
117 --null::
118 When showing `short` or `porcelain` status output, terminate
119 entries in the status output with NUL, instead of LF. If no
120 format is given, implies the `--porcelain` output format.
121
122 -F <file>::
123 --file=<file>::
124 Take the commit message from the given file. Use '-' to
125 read the message from the standard input.
126
127 --author=<author>::
128 Override the commit author. Specify an explicit author using the
129 standard `A U Thor <author@example.com>` format. Otherwise <author>
130 is assumed to be a pattern and is used to search for an existing
131 commit by that author (i.e. rev-list --all -i --author=<author>);
132 the commit author is then copied from the first such commit found.
133
134 --date=<date>::
135 Override the author date used in the commit.
136
137 -m <msg>::
138 --message=<msg>::
139 Use the given <msg> as the commit message.
140
141 -t <file>::
142 --template=<file>::
143 When editing the commit message, start the editor with the
144 contents in the given file. The `commit.template` configuration
145 variable is often used to give this option implicitly to the
146 command. This mechanism can be used by projects that want to
147 guide participants with some hints on what to write in the message
148 in what order. If the user exits the editor without editing the
149 message, the commit is aborted. This has no effect when a message
150 is given by other means, e.g. with the `-m` or `-F` options.
151
152 -s::
153 --signoff::
154 Add Signed-off-by line by the committer at the end of the commit
155 log message.
156
157 -n::
158 --no-verify::
159 This option bypasses the pre-commit and commit-msg hooks.
160 See also linkgit:githooks[5].
161
162 --allow-empty::
163 Usually recording a commit that has the exact same tree as its
164 sole parent commit is a mistake, and the command prevents you
165 from making such a commit. This option bypasses the safety, and
166 is primarily for use by foreign SCM interface scripts.
167
168 --allow-empty-message::
169 Like --allow-empty this command is primarily for use by foreign
170 SCM interface scripts. It allows you to create a commit with an
171 empty commit message without using plumbing commands like
172 linkgit:git-commit-tree[1].
173
174 --cleanup=<mode>::
175 This option sets how the commit message is cleaned up.
176 The '<mode>' can be one of 'verbatim', 'whitespace', 'strip',
177 and 'default'. The 'default' mode will strip leading and
178 trailing empty lines and #commentary from the commit message
179 only if the message is to be edited. Otherwise only whitespace
180 removed. The 'verbatim' mode does not change message at all,
181 'whitespace' removes just leading/trailing whitespace lines
182 and 'strip' removes both whitespace and commentary.
183
184 -e::
185 --edit::
186 The message taken from file with `-F`, command line with
187 `-m`, and from file with `-C` are usually used as the
188 commit log message unmodified. This option lets you
189 further edit the message taken from these sources.
190
191 --no-edit::
192 Use the selected commit message without launching an editor.
193 For example, `git commit --amend --no-edit` amends a commit
194 without changing its commit message.
195
196 --amend::
197 Used to amend the tip of the current branch. Prepare the tree
198 object you would want to replace the latest commit as usual
199 (this includes the usual -i/-o and explicit paths), and the
200 commit log editor is seeded with the commit message from the
201 tip of the current branch. The commit you create replaces the
202 current tip -- if it was a merge, it will have the parents of
203 the current tip as parents -- so the current top commit is
204 discarded.
205 +
206 --
207 It is a rough equivalent for:
208 ------
209 $ git reset --soft HEAD^
210 $ ... do something else to come up with the right tree ...
211 $ git commit -c ORIG_HEAD
212
213 ------
214 but can be used to amend a merge commit.
215 --
216 +
217 You should understand the implications of rewriting history if you
218 amend a commit that has already been published. (See the "RECOVERING
219 FROM UPSTREAM REBASE" section in linkgit:git-rebase[1].)
220
221 --no-post-rewrite::
222 Bypass the post-rewrite hook.
223
224 -i::
225 --include::
226 Before making a commit out of staged contents so far,
227 stage the contents of paths given on the command line
228 as well. This is usually not what you want unless you
229 are concluding a conflicted merge.
230
231 -o::
232 --only::
233 Make a commit only from the paths specified on the
234 command line, disregarding any contents that have been
235 staged so far. This is the default mode of operation of
236 'git commit' if any paths are given on the command line,
237 in which case this option can be omitted.
238 If this option is specified together with '--amend', then
239 no paths need to be specified, which can be used to amend
240 the last commit without committing changes that have
241 already been staged.
242
243 -u[<mode>]::
244 --untracked-files[=<mode>]::
245 Show untracked files.
246 +
247 The mode parameter is optional (defaults to 'all'), and is used to
248 specify the handling of untracked files; when -u is not used, the
249 default is 'normal', i.e. show untracked files and directories.
250 +
251 The possible options are:
252 +
253 - 'no' - Show no untracked files
254 - 'normal' - Shows untracked files and directories
255 - 'all' - Also shows individual files in untracked directories.
256 +
257 The default can be changed using the status.showUntrackedFiles
258 configuration variable documented in linkgit:git-config[1].
259
260 -v::
261 --verbose::
262 Show unified diff between the HEAD commit and what
263 would be committed at the bottom of the commit message
264 template. Note that this diff output doesn't have its
265 lines prefixed with '#'.
266
267 -q::
268 --quiet::
269 Suppress commit summary message.
270
271 --dry-run::
272 Do not create a commit, but show a list of paths that are
273 to be committed, paths with local changes that will be left
274 uncommitted and paths that are untracked.
275
276 --status::
277 Include the output of linkgit:git-status[1] in the commit
278 message template when using an editor to prepare the commit
279 message. Defaults to on, but can be used to override
280 configuration variable commit.status.
281
282 --no-status::
283 Do not include the output of linkgit:git-status[1] in the
284 commit message template when using an editor to prepare the
285 default commit message.
286
287 -S[<keyid>]::
288 --gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
289 GPG-sign commit.
290
291 \--::
292 Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
293
294 <file>...::
295 When files are given on the command line, the command
296 commits the contents of the named files, without
297 recording the changes already staged. The contents of
298 these files are also staged for the next commit on top
299 of what have been staged before.
300
301 :git-commit: 1
302 include::date-formats.txt[]
303
304 EXAMPLES
305 --------
306 When recording your own work, the contents of modified files in
307 your working tree are temporarily stored to a staging area
308 called the "index" with 'git add'. A file can be
309 reverted back, only in the index but not in the working tree,
310 to that of the last commit with `git reset HEAD -- <file>`,
311 which effectively reverts 'git add' and prevents the changes to
312 this file from participating in the next commit. After building
313 the state to be committed incrementally with these commands,
314 `git commit` (without any pathname parameter) is used to record what
315 has been staged so far. This is the most basic form of the
316 command. An example:
317
318 ------------
319 $ edit hello.c
320 $ git rm goodbye.c
321 $ git add hello.c
322 $ git commit
323 ------------
324
325 Instead of staging files after each individual change, you can
326 tell `git commit` to notice the changes to the files whose
327 contents are tracked in
328 your working tree and do corresponding `git add` and `git rm`
329 for you. That is, this example does the same as the earlier
330 example if there is no other change in your working tree:
331
332 ------------
333 $ edit hello.c
334 $ rm goodbye.c
335 $ git commit -a
336 ------------
337
338 The command `git commit -a` first looks at your working tree,
339 notices that you have modified hello.c and removed goodbye.c,
340 and performs necessary `git add` and `git rm` for you.
341
342 After staging changes to many files, you can alter the order the
343 changes are recorded in, by giving pathnames to `git commit`.
344 When pathnames are given, the command makes a commit that
345 only records the changes made to the named paths:
346
347 ------------
348 $ edit hello.c hello.h
349 $ git add hello.c hello.h
350 $ edit Makefile
351 $ git commit Makefile
352 ------------
353
354 This makes a commit that records the modification to `Makefile`.
355 The changes staged for `hello.c` and `hello.h` are not included
356 in the resulting commit. However, their changes are not lost --
357 they are still staged and merely held back. After the above
358 sequence, if you do:
359
360 ------------
361 $ git commit
362 ------------
363
364 this second commit would record the changes to `hello.c` and
365 `hello.h` as expected.
366
367 After a merge (initiated by 'git merge' or 'git pull') stops
368 because of conflicts, cleanly merged
369 paths are already staged to be committed for you, and paths that
370 conflicted are left in unmerged state. You would have to first
371 check which paths are conflicting with 'git status'
372 and after fixing them manually in your working tree, you would
373 stage the result as usual with 'git add':
374
375 ------------
376 $ git status | grep unmerged
377 unmerged: hello.c
378 $ edit hello.c
379 $ git add hello.c
380 ------------
381
382 After resolving conflicts and staging the result, `git ls-files -u`
383 would stop mentioning the conflicted path. When you are done,
384 run `git commit` to finally record the merge:
385
386 ------------
387 $ git commit
388 ------------
389
390 As with the case to record your own changes, you can use `-a`
391 option to save typing. One difference is that during a merge
392 resolution, you cannot use `git commit` with pathnames to
393 alter the order the changes are committed, because the merge
394 should be recorded as a single commit. In fact, the command
395 refuses to run when given pathnames (but see `-i` option).
396
397
398 DISCUSSION
399 ----------
400
401 Though not required, it's a good idea to begin the commit message
402 with a single short (less than 50 character) line summarizing the
403 change, followed by a blank line and then a more thorough description.
404 The text up to the first blank line in a commit message is treated
405 as the commit title, and that title is used throughout git.
406 For example, linkgit:git-format-patch[1] turns a commit into email, and it uses
407 the title on the Subject line and the rest of the commit in the body.
408
409 include::i18n.txt[]
410
411 ENVIRONMENT AND CONFIGURATION VARIABLES
412 ---------------------------------------
413 The editor used to edit the commit log message will be chosen from the
414 GIT_EDITOR environment variable, the core.editor configuration variable, the
415 VISUAL environment variable, or the EDITOR environment variable (in that
416 order). See linkgit:git-var[1] for details.
417
418 HOOKS
419 -----
420 This command can run `commit-msg`, `prepare-commit-msg`, `pre-commit`,
421 and `post-commit` hooks. See linkgit:githooks[5] for more
422 information.
423
424 FILES
425 -----
426
427 `$GIT_DIR/COMMIT_EDITMSG`::
428 This file contains the commit message of a commit in progress.
429 If `git commit` exits due to an error before creating a commit,
430 any commit message that has been provided by the user (e.g., in
431 an editor session) will be available in this file, but will be
432 overwritten by the next invocation of `git commit`.
433
434 SEE ALSO
435 --------
436 linkgit:git-add[1],
437 linkgit:git-rm[1],
438 linkgit:git-mv[1],
439 linkgit:git-merge[1],
440 linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
441
442 GIT
443 ---
444 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite