Git 1.8.2.3
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of
26 commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27 in-depth introduction.
28
29 After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
30 page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31 individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
32 manual page gives you an overview of the command line command syntax.
33
34 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
35 can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
36
37 ifdef::stalenotes[]
38 [NOTE]
39 ============
40
41 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42 unreleased) version of Git, that is available from 'master'
43 branch of the `git.git` repository.
44 Documentation for older releases are available here:
45
46 * link:v1.8.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.2.3]
47
48 * release notes for
49 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.3.txt[1.8.2.3].
50 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt[1.8.2.2].
51 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt[1.8.2.1].
52 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.txt[1.8.2].
53
54 * link:v1.8.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.1.6]
55
56 * release notes for
57 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.6.txt[1.8.1.6],
58 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.5.txt[1.8.1.5],
59 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.4.txt[1.8.1.4],
60 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.3.txt[1.8.1.3],
61 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.2.txt[1.8.1.2],
62 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.1.txt[1.8.1.1],
63 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.txt[1.8.1].
64
65 * link:v1.8.0.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.0.3]
66
67 * release notes for
68 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.3.txt[1.8.0.3],
69 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.2.txt[1.8.0.2],
70 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.1.txt[1.8.0.1],
71 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.txt[1.8.0].
72
73 * link:v1.7.12.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.12.4]
74
75 * release notes for
76 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.4.txt[1.7.12.4],
77 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt[1.7.12.3],
78 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.2.txt[1.7.12.2],
79 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.1.txt[1.7.12.1],
80 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.txt[1.7.12].
81
82 * link:v1.7.11.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.7]
83
84 * release notes for
85 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.7.txt[1.7.11.7],
86 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.6.txt[1.7.11.6],
87 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.5.txt[1.7.11.5],
88 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.4.txt[1.7.11.4],
89 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.3.txt[1.7.11.3],
90 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.2.txt[1.7.11.2],
91 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.1.txt[1.7.11.1],
92 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.txt[1.7.11].
93
94 * link:v1.7.10.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.10.5]
95
96 * release notes for
97 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.5.txt[1.7.10.5],
98 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt[1.7.10.4],
99 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.3.txt[1.7.10.3],
100 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.2.txt[1.7.10.2],
101 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt[1.7.10.1],
102 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.txt[1.7.10].
103
104 * link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
105
106 * release notes for
107 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.7.txt[1.7.9.7],
108 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.6.txt[1.7.9.6],
109 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.5.txt[1.7.9.5],
110 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.4.txt[1.7.9.4],
111 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.3.txt[1.7.9.3],
112 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.2.txt[1.7.9.2],
113 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.1.txt[1.7.9.1],
114 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
115
116 * link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
117
118 * release notes for
119 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.6.txt[1.7.8.6],
120 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.5.txt[1.7.8.5],
121 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.4.txt[1.7.8.4],
122 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.3.txt[1.7.8.3],
123 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt[1.7.8.2],
124 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.1.txt[1.7.8.1],
125 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
126
127 * link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
128
129 * release notes for
130 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.7.txt[1.7.7.7],
131 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.6.txt[1.7.7.6],
132 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.5.txt[1.7.7.5],
133 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.4.txt[1.7.7.4],
134 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.3.txt[1.7.7.3],
135 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.2.txt[1.7.7.2],
136 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.1.txt[1.7.7.1],
137 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.txt[1.7.7].
138
139 * link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
140
141 * release notes for
142 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.6.txt[1.7.6.6],
143 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.5.txt[1.7.6.5],
144 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.4.txt[1.7.6.4],
145 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.3.txt[1.7.6.3],
146 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.2.txt[1.7.6.2],
147 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.1.txt[1.7.6.1],
148 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
149
150 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
151
152 * release notes for
153 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt[1.7.5.4],
154 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt[1.7.5.3],
155 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.2.txt[1.7.5.2],
156 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.1.txt[1.7.5.1],
157 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.txt[1.7.5].
158
159 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
160
161 * release notes for
162 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.5.txt[1.7.4.5],
163 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.4.txt[1.7.4.4],
164 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.3.txt[1.7.4.3],
165 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.2.txt[1.7.4.2],
166 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.1.txt[1.7.4.1],
167 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.txt[1.7.4].
168
169 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
170
171 * release notes for
172 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.5.txt[1.7.3.5],
173 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.4.txt[1.7.3.4],
174 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.3.txt[1.7.3.3],
175 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.2.txt[1.7.3.2],
176 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.1.txt[1.7.3.1],
177 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.txt[1.7.3].
178
179 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
180
181 * release notes for
182 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.5.txt[1.7.2.5],
183 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.4.txt[1.7.2.4],
184 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.3.txt[1.7.2.3],
185 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.2.txt[1.7.2.2],
186 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.1.txt[1.7.2.1],
187 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.txt[1.7.2].
188
189 * link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
190
191 * release notes for
192 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.4.txt[1.7.1.4],
193 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.3.txt[1.7.1.3],
194 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.2.txt[1.7.1.2],
195 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.1.txt[1.7.1.1],
196 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.txt[1.7.1].
197
198 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
199
200 * release notes for
201 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.9.txt[1.7.0.9],
202 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.8.txt[1.7.0.8],
203 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.7.txt[1.7.0.7],
204 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.6.txt[1.7.0.6],
205 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.5.txt[1.7.0.5],
206 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.4.txt[1.7.0.4],
207 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.3.txt[1.7.0.3],
208 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt[1.7.0.2],
209 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.1.txt[1.7.0.1],
210 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.txt[1.7.0].
211
212 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
213
214 * release notes for
215 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt[1.6.6.3],
216 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
217 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
218 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
219
220 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
221
222 * release notes for
223 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.9.txt[1.6.5.9],
224 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.8.txt[1.6.5.8],
225 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.7.txt[1.6.5.7],
226 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.6.txt[1.6.5.6],
227 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.5.txt[1.6.5.5],
228 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt[1.6.5.4],
229 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.3.txt[1.6.5.3],
230 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.2.txt[1.6.5.2],
231 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.1.txt[1.6.5.1],
232 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
233
234 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
235
236 * release notes for
237 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.5.txt[1.6.4.5],
238 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
239 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
240 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.2.txt[1.6.4.2],
241 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
242 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
243
244 * link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
245
246 * release notes for
247 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
248 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
249 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
250 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
251 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
252
253 * release notes for
254 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
255 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
256 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
257 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
258 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
259 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
260
261 * link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
262
263 * release notes for
264 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
265 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
266 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
267 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
268
269 * link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
270
271 * release notes for
272 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
273 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
274 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
275 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
276 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
277 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
278 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
279
280 * link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
281
282 * release notes for
283 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
284 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
285 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
286 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
287 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
288 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
289 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
290
291 * link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
292
293 * release notes for
294 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
295 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
296 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
297 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
298 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
299 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
300 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
301
302 * link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
303
304 * release notes for
305 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
306 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
307 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
308 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
309 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
310 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
311 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
312 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
313
314 * link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
315
316 * release notes for
317 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
318 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
319 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
320 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
321 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
322 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
323 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
324 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
325 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
326
327 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
328
329 * release notes for
330 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
331 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
332 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
333 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
334 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
335 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
336
337 * link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
338
339 * release notes for
340 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
341 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
342 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
343 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
344 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
345 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
346 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
347
348 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
349
350 * release notes for
351 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
352 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
353 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
354 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
355 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
356 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
357 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
358
359 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
360 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
361 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
362 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
363
364 ============
365
366 endif::stalenotes[]
367
368 OPTIONS
369 -------
370 --version::
371 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
372
373 --help::
374 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
375 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
376 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
377 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
378 +
379 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
380 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
381 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
382 help ...`.
383
384 -c <name>=<value>::
385 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
386 given will override values from configuration files.
387 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
388 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
389
390 --exec-path[=<path>]::
391 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
392 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
393 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
394 the current setting and then exit.
395
396 --html-path::
397 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
398 documentation is installed and exit.
399
400 --man-path::
401 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
402 this version of Git and exit.
403
404 --info-path::
405 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
406 version of Git are installed and exit.
407
408 -p::
409 --paginate::
410 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
411 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
412 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
413 below).
414
415 --no-pager::
416 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
417
418 --git-dir=<path>::
419 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
420 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
421 path or relative path to current working directory.
422
423 --work-tree=<path>::
424 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
425 or a path relative to the current working directory.
426 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
427 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
428 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
429 more detailed discussion).
430
431 --namespace=<path>::
432 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
433 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
434 variable.
435
436 --bare::
437 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
438 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
439 directory.
440
441 --no-replace-objects::
442 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
443 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
444
445 --literal-pathspecs::
446 Treat pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. This is
447 equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
448 variable to `1`.
449
450
451 GIT COMMANDS
452 ------------
453
454 We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
455 ("plumbing") commands.
456
457 High-level commands (porcelain)
458 -------------------------------
459
460 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
461 ancillary user utilities.
462
463 Main porcelain commands
464 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
465
466 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
467
468 Ancillary Commands
469 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
470 Manipulators:
471
472 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
473
474 Interrogators:
475
476 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
477
478
479 Interacting with Others
480 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
481
482 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
483 people via patch over e-mail.
484
485 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
486
487
488 Low-level commands (plumbing)
489 -----------------------------
490
491 Although Git includes its
492 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
493 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
494 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
495 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
496
497 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
498 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
499 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
500 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
501 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
502 end user experience.
503
504 The following description divides
505 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
506 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
507 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
508 repositories.
509
510
511 Manipulation commands
512 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
513
514 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
515
516
517 Interrogation commands
518 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
519
520 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
521
522 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
523 the working tree.
524
525
526 Synching repositories
527 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
528
529 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
530
531 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
532 typically do not use them directly.
533
534 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
535
536
537 Internal helper commands
538 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
539
540 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
541 users typically do not use them directly.
542
543 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
544
545
546 Configuration Mechanism
547 -----------------------
548
549 Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
550 repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
551 like this:
552
553 ------------
554 #
555 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
556 #
557
558 ; core variables
559 [core]
560 ; Don't trust file modes
561 filemode = false
562
563 ; user identity
564 [user]
565 name = "Junio C Hamano"
566 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
567
568 ------------
569
570 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
571 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
572 list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
573
574
575 Identifier Terminology
576 ----------------------
577 <object>::
578 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
579
580 <blob>::
581 Indicates a blob object name.
582
583 <tree>::
584 Indicates a tree object name.
585
586 <commit>::
587 Indicates a commit object name.
588
589 <tree-ish>::
590 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
591 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
592 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
593 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
594
595 <commit-ish>::
596 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
597 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
598 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
599 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
600
601 <type>::
602 Indicates that an object type is required.
603 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
604
605 <file>::
606 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
607 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
608
609 Symbolic Identifiers
610 --------------------
611 Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
612 symbolic notation:
613
614 HEAD::
615 indicates the head of the current branch.
616
617 <tag>::
618 a valid tag 'name'
619 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
620
621 <head>::
622 a valid head 'name'
623 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
624
625 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
626 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
627
628
629 File/Directory Structure
630 ------------------------
631
632 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
633
634 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
635
636 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
637 `$GIT_DIR`.
638
639
640 Terminology
641 -----------
642 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
643
644
645 Environment Variables
646 ---------------------
647 Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
648
649 The Git Repository
650 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
651 These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
652 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
653 Git so take care if using Cogito etc.
654
655 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
656 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
657 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
658 is used.
659
660 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
661 If the object storage directory is specified via this
662 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
663 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
664 directory is used.
665
666 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
667 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
668 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
669 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
670 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
671 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
672
673 'GIT_DIR'::
674 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
675 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
676 for the base of the repository.
677 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
678
679 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
680 Set the path to the working tree. The value will not be
681 used in combination with repositories found automatically in
682 a .git directory (i.e. $GIT_DIR is not set).
683 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command line
684 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
685
686 'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
687 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
688 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
689
690 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
691 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
692 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
693 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
694 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
695 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
696 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
697 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
698 might be present in order to compare them with the current
699 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
700 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
701 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
702 e.g.,
703 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
704
705 'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
706 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
707 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
708 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
709 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
710 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
711 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
712 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
713 command line.
714
715 Git Commits
716 ~~~~~~~~~~~
717 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
718 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
719 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
720 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
721 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
722 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
723 'EMAIL'::
724 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
725
726 Git Diffs
727 ~~~~~~~~~
728 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
729 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
730 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
731 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
732 value passed on the Git diff command line.
733
734 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
735 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
736 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
737 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
738 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
739
740 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
741 +
742 where:
743
744 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
745 contents of <old|new>,
746 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
747 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
748 +
749 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
750 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
751 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
752 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
753 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
754 +
755 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
756 parameter, <path>.
757
758 other
759 ~~~~~
760 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
761 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
762 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
763 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
764
765 'GIT_PAGER'::
766 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
767 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
768 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
769 linkgit:git-config[1].
770
771 'GIT_EDITOR'::
772 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
773 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
774 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
775 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
776
777 'GIT_SSH'::
778 If this environment variable is set then 'git fetch'
779 and 'git push' will use this command instead
780 of 'ssh' when they need to connect to a remote system.
781 The '$GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two or
782 four arguments: the 'username@host' (or just 'host')
783 from the URL and the shell command to execute on that
784 remote system, optionally preceded by '-p' (literally) and
785 the 'port' from the URL when it specifies something other
786 than the default SSH port.
787 +
788 To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH
789 you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script,
790 then set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.
791 +
792 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
793 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
794 for further details.
795
796 'GIT_ASKPASS'::
797 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
798 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
799 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command line argument
800 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askpass'
801 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
802
803 'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
804 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
805 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
806 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
807 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
808 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
809 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
810
811 'GIT_FLUSH'::
812 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
813 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
814 and 'git whatchanged' will force a flush of the output stream
815 after each commit-oriented record have been flushed. If this
816 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
817 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
818 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
819 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
820
821 'GIT_TRACE'::
822 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
823 is case insensitive), Git will print `trace:` messages on
824 stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
825 execution and external command execution.
826 If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1
827 and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
828 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
829 trace messages into this file descriptor.
830 Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path
831 (starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
832 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
833 into it.
834
835 GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
836 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
837 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
838 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
839 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
840 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
841 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
842 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
843
844
845 Discussion[[Discussion]]
846 ------------------------
847
848 More detail on the following is available from the
849 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
850 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
851
852 A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
853 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
854 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
855 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
856 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
857 as tags and branch heads.
858
859 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
860 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
861 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
862 and some number of parent commits.
863
864 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
865 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
866 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
867 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
868
869 All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
870 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
871 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
872 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
873 purpose.
874
875 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
876 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
877
878 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
879 may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
880 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
881 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
882 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
883 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
884
885 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
886 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
887 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
888 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
889 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
890 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
891 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
892 content stored in the index.
893
894 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
895 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
896 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
897
898 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
899 ---------------------
900
901 See the references in the "description" section to get started
902 using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
903 for a first-time user.
904
905 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
906 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
907 introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
908
909 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
910
911 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
912 examples.
913
914 The internals are documented in the
915 link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
916
917 Users migrating from CVS may also want to
918 read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
919
920
921 Authors
922 -------
923 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
924 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
925 <git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.ohloh.net/p/git/contributors/summary
926 gives you a more complete list of contributors.
927
928 If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
929 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
930 the authors for specific parts of the project.
931
932 Reporting Bugs
933 --------------
934
935 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
936 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
937 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
938
939 SEE ALSO
940 --------
941 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
942 link:everyday.html[Everyday Git], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
943 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
944 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
945 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
946
947 GIT
948 ---
949 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite