9028b47d923ca027a146da82060dae395d3f7999
[git/git.git] / t / README
1 Core GIT Tests
2 ==============
3
4 This directory holds many test scripts for core GIT tools. The
5 first part of this short document describes how to run the tests
6 and read their output.
7
8 When fixing the tools or adding enhancements, you are strongly
9 encouraged to add tests in this directory to cover what you are
10 trying to fix or enhance. The later part of this short document
11 describes how your test scripts should be organized.
12
13
14 Running Tests
15 -------------
16
17 The easiest way to run tests is to say "make". This runs all
18 the tests.
19
20 *** t0000-basic.sh ***
21 ok 1 - .git/objects should be empty after git init in an empty repo.
22 ok 2 - .git/objects should have 3 subdirectories.
23 ok 3 - success is reported like this
24 ...
25 ok 43 - very long name in the index handled sanely
26 # fixed 1 known breakage(s)
27 # still have 1 known breakage(s)
28 # passed all remaining 42 test(s)
29 1..43
30 *** t0001-init.sh ***
31 ok 1 - plain
32 ok 2 - plain with GIT_WORK_TREE
33 ok 3 - plain bare
34
35 Since the tests all output TAP (see http://testanything.org) they can
36 be run with any TAP harness. Here's an example of parallel testing
37 powered by a recent version of prove(1):
38
39 $ prove --timer --jobs 15 ./t[0-9]*.sh
40 [19:17:33] ./t0005-signals.sh ................................... ok 36 ms
41 [19:17:33] ./t0022-crlf-rename.sh ............................... ok 69 ms
42 [19:17:33] ./t0024-crlf-archive.sh .............................. ok 154 ms
43 [19:17:33] ./t0004-unwritable.sh ................................ ok 289 ms
44 [19:17:33] ./t0002-gitfile.sh ................................... ok 480 ms
45 ===( 102;0 25/? 6/? 5/? 16/? 1/? 4/? 2/? 1/? 3/? 1... )===
46
47 prove and other harnesses come with a lot of useful options. The
48 --state option in particular is very useful:
49
50 # Repeat until no more failures
51 $ prove -j 15 --state=failed,save ./t[0-9]*.sh
52
53 You can give DEFAULT_TEST_TARGET=prove on the make command (or define it
54 in config.mak) to cause "make test" to run tests under prove.
55 GIT_PROVE_OPTS can be used to pass additional options, e.g.
56
57 $ make DEFAULT_TEST_TARGET=prove GIT_PROVE_OPTS='--timer --jobs 16' test
58
59 You can also run each test individually from command line, like this:
60
61 $ sh ./t3010-ls-files-killed-modified.sh
62 ok 1 - git update-index --add to add various paths.
63 ok 2 - git ls-files -k to show killed files.
64 ok 3 - validate git ls-files -k output.
65 ok 4 - git ls-files -m to show modified files.
66 ok 5 - validate git ls-files -m output.
67 # passed all 5 test(s)
68 1..5
69
70 You can pass --verbose (or -v), --debug (or -d), and --immediate
71 (or -i) command line argument to the test, or by setting GIT_TEST_OPTS
72 appropriately before running "make".
73
74 -v::
75 --verbose::
76 This makes the test more verbose. Specifically, the
77 command being run and their output if any are also
78 output.
79
80 --verbose-only=<pattern>::
81 Like --verbose, but the effect is limited to tests with
82 numbers matching <pattern>. The number matched against is
83 simply the running count of the test within the file.
84
85 -x::
86 Turn on shell tracing (i.e., `set -x`) during the tests
87 themselves. Implies `--verbose`.
88 Ignored in test scripts that set the variable 'test_untraceable'
89 to a non-empty value, unless it's run with a Bash version
90 supporting BASH_XTRACEFD, i.e. v4.1 or later.
91
92 -d::
93 --debug::
94 This may help the person who is developing a new test.
95 It causes the command defined with test_debug to run.
96 The "trash" directory (used to store all temporary data
97 during testing) is not deleted even if there are no
98 failed tests so that you can inspect its contents after
99 the test finished.
100
101 -i::
102 --immediate::
103 This causes the test to immediately exit upon the first
104 failed test. Cleanup commands requested with
105 test_when_finished are not executed if the test failed,
106 in order to keep the state for inspection by the tester
107 to diagnose the bug.
108
109 -l::
110 --long-tests::
111 This causes additional long-running tests to be run (where
112 available), for more exhaustive testing.
113
114 -r::
115 --run=<test-selector>::
116 Run only the subset of tests indicated by
117 <test-selector>. See section "Skipping Tests" below for
118 <test-selector> syntax.
119
120 --valgrind=<tool>::
121 Execute all Git binaries under valgrind tool <tool> and exit
122 with status 126 on errors (just like regular tests, this will
123 only stop the test script when running under -i).
124
125 Since it makes no sense to run the tests with --valgrind and
126 not see any output, this option implies --verbose. For
127 convenience, it also implies --tee.
128
129 <tool> defaults to 'memcheck', just like valgrind itself.
130 Other particularly useful choices include 'helgrind' and
131 'drd', but you may use any tool recognized by your valgrind
132 installation.
133
134 As a special case, <tool> can be 'memcheck-fast', which uses
135 memcheck but disables --track-origins. Use this if you are
136 running tests in bulk, to see if there are _any_ memory
137 issues.
138
139 Note that memcheck is run with the option --leak-check=no,
140 as the git process is short-lived and some errors are not
141 interesting. In order to run a single command under the same
142 conditions manually, you should set GIT_VALGRIND to point to
143 the 't/valgrind/' directory and use the commands under
144 't/valgrind/bin/'.
145
146 --valgrind-only=<pattern>::
147 Like --valgrind, but the effect is limited to tests with
148 numbers matching <pattern>. The number matched against is
149 simply the running count of the test within the file.
150
151 --tee::
152 In addition to printing the test output to the terminal,
153 write it to files named 't/test-results/$TEST_NAME.out'.
154 As the names depend on the tests' file names, it is safe to
155 run the tests with this option in parallel.
156
157 --verbose-log::
158 Write verbose output to the same logfile as `--tee`, but do
159 _not_ write it to stdout. Unlike `--tee --verbose`, this option
160 is safe to use when stdout is being consumed by a TAP parser
161 like `prove`. Implies `--tee` and `--verbose`.
162
163 --with-dashes::
164 By default tests are run without dashed forms of
165 commands (like git-commit) in the PATH (it only uses
166 wrappers from ../bin-wrappers). Use this option to include
167 the build directory (..) in the PATH, which contains all
168 the dashed forms of commands. This option is currently
169 implied by other options like --valgrind and
170 GIT_TEST_INSTALLED.
171
172 --root=<directory>::
173 Create "trash" directories used to store all temporary data during
174 testing under <directory>, instead of the t/ directory.
175 Using this option with a RAM-based filesystem (such as tmpfs)
176 can massively speed up the test suite.
177
178 --chain-lint::
179 --no-chain-lint::
180 If --chain-lint is enabled, the test harness will check each
181 test to make sure that it properly "&&-chains" all commands (so
182 that a failure in the middle does not go unnoticed by the final
183 exit code of the test). This check is performed in addition to
184 running the tests themselves. You may also enable or disable
185 this feature by setting the GIT_TEST_CHAIN_LINT environment
186 variable to "1" or "0", respectively.
187
188 You can also set the GIT_TEST_INSTALLED environment variable to
189 the bindir of an existing git installation to test that installation.
190 You still need to have built this git sandbox, from which various
191 test-* support programs, templates, and perl libraries are used.
192 If your installed git is incomplete, it will silently test parts of
193 your built version instead.
194
195 When using GIT_TEST_INSTALLED, you can also set GIT_TEST_EXEC_PATH to
196 override the location of the dashed-form subcommands (what
197 GIT_EXEC_PATH would be used for during normal operation).
198 GIT_TEST_EXEC_PATH defaults to `$GIT_TEST_INSTALLED/git --exec-path`.
199
200
201 Skipping Tests
202 --------------
203
204 In some environments, certain tests have no way of succeeding
205 due to platform limitation, such as lack of 'unzip' program, or
206 filesystem that do not allow arbitrary sequence of non-NUL bytes
207 as pathnames.
208
209 You should be able to say something like
210
211 $ GIT_SKIP_TESTS=t9200.8 sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh
212
213 and even:
214
215 $ GIT_SKIP_TESTS='t[0-4]??? t91?? t9200.8' make
216
217 to omit such tests. The value of the environment variable is a
218 SP separated list of patterns that tells which tests to skip,
219 and either can match the "t[0-9]{4}" part to skip the whole
220 test, or t[0-9]{4} followed by ".$number" to say which
221 particular test to skip.
222
223 For an individual test suite --run could be used to specify that
224 only some tests should be run or that some tests should be
225 excluded from a run.
226
227 The argument for --run is a list of individual test numbers or
228 ranges with an optional negation prefix that define what tests in
229 a test suite to include in the run. A range is two numbers
230 separated with a dash and matches a range of tests with both ends
231 been included. You may omit the first or the second number to
232 mean "from the first test" or "up to the very last test"
233 respectively.
234
235 Optional prefix of '!' means that the test or a range of tests
236 should be excluded from the run.
237
238 If --run starts with an unprefixed number or range the initial
239 set of tests to run is empty. If the first item starts with '!'
240 all the tests are added to the initial set. After initial set is
241 determined every test number or range is added or excluded from
242 the set one by one, from left to right.
243
244 Individual numbers or ranges could be separated either by a space
245 or a comma.
246
247 For example, to run only tests up to a specific test (21), one
248 could do this:
249
250 $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run='1-21'
251
252 or this:
253
254 $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run='-21'
255
256 Common case is to run several setup tests (1, 2, 3) and then a
257 specific test (21) that relies on that setup:
258
259 $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run='1 2 3 21'
260
261 or:
262
263 $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run=1,2,3,21
264
265 or:
266
267 $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run='-3 21'
268
269 As noted above, the test set is built by going through the items
270 from left to right, so this:
271
272 $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run='1-4 !3'
273
274 will run tests 1, 2, and 4. Items that come later have higher
275 precedence. It means that this:
276
277 $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run='!3 1-4'
278
279 would just run tests from 1 to 4, including 3.
280
281 You may use negation with ranges. The following will run all
282 test in the test suite except from 7 up to 11:
283
284 $ sh ./t9200-git-cvsexport-commit.sh --run='!7-11'
285
286 Some tests in a test suite rely on the previous tests performing
287 certain actions, specifically some tests are designated as
288 "setup" test, so you cannot _arbitrarily_ disable one test and
289 expect the rest to function correctly.
290
291 --run is mostly useful when you want to focus on a specific test
292 and know what setup is needed for it. Or when you want to run
293 everything up to a certain test.
294
295
296 Running tests with special setups
297 ---------------------------------
298
299 The whole test suite could be run to test some special features
300 that cannot be easily covered by a few specific test cases. These
301 could be enabled by running the test suite with correct GIT_TEST_
302 environment set.
303
304 GIT_TEST_SPLIT_INDEX=<boolean> forces split-index mode on the whole
305 test suite. Accept any boolean values that are accepted by git-config.
306
307 GIT_TEST_FULL_IN_PACK_ARRAY=<boolean> exercises the uncommon
308 pack-objects code path where there are more than 1024 packs even if
309 the actual number of packs in repository is below this limit. Accept
310 any boolean values that are accepted by git-config.
311
312 GIT_TEST_OE_SIZE=<n> exercises the uncommon pack-objects code path
313 where we do not cache object size in memory and read it from existing
314 packs on demand. This normally only happens when the object size is
315 over 2GB. This variable forces the code path on any object larger than
316 <n> bytes.
317
318 GIT_TEST_OE_DELTA_SIZE=<n> exercises the uncomon pack-objects code
319 path where deltas larger than this limit require extra memory
320 allocation for bookkeeping.
321
322 Naming Tests
323 ------------
324
325 The test files are named as:
326
327 tNNNN-commandname-details.sh
328
329 where N is a decimal digit.
330
331 First digit tells the family:
332
333 0 - the absolute basics and global stuff
334 1 - the basic commands concerning database
335 2 - the basic commands concerning the working tree
336 3 - the other basic commands (e.g. ls-files)
337 4 - the diff commands
338 5 - the pull and exporting commands
339 6 - the revision tree commands (even e.g. merge-base)
340 7 - the porcelainish commands concerning the working tree
341 8 - the porcelainish commands concerning forensics
342 9 - the git tools
343
344 Second digit tells the particular command we are testing.
345
346 Third digit (optionally) tells the particular switch or group of switches
347 we are testing.
348
349 If you create files under t/ directory (i.e. here) that is not
350 the top-level test script, never name the file to match the above
351 pattern. The Makefile here considers all such files as the
352 top-level test script and tries to run all of them. Care is
353 especially needed if you are creating a common test library
354 file, similar to test-lib.sh, because such a library file may
355 not be suitable for standalone execution.
356
357
358 Writing Tests
359 -------------
360
361 The test script is written as a shell script. It should start
362 with the standard "#!/bin/sh", and an
363 assignment to variable 'test_description', like this:
364
365 #!/bin/sh
366
367 test_description='xxx test (option --frotz)
368
369 This test registers the following structure in the cache
370 and tries to run git-ls-files with option --frotz.'
371
372
373 Source 'test-lib.sh'
374 --------------------
375
376 After assigning test_description, the test script should source
377 test-lib.sh like this:
378
379 . ./test-lib.sh
380
381 This test harness library does the following things:
382
383 - If the script is invoked with command line argument --help
384 (or -h), it shows the test_description and exits.
385
386 - Creates an empty test directory with an empty .git/objects database
387 and chdir(2) into it. This directory is 't/trash
388 directory.$test_name_without_dotsh', with t/ subject to change by
389 the --root option documented above.
390
391 - Defines standard test helper functions for your scripts to
392 use. These functions are designed to make all scripts behave
393 consistently when command line arguments --verbose (or -v),
394 --debug (or -d), and --immediate (or -i) is given.
395
396 Do's, don'ts & things to keep in mind
397 -------------------------------------
398
399 Here are a few examples of things you probably should and shouldn't do
400 when writing tests.
401
402 Do:
403
404 - Put all code inside test_expect_success and other assertions.
405
406 Even code that isn't a test per se, but merely some setup code
407 should be inside a test assertion.
408
409 - Chain your test assertions
410
411 Write test code like this:
412
413 git merge foo &&
414 git push bar &&
415 test ...
416
417 Instead of:
418
419 git merge hla
420 git push gh
421 test ...
422
423 That way all of the commands in your tests will succeed or fail. If
424 you must ignore the return value of something, consider using a
425 helper function (e.g. use sane_unset instead of unset, in order
426 to avoid unportable return value for unsetting a variable that was
427 already unset), or prepending the command with test_might_fail or
428 test_must_fail.
429
430 - Check the test coverage for your tests. See the "Test coverage"
431 below.
432
433 Don't blindly follow test coverage metrics; if a new function you added
434 doesn't have any coverage, then you're probably doing something wrong,
435 but having 100% coverage doesn't necessarily mean that you tested
436 everything.
437
438 Tests that are likely to smoke out future regressions are better
439 than tests that just inflate the coverage metrics.
440
441 - When a test checks for an absolute path that a git command generated,
442 construct the expected value using $(pwd) rather than $PWD,
443 $TEST_DIRECTORY, or $TRASH_DIRECTORY. It makes a difference on
444 Windows, where the shell (MSYS bash) mangles absolute path names.
445 For details, see the commit message of 4114156ae9.
446
447 Don't:
448
449 - exit() within a <script> part.
450
451 The harness will catch this as a programming error of the test.
452 Use test_done instead if you need to stop the tests early (see
453 "Skipping tests" below).
454
455 - use '! git cmd' when you want to make sure the git command exits
456 with failure in a controlled way by calling "die()". Instead,
457 use 'test_must_fail git cmd'. This will signal a failure if git
458 dies in an unexpected way (e.g. segfault).
459
460 On the other hand, don't use test_must_fail for running regular
461 platform commands; just use '! cmd'. We are not in the business
462 of verifying that the world given to us sanely works.
463
464 - use perl without spelling it as "$PERL_PATH". This is to help our
465 friends on Windows where the platform Perl often adds CR before
466 the end of line, and they bundle Git with a version of Perl that
467 does not do so, whose path is specified with $PERL_PATH. Note that we
468 provide a "perl" function which uses $PERL_PATH under the hood, so
469 you do not need to worry when simply running perl in the test scripts
470 (but you do, for example, on a shebang line or in a sub script
471 created via "write_script").
472
473 - use sh without spelling it as "$SHELL_PATH", when the script can
474 be misinterpreted by broken platform shell (e.g. Solaris).
475
476 - chdir around in tests. It is not sufficient to chdir to
477 somewhere and then chdir back to the original location later in
478 the test, as any intermediate step can fail and abort the test,
479 causing the next test to start in an unexpected directory. Do so
480 inside a subshell if necessary.
481
482 - save and verify the standard error of compound commands, i.e. group
483 commands, subshells, and shell functions (except test helper
484 functions like 'test_must_fail') like this:
485
486 ( cd dir && git cmd ) 2>error &&
487 test_cmp expect error
488
489 When running the test with '-x' tracing, then the trace of commands
490 executed in the compound command will be included in standard error
491 as well, quite possibly throwing off the subsequent checks examining
492 the output. Instead, save only the relevant git command's standard
493 error:
494
495 ( cd dir && git cmd 2>../error ) &&
496 test_cmp expect error
497
498 - Break the TAP output
499
500 The raw output from your test may be interpreted by a TAP harness. TAP
501 harnesses will ignore everything they don't know about, but don't step
502 on their toes in these areas:
503
504 - Don't print lines like "$x..$y" where $x and $y are integers.
505
506 - Don't print lines that begin with "ok" or "not ok".
507
508 TAP harnesses expect a line that begins with either "ok" and "not
509 ok" to signal a test passed or failed (and our harness already
510 produces such lines), so your script shouldn't emit such lines to
511 their output.
512
513 You can glean some further possible issues from the TAP grammar
514 (see https://metacpan.org/pod/TAP::Parser::Grammar#TAP-GRAMMAR)
515 but the best indication is to just run the tests with prove(1),
516 it'll complain if anything is amiss.
517
518 Keep in mind:
519
520 - Inside the <script> part, the standard output and standard error
521 streams are discarded, and the test harness only reports "ok" or
522 "not ok" to the end user running the tests. Under --verbose, they
523 are shown to help debugging the tests.
524
525
526 Skipping tests
527 --------------
528
529 If you need to skip tests you should do so by using the three-arg form
530 of the test_* functions (see the "Test harness library" section
531 below), e.g.:
532
533 test_expect_success PERL 'I need Perl' '
534 perl -e "hlagh() if unf_unf()"
535 '
536
537 The advantage of skipping tests like this is that platforms that don't
538 have the PERL and other optional dependencies get an indication of how
539 many tests they're missing.
540
541 If the test code is too hairy for that (i.e. does a lot of setup work
542 outside test assertions) you can also skip all remaining tests by
543 setting skip_all and immediately call test_done:
544
545 if ! test_have_prereq PERL
546 then
547 skip_all='skipping perl interface tests, perl not available'
548 test_done
549 fi
550
551 The string you give to skip_all will be used as an explanation for why
552 the test was skipped.
553
554 End with test_done
555 ------------------
556
557 Your script will be a sequence of tests, using helper functions
558 from the test harness library. At the end of the script, call
559 'test_done'.
560
561
562 Test harness library
563 --------------------
564
565 There are a handful helper functions defined in the test harness
566 library for your script to use.
567
568 - test_expect_success [<prereq>] <message> <script>
569
570 Usually takes two strings as parameters, and evaluates the
571 <script>. If it yields success, test is considered
572 successful. <message> should state what it is testing.
573
574 Example:
575
576 test_expect_success \
577 'git-write-tree should be able to write an empty tree.' \
578 'tree=$(git-write-tree)'
579
580 If you supply three parameters the first will be taken to be a
581 prerequisite; see the test_set_prereq and test_have_prereq
582 documentation below:
583
584 test_expect_success TTY 'git --paginate rev-list uses a pager' \
585 ' ... '
586
587 You can also supply a comma-separated list of prerequisites, in the
588 rare case where your test depends on more than one:
589
590 test_expect_success PERL,PYTHON 'yo dawg' \
591 ' test $(perl -E 'print eval "1 +" . qx[python -c "print 2"]') == "4" '
592
593 - test_expect_failure [<prereq>] <message> <script>
594
595 This is NOT the opposite of test_expect_success, but is used
596 to mark a test that demonstrates a known breakage. Unlike
597 the usual test_expect_success tests, which say "ok" on
598 success and "FAIL" on failure, this will say "FIXED" on
599 success and "still broken" on failure. Failures from these
600 tests won't cause -i (immediate) to stop.
601
602 Like test_expect_success this function can optionally use a three
603 argument invocation with a prerequisite as the first argument.
604
605 - test_debug <script>
606
607 This takes a single argument, <script>, and evaluates it only
608 when the test script is started with --debug command line
609 argument. This is primarily meant for use during the
610 development of a new test script.
611
612 - debug <git-command>
613
614 Run a git command inside a debugger. This is primarily meant for
615 use when debugging a failing test script.
616
617 - test_done
618
619 Your test script must have test_done at the end. Its purpose
620 is to summarize successes and failures in the test script and
621 exit with an appropriate error code.
622
623 - test_tick
624
625 Make commit and tag names consistent by setting the author and
626 committer times to defined state. Subsequent calls will
627 advance the times by a fixed amount.
628
629 - test_commit <message> [<filename> [<contents>]]
630
631 Creates a commit with the given message, committing the given
632 file with the given contents (default for both is to reuse the
633 message string), and adds a tag (again reusing the message
634 string as name). Calls test_tick to make the SHA-1s
635 reproducible.
636
637 - test_merge <message> <commit-or-tag>
638
639 Merges the given rev using the given message. Like test_commit,
640 creates a tag and calls test_tick before committing.
641
642 - test_set_prereq <prereq>
643
644 Set a test prerequisite to be used later with test_have_prereq. The
645 test-lib will set some prerequisites for you, see the
646 "Prerequisites" section below for a full list of these.
647
648 Others you can set yourself and use later with either
649 test_have_prereq directly, or the three argument invocation of
650 test_expect_success and test_expect_failure.
651
652 - test_have_prereq <prereq>
653
654 Check if we have a prerequisite previously set with test_set_prereq.
655 The most common way to use this explicitly (as opposed to the
656 implicit use when an argument is passed to test_expect_*) is to skip
657 all the tests at the start of the test script if we don't have some
658 essential prerequisite:
659
660 if ! test_have_prereq PERL
661 then
662 skip_all='skipping perl interface tests, perl not available'
663 test_done
664 fi
665
666 - test_external [<prereq>] <message> <external> <script>
667
668 Execute a <script> with an <external> interpreter (like perl). This
669 was added for tests like t9700-perl-git.sh which do most of their
670 work in an external test script.
671
672 test_external \
673 'GitwebCache::*FileCache*' \
674 perl "$TEST_DIRECTORY"/t9503/test_cache_interface.pl
675
676 If the test is outputting its own TAP you should set the
677 test_external_has_tap variable somewhere before calling the first
678 test_external* function. See t9700-perl-git.sh for an example.
679
680 # The external test will outputs its own plan
681 test_external_has_tap=1
682
683 - test_external_without_stderr [<prereq>] <message> <external> <script>
684
685 Like test_external but fail if there's any output on stderr,
686 instead of checking the exit code.
687
688 test_external_without_stderr \
689 'Perl API' \
690 perl "$TEST_DIRECTORY"/t9700/test.pl
691
692 - test_expect_code <exit-code> <command>
693
694 Run a command and ensure that it exits with the given exit code.
695 For example:
696
697 test_expect_success 'Merge with d/f conflicts' '
698 test_expect_code 1 git merge "merge msg" B master
699 '
700
701 - test_must_fail [<options>] <git-command>
702
703 Run a git command and ensure it fails in a controlled way. Use
704 this instead of "! <git-command>". When git-command dies due to a
705 segfault, test_must_fail diagnoses it as an error; "! <git-command>"
706 treats it as just another expected failure, which would let such a
707 bug go unnoticed.
708
709 Accepts the following options:
710
711 ok=<signal-name>[,<...>]:
712 Don't treat an exit caused by the given signal as error.
713 Multiple signals can be specified as a comma separated list.
714 Currently recognized signal names are: sigpipe, success.
715 (Don't use 'success', use 'test_might_fail' instead.)
716
717 - test_might_fail [<options>] <git-command>
718
719 Similar to test_must_fail, but tolerate success, too. Use this
720 instead of "<git-command> || :" to catch failures due to segv.
721
722 Accepts the same options as test_must_fail.
723
724 - test_cmp <expected> <actual>
725
726 Check whether the content of the <actual> file matches the
727 <expected> file. This behaves like "cmp" but produces more
728 helpful output when the test is run with "-v" option.
729
730 - test_cmp_rev <expected> <actual>
731
732 Check whether the <expected> rev points to the same commit as the
733 <actual> rev.
734
735 - test_line_count (= | -lt | -ge | ...) <length> <file>
736
737 Check whether a file has the length it is expected to.
738
739 - test_path_is_file <path> [<diagnosis>]
740 test_path_is_dir <path> [<diagnosis>]
741 test_path_is_missing <path> [<diagnosis>]
742
743 Check if the named path is a file, if the named path is a
744 directory, or if the named path does not exist, respectively,
745 and fail otherwise, showing the <diagnosis> text.
746
747 - test_when_finished <script>
748
749 Prepend <script> to a list of commands to run to clean up
750 at the end of the current test. If some clean-up command
751 fails, the test will not pass.
752
753 Example:
754
755 test_expect_success 'branch pointing to non-commit' '
756 git rev-parse HEAD^{tree} >.git/refs/heads/invalid &&
757 test_when_finished "git update-ref -d refs/heads/invalid" &&
758 ...
759 '
760
761 - test_write_lines <lines>
762
763 Write <lines> on standard output, one line per argument.
764 Useful to prepare multi-line files in a compact form.
765
766 Example:
767
768 test_write_lines a b c d e f g >foo
769
770 Is a more compact equivalent of:
771 cat >foo <<-EOF
772 a
773 b
774 c
775 d
776 e
777 f
778 g
779 EOF
780
781
782 - test_pause
783
784 This command is useful for writing and debugging tests and must be
785 removed before submitting. It halts the execution of the test and
786 spawns a shell in the trash directory. Exit the shell to continue
787 the test. Example:
788
789 test_expect_success 'test' '
790 git do-something >actual &&
791 test_pause &&
792 test_cmp expected actual
793 '
794
795 - test_ln_s_add <path1> <path2>
796
797 This function helps systems whose filesystem does not support symbolic
798 links. Use it to add a symbolic link entry to the index when it is not
799 important that the file system entry is a symbolic link, i.e., instead
800 of the sequence
801
802 ln -s foo bar &&
803 git add bar
804
805 Sometimes it is possible to split a test in a part that does not need
806 the symbolic link in the file system and a part that does; then only
807 the latter part need be protected by a SYMLINKS prerequisite (see below).
808
809 Prerequisites
810 -------------
811
812 These are the prerequisites that the test library predefines with
813 test_have_prereq.
814
815 See the prereq argument to the test_* functions in the "Test harness
816 library" section above and the "test_have_prereq" function for how to
817 use these, and "test_set_prereq" for how to define your own.
818
819 - PYTHON
820
821 Git wasn't compiled with NO_PYTHON=YesPlease. Wrap any tests that
822 need Python with this.
823
824 - PERL
825
826 Git wasn't compiled with NO_PERL=YesPlease.
827
828 Even without the PERL prerequisite, tests can assume there is a
829 usable perl interpreter at $PERL_PATH, though it need not be
830 particularly modern.
831
832 - POSIXPERM
833
834 The filesystem supports POSIX style permission bits.
835
836 - BSLASHPSPEC
837
838 Backslashes in pathspec are not directory separators. This is not
839 set on Windows. See 6fd1106a for details.
840
841 - EXECKEEPSPID
842
843 The process retains the same pid across exec(2). See fb9a2bea for
844 details.
845
846 - PIPE
847
848 The filesystem we're on supports creation of FIFOs (named pipes)
849 via mkfifo(1).
850
851 - SYMLINKS
852
853 The filesystem we're on supports symbolic links. E.g. a FAT
854 filesystem doesn't support these. See 704a3143 for details.
855
856 - SANITY
857
858 Test is not run by root user, and an attempt to write to an
859 unwritable file is expected to fail correctly.
860
861 - PCRE
862
863 Git was compiled with support for PCRE. Wrap any tests
864 that use git-grep --perl-regexp or git-grep -P in these.
865
866 - LIBPCRE1
867
868 Git was compiled with PCRE v1 support via
869 USE_LIBPCRE1=YesPlease. Wrap any PCRE using tests that for some
870 reason need v1 of the PCRE library instead of v2 in these.
871
872 - LIBPCRE2
873
874 Git was compiled with PCRE v2 support via
875 USE_LIBPCRE2=YesPlease. Wrap any PCRE using tests that for some
876 reason need v2 of the PCRE library instead of v1 in these.
877
878 - CASE_INSENSITIVE_FS
879
880 Test is run on a case insensitive file system.
881
882 - UTF8_NFD_TO_NFC
883
884 Test is run on a filesystem which converts decomposed utf-8 (nfd)
885 to precomposed utf-8 (nfc).
886
887 - PTHREADS
888
889 Git wasn't compiled with NO_PTHREADS=YesPlease.
890
891 Tips for Writing Tests
892 ----------------------
893
894 As with any programming projects, existing programs are the best
895 source of the information. However, do _not_ emulate
896 t0000-basic.sh when writing your tests. The test is special in
897 that it tries to validate the very core of GIT. For example, it
898 knows that there will be 256 subdirectories under .git/objects/,
899 and it knows that the object ID of an empty tree is a certain
900 40-byte string. This is deliberately done so in t0000-basic.sh
901 because the things the very basic core test tries to achieve is
902 to serve as a basis for people who are changing the GIT internal
903 drastically. For these people, after making certain changes,
904 not seeing failures from the basic test _is_ a failure. And
905 such drastic changes to the core GIT that even changes these
906 otherwise supposedly stable object IDs should be accompanied by
907 an update to t0000-basic.sh.
908
909 However, other tests that simply rely on basic parts of the core
910 GIT working properly should not have that level of intimate
911 knowledge of the core GIT internals. If all the test scripts
912 hardcoded the object IDs like t0000-basic.sh does, that defeats
913 the purpose of t0000-basic.sh, which is to isolate that level of
914 validation in one place. Your test also ends up needing
915 updating when such a change to the internal happens, so do _not_
916 do it and leave the low level of validation to t0000-basic.sh.
917
918 Test coverage
919 -------------
920
921 You can use the coverage tests to find code paths that are not being
922 used or properly exercised yet.
923
924 To do that, run the coverage target at the top-level (not in the t/
925 directory):
926
927 make coverage
928
929 That'll compile Git with GCC's coverage arguments, and generate a test
930 report with gcov after the tests finish. Running the coverage tests
931 can take a while, since running the tests in parallel is incompatible
932 with GCC's coverage mode.
933
934 After the tests have run you can generate a list of untested
935 functions:
936
937 make coverage-untested-functions
938
939 You can also generate a detailed per-file HTML report using the
940 Devel::Cover module. To install it do:
941
942 # On Debian or Ubuntu:
943 sudo aptitude install libdevel-cover-perl
944
945 # From the CPAN with cpanminus
946 curl -L http://cpanmin.us | perl - --sudo --self-upgrade
947 cpanm --sudo Devel::Cover
948
949 Then, at the top-level:
950
951 make cover_db_html
952
953 That'll generate a detailed cover report in the "cover_db_html"
954 directory, which you can then copy to a webserver, or inspect locally
955 in a browser.