Merge branch 'jc/maint-fbsd-sh-ifs-workaround' into maint
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of
26 commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27 in-depth introduction.
28
29 After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
30 page to learn what commands git offers. You can learn more about
31 individual git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
32 manual page gives you an overview of the command line command syntax.
33
34 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest git documentation
35 can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
36
37 ifdef::stalenotes[]
38 [NOTE]
39 ============
40
41 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42 unreleased) version of git, that is available from 'master'
43 branch of the `git.git` repository.
44 Documentation for older releases are available here:
45
46 * link:v1.8.1/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.1]
47
48 * release notes for
49 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.txt[1.8.1].
50
51 * link:v1.8.0.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.0.3]
52
53 * release notes for
54 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.3.txt[1.8.0.3],
55 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.2.txt[1.8.0.2],
56 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.1.txt[1.8.0.1],
57 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.txt[1.8.0].
58
59 * link:v1.7.12.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.12.4]
60
61 * release notes for
62 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.4.txt[1.7.12.4],
63 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt[1.7.12.3],
64 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.2.txt[1.7.12.2],
65 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.1.txt[1.7.12.1],
66 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.txt[1.7.12].
67
68 * link:v1.7.11.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.7]
69
70 * release notes for
71 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.7.txt[1.7.11.7],
72 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.6.txt[1.7.11.6],
73 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.5.txt[1.7.11.5],
74 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.4.txt[1.7.11.4],
75 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.3.txt[1.7.11.3],
76 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.2.txt[1.7.11.2],
77 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.1.txt[1.7.11.1],
78 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.txt[1.7.11].
79
80 * link:v1.7.10.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.10.5]
81
82 * release notes for
83 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.5.txt[1.7.10.5],
84 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt[1.7.10.4],
85 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.3.txt[1.7.10.3],
86 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.2.txt[1.7.10.2],
87 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt[1.7.10.1],
88 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.txt[1.7.10].
89
90 * link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
91
92 * release notes for
93 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.7.txt[1.7.9.7],
94 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.6.txt[1.7.9.6],
95 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.5.txt[1.7.9.5],
96 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.4.txt[1.7.9.4],
97 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.3.txt[1.7.9.3],
98 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.2.txt[1.7.9.2],
99 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.1.txt[1.7.9.1],
100 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
101
102 * link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
103
104 * release notes for
105 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.6.txt[1.7.8.6],
106 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.5.txt[1.7.8.5],
107 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.4.txt[1.7.8.4],
108 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.3.txt[1.7.8.3],
109 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt[1.7.8.2],
110 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.1.txt[1.7.8.1],
111 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
112
113 * link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
114
115 * release notes for
116 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.7.txt[1.7.7.7],
117 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.6.txt[1.7.7.6],
118 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.5.txt[1.7.7.5],
119 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.4.txt[1.7.7.4],
120 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.3.txt[1.7.7.3],
121 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.2.txt[1.7.7.2],
122 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.1.txt[1.7.7.1],
123 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.txt[1.7.7].
124
125 * link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
126
127 * release notes for
128 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.6.txt[1.7.6.6],
129 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.5.txt[1.7.6.5],
130 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.4.txt[1.7.6.4],
131 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.3.txt[1.7.6.3],
132 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.2.txt[1.7.6.2],
133 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.1.txt[1.7.6.1],
134 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
135
136 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
137
138 * release notes for
139 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt[1.7.5.4],
140 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt[1.7.5.3],
141 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.2.txt[1.7.5.2],
142 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.1.txt[1.7.5.1],
143 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.txt[1.7.5].
144
145 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
146
147 * release notes for
148 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.5.txt[1.7.4.5],
149 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.4.txt[1.7.4.4],
150 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.3.txt[1.7.4.3],
151 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.2.txt[1.7.4.2],
152 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.1.txt[1.7.4.1],
153 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.txt[1.7.4].
154
155 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
156
157 * release notes for
158 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.5.txt[1.7.3.5],
159 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.4.txt[1.7.3.4],
160 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.3.txt[1.7.3.3],
161 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.2.txt[1.7.3.2],
162 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.1.txt[1.7.3.1],
163 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.txt[1.7.3].
164
165 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
166
167 * release notes for
168 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.5.txt[1.7.2.5],
169 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.4.txt[1.7.2.4],
170 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.3.txt[1.7.2.3],
171 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.2.txt[1.7.2.2],
172 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.1.txt[1.7.2.1],
173 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.txt[1.7.2].
174
175 * link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
176
177 * release notes for
178 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.4.txt[1.7.1.4],
179 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.3.txt[1.7.1.3],
180 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.2.txt[1.7.1.2],
181 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.1.txt[1.7.1.1],
182 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.txt[1.7.1].
183
184 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
185
186 * release notes for
187 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.9.txt[1.7.0.9],
188 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.8.txt[1.7.0.8],
189 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.7.txt[1.7.0.7],
190 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.6.txt[1.7.0.6],
191 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.5.txt[1.7.0.5],
192 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.4.txt[1.7.0.4],
193 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.3.txt[1.7.0.3],
194 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt[1.7.0.2],
195 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.1.txt[1.7.0.1],
196 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.txt[1.7.0].
197
198 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
199
200 * release notes for
201 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt[1.6.6.3],
202 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
203 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
204 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
205
206 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
207
208 * release notes for
209 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.9.txt[1.6.5.9],
210 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.8.txt[1.6.5.8],
211 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.7.txt[1.6.5.7],
212 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.6.txt[1.6.5.6],
213 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.5.txt[1.6.5.5],
214 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt[1.6.5.4],
215 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.3.txt[1.6.5.3],
216 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.2.txt[1.6.5.2],
217 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.1.txt[1.6.5.1],
218 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
219
220 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
221
222 * release notes for
223 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.5.txt[1.6.4.5],
224 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
225 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
226 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.2.txt[1.6.4.2],
227 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
228 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
229
230 * link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
231
232 * release notes for
233 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
234 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
235 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
236 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
237 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
238
239 * release notes for
240 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
241 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
242 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
243 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
244 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
245 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
246
247 * link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
248
249 * release notes for
250 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
251 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
252 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
253 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
254
255 * link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
256
257 * release notes for
258 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
259 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
260 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
261 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
262 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
263 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
264 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
265
266 * link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
267
268 * release notes for
269 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
270 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
271 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
272 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
273 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
274 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
275 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
276
277 * link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
278
279 * release notes for
280 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
281 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
282 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
283 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
284 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
285 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
286 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
287
288 * link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
289
290 * release notes for
291 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
292 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
293 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
294 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
295 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
296 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
297 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
298 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
299
300 * link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
301
302 * release notes for
303 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
304 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
305 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
306 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
307 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
308 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
309 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
310 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
311 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
312
313 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
314
315 * release notes for
316 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
317 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
318 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
319 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
320 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
321 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
322
323 * link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
324
325 * release notes for
326 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
327 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
328 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
329 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
330 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
331 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
332 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
333
334 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
335
336 * release notes for
337 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
338 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
339 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
340 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
341 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
342 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
343 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
344
345 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
346 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
347 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
348 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
349
350 ============
351
352 endif::stalenotes[]
353
354 OPTIONS
355 -------
356 --version::
357 Prints the git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
358
359 --help::
360 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
361 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
362 available commands are printed. If a git command is named this
363 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
364 +
365 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
366 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
367 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
368 help ...`.
369
370 -c <name>=<value>::
371 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
372 given will override values from configuration files.
373 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
374 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
375
376 --exec-path[=<path>]::
377 Path to wherever your core git programs are installed.
378 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
379 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
380 the current setting and then exit.
381
382 --html-path::
383 Print the path, without trailing slash, where git's HTML
384 documentation is installed and exit.
385
386 --man-path::
387 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
388 this version of git and exit.
389
390 --info-path::
391 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
392 version of git are installed and exit.
393
394 -p::
395 --paginate::
396 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
397 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
398 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
399 below).
400
401 --no-pager::
402 Do not pipe git output into a pager.
403
404 --git-dir=<path>::
405 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
406 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
407 path or relative path to current working directory.
408
409 --work-tree=<path>::
410 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
411 or a path relative to the current working directory.
412 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
413 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
414 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
415 more detailed discussion).
416
417 --namespace=<path>::
418 Set the git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
419 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
420 variable.
421
422 --bare::
423 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
424 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
425 directory.
426
427 --no-replace-objects::
428 Do not use replacement refs to replace git objects. See
429 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
430
431
432 GIT COMMANDS
433 ------------
434
435 We divide git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
436 ("plumbing") commands.
437
438 High-level commands (porcelain)
439 -------------------------------
440
441 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
442 ancillary user utilities.
443
444 Main porcelain commands
445 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
446
447 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
448
449 Ancillary Commands
450 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
451 Manipulators:
452
453 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
454
455 Interrogators:
456
457 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
458
459
460 Interacting with Others
461 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
462
463 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
464 people via patch over e-mail.
465
466 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
467
468
469 Low-level commands (plumbing)
470 -----------------------------
471
472 Although git includes its
473 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
474 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
475 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
476 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
477
478 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
479 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
480 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
481 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
482 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
483 end user experience.
484
485 The following description divides
486 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
487 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
488 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
489 repositories.
490
491
492 Manipulation commands
493 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
494
495 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
496
497
498 Interrogation commands
499 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
500
501 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
502
503 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
504 the working tree.
505
506
507 Synching repositories
508 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
509
510 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
511
512 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
513 typically do not use them directly.
514
515 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
516
517
518 Internal helper commands
519 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
520
521 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
522 users typically do not use them directly.
523
524 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
525
526
527 Configuration Mechanism
528 -----------------------
529
530 Starting from 0.99.9 (actually mid 0.99.8.GIT), `.git/config` file
531 is used to hold per-repository configuration options. It is a
532 simple text file modeled after `.ini` format familiar to some
533 people. Here is an example:
534
535 ------------
536 #
537 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
538 #
539
540 ; core variables
541 [core]
542 ; Don't trust file modes
543 filemode = false
544
545 ; user identity
546 [user]
547 name = "Junio C Hamano"
548 email = "junkio@twinsun.com"
549
550 ------------
551
552 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
553 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
554 list.
555
556
557 Identifier Terminology
558 ----------------------
559 <object>::
560 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
561
562 <blob>::
563 Indicates a blob object name.
564
565 <tree>::
566 Indicates a tree object name.
567
568 <commit>::
569 Indicates a commit object name.
570
571 <tree-ish>::
572 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
573 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
574 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
575 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
576
577 <commit-ish>::
578 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
579 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
580 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
581 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
582
583 <type>::
584 Indicates that an object type is required.
585 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
586
587 <file>::
588 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
589 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
590
591 Symbolic Identifiers
592 --------------------
593 Any git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
594 symbolic notation:
595
596 HEAD::
597 indicates the head of the current branch.
598
599 <tag>::
600 a valid tag 'name'
601 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
602
603 <head>::
604 a valid head 'name'
605 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
606
607 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
608 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
609
610
611 File/Directory Structure
612 ------------------------
613
614 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
615
616 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
617
618 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
619 `$GIT_DIR`.
620
621
622 Terminology
623 -----------
624 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
625
626
627 Environment Variables
628 ---------------------
629 Various git commands use the following environment variables:
630
631 The git Repository
632 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
633 These environment variables apply to 'all' core git commands. Nb: it
634 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
635 git so take care if using Cogito etc.
636
637 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
638 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
639 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
640 is used.
641
642 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
643 If the object storage directory is specified via this
644 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
645 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
646 directory is used.
647
648 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
649 Due to the immutable nature of git objects, old objects can be
650 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
651 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
652 of git object directories which can be used to search for git
653 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
654
655 'GIT_DIR'::
656 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
657 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
658 for the base of the repository.
659 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
660
661 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
662 Set the path to the working tree. The value will not be
663 used in combination with repositories found automatically in
664 a .git directory (i.e. $GIT_DIR is not set).
665 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command line
666 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
667
668 'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
669 Set the git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
670 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
671
672 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
673 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths.
674 If set, it is a list of directories that git should not chdir
675 up into while looking for a repository directory.
676 It will not exclude the current working directory or
677 a GIT_DIR set on the command line or in the environment.
678 (Useful for excluding slow-loading network directories.)
679
680 'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
681 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
682 directory, git tries to find such a directory in the parent
683 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
684 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
685 can be set to true to tell git not to stop at filesystem
686 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
687 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
688 command line.
689
690 git Commits
691 ~~~~~~~~~~~
692 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
693 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
694 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
695 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
696 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
697 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
698 'EMAIL'::
699 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
700
701 git Diffs
702 ~~~~~~~~~
703 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
704 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
705 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
706 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
707 value passed on the git diff command line.
708
709 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
710 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
711 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
712 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
713 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
714
715 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
716 +
717 where:
718
719 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
720 contents of <old|new>,
721 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA1 hashes,
722 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
723 +
724 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
725 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
726 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
727 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
728 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
729 +
730 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
731 parameter, <path>.
732
733 other
734 ~~~~~
735 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
736 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
737 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
738 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
739
740 'GIT_PAGER'::
741 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
742 to an empty string or to the value "cat", git will not launch
743 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
744 linkgit:git-config[1].
745
746 'GIT_EDITOR'::
747 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
748 It is used by several git commands when, on interactive mode,
749 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
750 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
751
752 'GIT_SSH'::
753 If this environment variable is set then 'git fetch'
754 and 'git push' will use this command instead
755 of 'ssh' when they need to connect to a remote system.
756 The '$GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two arguments:
757 the 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the
758 shell command to execute on that remote system.
759 +
760 To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH
761 you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script,
762 then set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.
763 +
764 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
765 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
766 for further details.
767
768 'GIT_ASKPASS'::
769 If this environment variable is set, then git commands which need to
770 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
771 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command line argument
772 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askpass'
773 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
774
775 'GIT_FLUSH'::
776 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
777 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
778 and 'git whatchanged' will force a flush of the output stream
779 after each commit-oriented record have been flushed. If this
780 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
781 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
782 not set, git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
783 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
784
785 'GIT_TRACE'::
786 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
787 is case insensitive), git will print `trace:` messages on
788 stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
789 execution and external command execution.
790 If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1
791 and lower than 10 (strictly) then git will interpret this
792 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
793 trace messages into this file descriptor.
794 Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path
795 (starting with a '/' character), git will interpret this
796 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
797 into it.
798
799 Discussion[[Discussion]]
800 ------------------------
801
802 More detail on the following is available from the
803 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
804 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
805
806 A git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
807 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
808 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
809 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
810 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
811 as tags and branch heads.
812
813 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
814 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
815 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
816 and some number of parent commits.
817
818 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
819 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
820 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
821 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
822
823 All objects are named by the SHA1 hash of their contents, normally
824 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
825 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
826 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
827 purpose.
828
829 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
830 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
831
832 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
833 may contain the SHA1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
834 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA1 name of the most
835 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA1 names of
836 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
837 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
838
839 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
840 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
841 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
842 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
843 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
844 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
845 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
846 content stored in the index.
847
848 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
849 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
850 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
851
852 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
853 ---------------------
854
855 See the references in the "description" section to get started
856 using git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
857 for a first-time user.
858
859 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
860 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
861 introductions to the underlying git architecture.
862
863 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
864
865 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
866 examples.
867
868 The internals are documented in the
869 link:technical/api-index.html[GIT API documentation].
870
871 Users migrating from CVS may also want to
872 read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
873
874
875 Authors
876 -------
877 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
878 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the git mailing list
879 <git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.ohloh.net/p/git/contributors/summary
880 gives you a more complete list of contributors.
881
882 If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
883 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
884 the authors for specific parts of the project.
885
886 Reporting Bugs
887 --------------
888
889 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
890 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
891 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
892
893 SEE ALSO
894 --------
895 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
896 link:everyday.html[Everyday Git], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
897 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
898 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
899 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
900
901 GIT
902 ---
903 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite