9202010d80311fb3177fef4d8d5409cef78d7b14
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
26 commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27 in-depth introduction.
28
29 After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
30 page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31 individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
32 manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
33
34 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
35 can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
36
37 ifdef::stalenotes[]
38 [NOTE]
39 ============
40
41 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42 unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
43 branch of the `git.git` repository.
44 Documentation for older releases are available here:
45
46 * link:v2.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 2.1.3]
47
48 * release notes for
49 link:RelNotes/2.1.3.txt[2.1.3],
50 link:RelNotes/2.1.2.txt[2.1.2],
51 link:RelNotes/2.1.1.txt[2.1.1],
52 link:RelNotes/2.1.0.txt[2.1].
53
54 * link:v2.0.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.0.4]
55
56 * release notes for
57 link:RelNotes/2.0.4.txt[2.0.4],
58 link:RelNotes/2.0.3.txt[2.0.3],
59 link:RelNotes/2.0.2.txt[2.0.2],
60 link:RelNotes/2.0.1.txt[2.0.1],
61 link:RelNotes/2.0.0.txt[2.0.0].
62
63 * link:v1.9.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.9.4]
64
65 * release notes for
66 link:RelNotes/1.9.4.txt[1.9.4],
67 link:RelNotes/1.9.3.txt[1.9.3],
68 link:RelNotes/1.9.2.txt[1.9.2],
69 link:RelNotes/1.9.1.txt[1.9.1],
70 link:RelNotes/1.9.0.txt[1.9.0].
71
72 * link:v1.8.5.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.5.5]
73
74 * release notes for
75 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.5.txt[1.8.5.5],
76 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.4.txt[1.8.5.4],
77 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.3.txt[1.8.5.3],
78 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.2.txt[1.8.5.2],
79 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.1.txt[1.8.5.1],
80 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.txt[1.8.5].
81
82 * link:v1.8.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.4.5]
83
84 * release notes for
85 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.5.txt[1.8.4.5],
86 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt[1.8.4.4],
87 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.3.txt[1.8.4.3],
88 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.2.txt[1.8.4.2],
89 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt[1.8.4.1],
90 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.txt[1.8.4].
91
92 * link:v1.8.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.3.4]
93
94 * release notes for
95 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.4.txt[1.8.3.4],
96 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.3.txt[1.8.3.3],
97 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.2.txt[1.8.3.2],
98 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt[1.8.3.1],
99 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.txt[1.8.3].
100
101 * link:v1.8.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.2.3]
102
103 * release notes for
104 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.3.txt[1.8.2.3],
105 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt[1.8.2.2],
106 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt[1.8.2.1],
107 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.txt[1.8.2].
108
109 * link:v1.8.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.1.6]
110
111 * release notes for
112 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.6.txt[1.8.1.6],
113 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.5.txt[1.8.1.5],
114 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.4.txt[1.8.1.4],
115 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.3.txt[1.8.1.3],
116 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.2.txt[1.8.1.2],
117 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.1.txt[1.8.1.1],
118 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.txt[1.8.1].
119
120 * link:v1.8.0.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.0.3]
121
122 * release notes for
123 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.3.txt[1.8.0.3],
124 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.2.txt[1.8.0.2],
125 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.1.txt[1.8.0.1],
126 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.txt[1.8.0].
127
128 * link:v1.7.12.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.12.4]
129
130 * release notes for
131 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.4.txt[1.7.12.4],
132 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt[1.7.12.3],
133 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.2.txt[1.7.12.2],
134 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.1.txt[1.7.12.1],
135 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.txt[1.7.12].
136
137 * link:v1.7.11.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.7]
138
139 * release notes for
140 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.7.txt[1.7.11.7],
141 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.6.txt[1.7.11.6],
142 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.5.txt[1.7.11.5],
143 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.4.txt[1.7.11.4],
144 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.3.txt[1.7.11.3],
145 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.2.txt[1.7.11.2],
146 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.1.txt[1.7.11.1],
147 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.txt[1.7.11].
148
149 * link:v1.7.10.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.10.5]
150
151 * release notes for
152 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.5.txt[1.7.10.5],
153 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt[1.7.10.4],
154 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.3.txt[1.7.10.3],
155 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.2.txt[1.7.10.2],
156 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt[1.7.10.1],
157 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.txt[1.7.10].
158
159 * link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
160
161 * release notes for
162 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.7.txt[1.7.9.7],
163 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.6.txt[1.7.9.6],
164 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.5.txt[1.7.9.5],
165 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.4.txt[1.7.9.4],
166 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.3.txt[1.7.9.3],
167 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.2.txt[1.7.9.2],
168 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.1.txt[1.7.9.1],
169 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
170
171 * link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
172
173 * release notes for
174 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.6.txt[1.7.8.6],
175 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.5.txt[1.7.8.5],
176 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.4.txt[1.7.8.4],
177 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.3.txt[1.7.8.3],
178 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt[1.7.8.2],
179 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.1.txt[1.7.8.1],
180 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
181
182 * link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
183
184 * release notes for
185 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.7.txt[1.7.7.7],
186 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.6.txt[1.7.7.6],
187 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.5.txt[1.7.7.5],
188 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.4.txt[1.7.7.4],
189 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.3.txt[1.7.7.3],
190 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.2.txt[1.7.7.2],
191 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.1.txt[1.7.7.1],
192 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.txt[1.7.7].
193
194 * link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
195
196 * release notes for
197 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.6.txt[1.7.6.6],
198 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.5.txt[1.7.6.5],
199 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.4.txt[1.7.6.4],
200 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.3.txt[1.7.6.3],
201 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.2.txt[1.7.6.2],
202 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.1.txt[1.7.6.1],
203 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
204
205 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
206
207 * release notes for
208 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt[1.7.5.4],
209 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt[1.7.5.3],
210 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.2.txt[1.7.5.2],
211 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.1.txt[1.7.5.1],
212 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.txt[1.7.5].
213
214 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
215
216 * release notes for
217 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.5.txt[1.7.4.5],
218 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.4.txt[1.7.4.4],
219 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.3.txt[1.7.4.3],
220 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.2.txt[1.7.4.2],
221 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.1.txt[1.7.4.1],
222 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.txt[1.7.4].
223
224 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
225
226 * release notes for
227 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.5.txt[1.7.3.5],
228 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.4.txt[1.7.3.4],
229 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.3.txt[1.7.3.3],
230 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.2.txt[1.7.3.2],
231 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.1.txt[1.7.3.1],
232 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.txt[1.7.3].
233
234 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
235
236 * release notes for
237 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.5.txt[1.7.2.5],
238 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.4.txt[1.7.2.4],
239 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.3.txt[1.7.2.3],
240 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.2.txt[1.7.2.2],
241 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.1.txt[1.7.2.1],
242 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.txt[1.7.2].
243
244 * link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
245
246 * release notes for
247 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.4.txt[1.7.1.4],
248 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.3.txt[1.7.1.3],
249 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.2.txt[1.7.1.2],
250 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.1.txt[1.7.1.1],
251 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.txt[1.7.1].
252
253 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
254
255 * release notes for
256 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.9.txt[1.7.0.9],
257 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.8.txt[1.7.0.8],
258 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.7.txt[1.7.0.7],
259 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.6.txt[1.7.0.6],
260 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.5.txt[1.7.0.5],
261 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.4.txt[1.7.0.4],
262 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.3.txt[1.7.0.3],
263 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt[1.7.0.2],
264 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.1.txt[1.7.0.1],
265 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.txt[1.7.0].
266
267 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
268
269 * release notes for
270 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt[1.6.6.3],
271 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
272 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
273 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
274
275 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
276
277 * release notes for
278 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.9.txt[1.6.5.9],
279 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.8.txt[1.6.5.8],
280 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.7.txt[1.6.5.7],
281 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.6.txt[1.6.5.6],
282 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.5.txt[1.6.5.5],
283 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt[1.6.5.4],
284 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.3.txt[1.6.5.3],
285 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.2.txt[1.6.5.2],
286 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.1.txt[1.6.5.1],
287 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
288
289 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
290
291 * release notes for
292 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.5.txt[1.6.4.5],
293 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
294 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
295 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.2.txt[1.6.4.2],
296 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
297 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
298
299 * link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
300
301 * release notes for
302 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
303 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
304 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
305 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
306 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
307
308 * release notes for
309 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
310 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
311 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
312 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
313 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
314 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
315
316 * link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
317
318 * release notes for
319 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
320 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
321 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
322 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
323
324 * link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
325
326 * release notes for
327 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
328 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
329 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
330 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
331 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
332 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
333 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
334
335 * link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
336
337 * release notes for
338 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
339 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
340 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
341 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
342 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
343 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
344 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
345
346 * link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
347
348 * release notes for
349 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
350 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
351 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
352 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
353 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
354 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
355 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
356
357 * link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
358
359 * release notes for
360 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
361 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
362 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
363 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
364 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
365 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
366 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
367 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
368
369 * link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
370
371 * release notes for
372 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
373 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
374 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
375 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
376 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
377 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
378 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
379 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
380 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
381
382 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
383
384 * release notes for
385 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
386 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
387 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
388 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
389 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
390 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
391
392 * link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
393
394 * release notes for
395 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
396 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
397 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
398 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
399 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
400 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
401 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
402
403 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
404
405 * release notes for
406 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
407 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
408 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
409 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
410 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
411 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
412 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
413
414 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
415 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
416 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
417 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
418
419 ============
420
421 endif::stalenotes[]
422
423 OPTIONS
424 -------
425 --version::
426 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
427
428 --help::
429 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
430 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
431 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
432 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
433 +
434 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
435 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
436 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
437 help ...`.
438
439 -C <path>::
440 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
441 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
442 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
443 <path>`.
444 +
445 This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
446 `--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
447 made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
448 example the following invocations are equivalent:
449
450 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
451 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
452
453 -c <name>=<value>::
454 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
455 given will override values from configuration files.
456 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
457 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
458 +
459 Note that omitting the `=` in `git -c foo.bar ...` is allowed and sets
460 `foo.bar` to the boolean true value (just like `[foo]bar` would in a
461 config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like `git -c
462 foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string.
463
464 --exec-path[=<path>]::
465 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
466 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
467 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
468 the current setting and then exit.
469
470 --html-path::
471 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
472 documentation is installed and exit.
473
474 --man-path::
475 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
476 this version of Git and exit.
477
478 --info-path::
479 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
480 version of Git are installed and exit.
481
482 -p::
483 --paginate::
484 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
485 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
486 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
487 below).
488
489 --no-pager::
490 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
491
492 --git-dir=<path>::
493 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
494 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
495 path or relative path to current working directory.
496
497 --work-tree=<path>::
498 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
499 or a path relative to the current working directory.
500 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
501 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
502 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
503 more detailed discussion).
504
505 --namespace=<path>::
506 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
507 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
508 variable.
509
510 --bare::
511 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
512 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
513 directory.
514
515 --no-replace-objects::
516 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
517 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
518
519 --literal-pathspecs::
520 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
521 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
522 variable to `1`.
523
524 --glob-pathspecs::
525 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
526 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
527 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
528 magic ":(literal)"
529
530 --noglob-pathspecs::
531 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
532 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
533 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
534 magic ":(glob)"
535
536 --icase-pathspecs::
537 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
538 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
539
540 GIT COMMANDS
541 ------------
542
543 We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
544 ("plumbing") commands.
545
546 High-level commands (porcelain)
547 -------------------------------
548
549 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
550 ancillary user utilities.
551
552 Main porcelain commands
553 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
554
555 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
556
557 Ancillary Commands
558 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
559 Manipulators:
560
561 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
562
563 Interrogators:
564
565 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
566
567
568 Interacting with Others
569 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
570
571 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
572 people via patch over e-mail.
573
574 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
575
576
577 Low-level commands (plumbing)
578 -----------------------------
579
580 Although Git includes its
581 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
582 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
583 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
584 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
585
586 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
587 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
588 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
589 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
590 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
591 end user experience.
592
593 The following description divides
594 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
595 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
596 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
597 repositories.
598
599
600 Manipulation commands
601 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
602
603 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
604
605
606 Interrogation commands
607 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
608
609 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
610
611 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
612 the working tree.
613
614
615 Synching repositories
616 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
617
618 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
619
620 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
621 typically do not use them directly.
622
623 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
624
625
626 Internal helper commands
627 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
628
629 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
630 users typically do not use them directly.
631
632 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
633
634
635 Configuration Mechanism
636 -----------------------
637
638 Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
639 repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
640 like this:
641
642 ------------
643 #
644 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
645 #
646
647 ; core variables
648 [core]
649 ; Don't trust file modes
650 filemode = false
651
652 ; user identity
653 [user]
654 name = "Junio C Hamano"
655 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
656
657 ------------
658
659 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
660 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
661 list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
662
663
664 Identifier Terminology
665 ----------------------
666 <object>::
667 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
668
669 <blob>::
670 Indicates a blob object name.
671
672 <tree>::
673 Indicates a tree object name.
674
675 <commit>::
676 Indicates a commit object name.
677
678 <tree-ish>::
679 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
680 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
681 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
682 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
683
684 <commit-ish>::
685 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
686 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
687 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
688 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
689
690 <type>::
691 Indicates that an object type is required.
692 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
693
694 <file>::
695 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
696 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
697
698 Symbolic Identifiers
699 --------------------
700 Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
701 symbolic notation:
702
703 HEAD::
704 indicates the head of the current branch.
705
706 <tag>::
707 a valid tag 'name'
708 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
709
710 <head>::
711 a valid head 'name'
712 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
713
714 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
715 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
716
717
718 File/Directory Structure
719 ------------------------
720
721 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
722
723 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
724
725 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
726 `$GIT_DIR`.
727
728
729 Terminology
730 -----------
731 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
732
733
734 Environment Variables
735 ---------------------
736 Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
737
738 The Git Repository
739 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
740 These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
741 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
742 Git so take care if using Cogito etc.
743
744 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
745 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
746 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
747 is used.
748
749 'GIT_INDEX_VERSION'::
750 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
751 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
752 files. By default index file version [23] is used.
753
754 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
755 If the object storage directory is specified via this
756 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
757 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
758 directory is used.
759
760 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
761 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
762 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
763 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
764 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
765 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
766
767 'GIT_DIR'::
768 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
769 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
770 for the base of the repository.
771 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
772
773 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
774 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
775 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command-line
776 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
777
778 'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
779 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
780 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
781
782 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
783 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
784 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
785 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
786 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
787 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
788 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
789 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
790 might be present in order to compare them with the current
791 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
792 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
793 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
794 e.g.,
795 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
796
797 'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
798 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
799 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
800 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
801 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
802 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
803 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
804 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
805 command line.
806
807 Git Commits
808 ~~~~~~~~~~~
809 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
810 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
811 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
812 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
813 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
814 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
815 'EMAIL'::
816 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
817
818 Git Diffs
819 ~~~~~~~~~
820 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
821 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
822 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
823 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
824 value passed on the Git diff command line.
825
826 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
827 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
828 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
829 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
830 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
831
832 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
833 +
834 where:
835
836 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
837 contents of <old|new>,
838 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
839 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
840 +
841 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
842 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
843 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
844 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
845 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
846 +
847 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
848 parameter, <path>.
849 +
850 For each path 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called, two environment variables,
851 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER' and 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL' are set.
852
853 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER'::
854 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
855
856 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL'::
857 The total number of paths.
858
859 other
860 ~~~~~
861 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
862 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
863 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
864 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
865
866 'GIT_PAGER'::
867 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
868 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
869 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
870 linkgit:git-config[1].
871
872 'GIT_EDITOR'::
873 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
874 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
875 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
876 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
877
878 'GIT_SSH'::
879 If this environment variable is set then 'git fetch'
880 and 'git push' will use this command instead
881 of 'ssh' when they need to connect to a remote system.
882 The '$GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two or
883 four arguments: the 'username@host' (or just 'host')
884 from the URL and the shell command to execute on that
885 remote system, optionally preceded by '-p' (literally) and
886 the 'port' from the URL when it specifies something other
887 than the default SSH port.
888 +
889 To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH
890 you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script,
891 then set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.
892 +
893 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
894 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
895 for further details.
896
897 'GIT_ASKPASS'::
898 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
899 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
900 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument
901 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askpass'
902 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
903
904 'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
905 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
906 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
907 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
908 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
909 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
910 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
911
912 'GIT_FLUSH'::
913 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
914 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
915 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
916 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
917 flushed. If this
918 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
919 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
920 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
921 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
922
923 'GIT_TRACE'::
924 Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
925 command execution and external command execution.
926 +
927 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
928 is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to
929 stderr.
930 +
931 If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2
932 and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
933 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
934 trace messages into this file descriptor.
935 +
936 Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path
937 (starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
938 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
939 into it.
940 +
941 Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
942 "false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
943
944 'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
945 Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
946 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
947 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
948 pack-related performance problems.
949 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
950
951 'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
952 Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
953 given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
954 or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet
955 starting with "PACK".
956 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
957
958 'GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE'::
959 Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
960 time of each Git command.
961 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
962
963 'GIT_TRACE_SETUP'::
964 Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
965 working directory after Git has completed its setup phase.
966 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
967
968 'GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW'::
969 Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching /
970 cloning of shallow repositories.
971 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
972
973 GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
974 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
975 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
976 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
977 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
978 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
979 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
980 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
981
982 GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS::
983 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
984 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
985
986 GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS::
987 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
988 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
989
990 GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS::
991 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
992 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
993
994 'GIT_REFLOG_ACTION'::
995 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
996 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
997 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
998 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
999 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
1000 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
1001 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
1002 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
1003
1004
1005 Discussion[[Discussion]]
1006 ------------------------
1007
1008 More detail on the following is available from the
1009 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1010 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
1011
1012 A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
1013 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
1014 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
1015 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
1016 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
1017 as tags and branch heads.
1018
1019 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
1020 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
1021 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
1022 and some number of parent commits.
1023
1024 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
1025 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
1026 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
1027 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
1028
1029 All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
1030 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
1031 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
1032 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
1033 purpose.
1034
1035 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
1036 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
1037
1038 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
1039 may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
1040 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
1041 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
1042 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
1043 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
1044
1045 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
1046 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1047 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1048 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1049 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1050 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1051 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1052 content stored in the index.
1053
1054 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1055 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1056 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
1057
1058 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1059 ---------------------
1060
1061 See the references in the "description" section to get started
1062 using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
1063 for a first-time user.
1064
1065 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1066 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
1067 introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
1068
1069 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1070
1071 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1072 examples.
1073
1074 The internals are documented in the
1075 link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
1076
1077 Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1078 read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1079
1080
1081 Authors
1082 -------
1083 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
1084 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
1085 <git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary
1086 gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1087
1088 If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
1089 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1090 the authors for specific parts of the project.
1091
1092 Reporting Bugs
1093 --------------
1094
1095 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1096 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1097 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1098
1099 SEE ALSO
1100 --------
1101 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
1102 linkgit:giteveryday[7], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
1103 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
1104 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1105 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
1106
1107 GIT
1108 ---
1109 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite