Merge branch 'dl/subtree-limit-to-one-rev'
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-add.txt
1 git-add(1)
2 ==========
5 ----
6 git-add - Add file contents to the index
9 --------
10 [verse]
11 'git add' [--verbose | -v] [--dry-run | -n] [--force | -f] [--interactive | -i] [--patch | -p]
12 [--edit | -e] [--[no-]all | --[no-]ignore-removal | [--update | -u]]
13 [--intent-to-add | -N] [--refresh] [--ignore-errors] [--ignore-missing] [--renormalize]
14 [--chmod=(+|-)x] [--] [<pathspec>...]
17 -----------
18 This command updates the index using the current content found in
19 the working tree, to prepare the content staged for the next commit.
20 It typically adds the current content of existing paths as a whole,
21 but with some options it can also be used to add content with
22 only part of the changes made to the working tree files applied, or
23 remove paths that do not exist in the working tree anymore.
25 The "index" holds a snapshot of the content of the working tree, and it
26 is this snapshot that is taken as the contents of the next commit. Thus
27 after making any changes to the working tree, and before running
28 the commit command, you must use the `add` command to add any new or
29 modified files to the index.
31 This command can be performed multiple times before a commit. It only
32 adds the content of the specified file(s) at the time the add command is
33 run; if you want subsequent changes included in the next commit, then
34 you must run `git add` again to add the new content to the index.
36 The `git status` command can be used to obtain a summary of which
37 files have changes that are staged for the next commit.
39 The `git add` command will not add ignored files by default. If any
40 ignored files were explicitly specified on the command line, `git add`
41 will fail with a list of ignored files. Ignored files reached by
42 directory recursion or filename globbing performed by Git (quote your
43 globs before the shell) will be silently ignored. The 'git add' command can
44 be used to add ignored files with the `-f` (force) option.
46 Please see linkgit:git-commit[1] for alternative ways to add content to a
47 commit.
51 -------
52 <pathspec>...::
53 Files to add content from. Fileglobs (e.g. `*.c`) can
54 be given to add all matching files. Also a
55 leading directory name (e.g. `dir` to add `dir/file1`
56 and `dir/file2`) can be given to update the index to
57 match the current state of the directory as a whole (e.g.
58 specifying `dir` will record not just a file `dir/file1`
59 modified in the working tree, a file `dir/file2` added to
60 the working tree, but also a file `dir/file3` removed from
61 the working tree). Note that older versions of Git used
62 to ignore removed files; use `--no-all` option if you want
63 to add modified or new files but ignore removed ones.
64 +
65 For more details about the <pathspec> syntax, see the 'pathspec' entry
66 in linkgit:gitglossary[7].
68 -n::
69 --dry-run::
70 Don't actually add the file(s), just show if they exist and/or will
71 be ignored.
73 -v::
74 --verbose::
75 Be verbose.
77 -f::
78 --force::
79 Allow adding otherwise ignored files.
81 -i::
82 --interactive::
83 Add modified contents in the working tree interactively to
84 the index. Optional path arguments may be supplied to limit
85 operation to a subset of the working tree. See ``Interactive
86 mode'' for details.
88 -p::
89 --patch::
90 Interactively choose hunks of patch between the index and the
91 work tree and add them to the index. This gives the user a chance
92 to review the difference before adding modified contents to the
93 index.
94 +
95 This effectively runs `add --interactive`, but bypasses the
96 initial command menu and directly jumps to the `patch` subcommand.
97 See ``Interactive mode'' for details.
99 -e::
100 --edit::
101 Open the diff vs. the index in an editor and let the user
102 edit it. After the editor was closed, adjust the hunk headers
103 and apply the patch to the index.
104 +
105 The intent of this option is to pick and choose lines of the patch to
106 apply, or even to modify the contents of lines to be staged. This can be
107 quicker and more flexible than using the interactive hunk selector.
108 However, it is easy to confuse oneself and create a patch that does not
109 apply to the index. See EDITING PATCHES below.
111 -u::
112 --update::
113 Update the index just where it already has an entry matching
114 <pathspec>. This removes as well as modifies index entries to
115 match the working tree, but adds no new files.
116 +
117 If no <pathspec> is given when `-u` option is used, all
118 tracked files in the entire working tree are updated (old versions
119 of Git used to limit the update to the current directory and its
120 subdirectories).
122 -A::
123 --all::
124 --no-ignore-removal::
125 Update the index not only where the working tree has a file
126 matching <pathspec> but also where the index already has an
127 entry. This adds, modifies, and removes index entries to
128 match the working tree.
129 +
130 If no <pathspec> is given when `-A` option is used, all
131 files in the entire working tree are updated (old versions
132 of Git used to limit the update to the current directory and its
133 subdirectories).
135 --no-all::
136 --ignore-removal::
137 Update the index by adding new files that are unknown to the
138 index and files modified in the working tree, but ignore
139 files that have been removed from the working tree. This
140 option is a no-op when no <pathspec> is used.
141 +
142 This option is primarily to help users who are used to older
143 versions of Git, whose "git add <pathspec>..." was a synonym
144 for "git add --no-all <pathspec>...", i.e. ignored removed files.
146 -N::
147 --intent-to-add::
148 Record only the fact that the path will be added later. An entry
149 for the path is placed in the index with no content. This is
150 useful for, among other things, showing the unstaged content of
151 such files with `git diff` and committing them with `git commit
152 -a`.
154 --refresh::
155 Don't add the file(s), but only refresh their stat()
156 information in the index.
158 --ignore-errors::
159 If some files could not be added because of errors indexing
160 them, do not abort the operation, but continue adding the
161 others. The command shall still exit with non-zero status.
162 The configuration variable `add.ignoreErrors` can be set to
163 true to make this the default behaviour.
165 --ignore-missing::
166 This option can only be used together with --dry-run. By using
167 this option the user can check if any of the given files would
168 be ignored, no matter if they are already present in the work
169 tree or not.
171 --no-warn-embedded-repo::
172 By default, `git add` will warn when adding an embedded
173 repository to the index without using `git submodule add` to
174 create an entry in `.gitmodules`. This option will suppress the
175 warning (e.g., if you are manually performing operations on
176 submodules).
178 --renormalize::
179 Apply the "clean" process freshly to all tracked files to
180 forcibly add them again to the index. This is useful after
181 changing `core.autocrlf` configuration or the `text` attribute
182 in order to correct files added with wrong CRLF/LF line endings.
183 This option implies `-u`.
185 --chmod=(+|-)x::
186 Override the executable bit of the added files. The executable
187 bit is only changed in the index, the files on disk are left
188 unchanged.
190 \--::
191 This option can be used to separate command-line options from
192 the list of files, (useful when filenames might be mistaken
193 for command-line options).
197 --------
199 * Adds content from all `*.txt` files under `Documentation` directory
200 and its subdirectories:
201 +
202 ------------
203 $ git add Documentation/\*.txt
204 ------------
205 +
206 Note that the asterisk `*` is quoted from the shell in this
207 example; this lets the command include the files from
208 subdirectories of `Documentation/` directory.
210 * Considers adding content from all git-*.sh scripts:
211 +
212 ------------
213 $ git add git-*.sh
214 ------------
215 +
216 Because this example lets the shell expand the asterisk (i.e. you are
217 listing the files explicitly), it does not consider
218 `subdir/`.
221 ----------------
222 When the command enters the interactive mode, it shows the
223 output of the 'status' subcommand, and then goes into its
224 interactive command loop.
226 The command loop shows the list of subcommands available, and
227 gives a prompt "What now> ". In general, when the prompt ends
228 with a single '>', you can pick only one of the choices given
229 and type return, like this:
231 ------------
232 *** Commands ***
233 1: status 2: update 3: revert 4: add untracked
234 5: patch 6: diff 7: quit 8: help
235 What now> 1
236 ------------
238 You also could say `s` or `sta` or `status` above as long as the
239 choice is unique.
241 The main command loop has 6 subcommands (plus help and quit).
243 status::
245 This shows the change between HEAD and index (i.e. what will be
246 committed if you say `git commit`), and between index and
247 working tree files (i.e. what you could stage further before
248 `git commit` using `git add`) for each path. A sample output
249 looks like this:
250 +
251 ------------
252 staged unstaged path
253 1: binary nothing foo.png
254 2: +403/-35 +1/-1 git-add--interactive.perl
255 ------------
256 +
257 It shows that foo.png has differences from HEAD (but that is
258 binary so line count cannot be shown) and there is no
259 difference between indexed copy and the working tree
260 version (if the working tree version were also different,
261 'binary' would have been shown in place of 'nothing'). The
262 other file, git-add{litdd}interactive.perl, has 403 lines added
263 and 35 lines deleted if you commit what is in the index, but
264 working tree file has further modifications (one addition and
265 one deletion).
267 update::
269 This shows the status information and issues an "Update>>"
270 prompt. When the prompt ends with double '>>', you can
271 make more than one selection, concatenated with whitespace or
272 comma. Also you can say ranges. E.g. "2-5 7,9" to choose
273 2,3,4,5,7,9 from the list. If the second number in a range is
274 omitted, all remaining patches are taken. E.g. "7-" to choose
275 7,8,9 from the list. You can say '*' to choose everything.
276 +
277 What you chose are then highlighted with '*',
278 like this:
279 +
280 ------------
281 staged unstaged path
282 1: binary nothing foo.png
283 * 2: +403/-35 +1/-1 git-add--interactive.perl
284 ------------
285 +
286 To remove selection, prefix the input with `-`
287 like this:
288 +
289 ------------
290 Update>> -2
291 ------------
292 +
293 After making the selection, answer with an empty line to stage the
294 contents of working tree files for selected paths in the index.
296 revert::
298 This has a very similar UI to 'update', and the staged
299 information for selected paths are reverted to that of the
300 HEAD version. Reverting new paths makes them untracked.
302 add untracked::
304 This has a very similar UI to 'update' and
305 'revert', and lets you add untracked paths to the index.
307 patch::
309 This lets you choose one path out of a 'status' like selection.
310 After choosing the path, it presents the diff between the index
311 and the working tree file and asks you if you want to stage
312 the change of each hunk. You can select one of the following
313 options and type return:
315 y - stage this hunk
316 n - do not stage this hunk
317 q - quit; do not stage this hunk or any of the remaining ones
318 a - stage this hunk and all later hunks in the file
319 d - do not stage this hunk or any of the later hunks in the file
320 g - select a hunk to go to
321 / - search for a hunk matching the given regex
322 j - leave this hunk undecided, see next undecided hunk
323 J - leave this hunk undecided, see next hunk
324 k - leave this hunk undecided, see previous undecided hunk
325 K - leave this hunk undecided, see previous hunk
326 s - split the current hunk into smaller hunks
327 e - manually edit the current hunk
328 ? - print help
329 +
330 After deciding the fate for all hunks, if there is any hunk
331 that was chosen, the index is updated with the selected hunks.
332 +
333 You can omit having to type return here, by setting the configuration
334 variable `interactive.singleKey` to `true`.
336 diff::
338 This lets you review what will be committed (i.e. between
339 HEAD and index).
343 ---------------
345 Invoking `git add -e` or selecting `e` from the interactive hunk
346 selector will open a patch in your editor; after the editor exits, the
347 result is applied to the index. You are free to make arbitrary changes
348 to the patch, but note that some changes may have confusing results, or
349 even result in a patch that cannot be applied. If you want to abort the
350 operation entirely (i.e., stage nothing new in the index), simply delete
351 all lines of the patch. The list below describes some common things you
352 may see in a patch, and which editing operations make sense on them.
354 --
355 added content::
357 Added content is represented by lines beginning with "{plus}". You can
358 prevent staging any addition lines by deleting them.
360 removed content::
362 Removed content is represented by lines beginning with "-". You can
363 prevent staging their removal by converting the "-" to a " " (space).
365 modified content::
367 Modified content is represented by "-" lines (removing the old content)
368 followed by "{plus}" lines (adding the replacement content). You can
369 prevent staging the modification by converting "-" lines to " ", and
370 removing "{plus}" lines. Beware that modifying only half of the pair is
371 likely to introduce confusing changes to the index.
372 --
374 There are also more complex operations that can be performed. But beware
375 that because the patch is applied only to the index and not the working
376 tree, the working tree will appear to "undo" the change in the index.
377 For example, introducing a new line into the index that is in neither
378 the HEAD nor the working tree will stage the new line for commit, but
379 the line will appear to be reverted in the working tree.
381 Avoid using these constructs, or do so with extreme caution.
383 --
384 removing untouched content::
386 Content which does not differ between the index and working tree may be
387 shown on context lines, beginning with a " " (space). You can stage
388 context lines for removal by converting the space to a "-". The
389 resulting working tree file will appear to re-add the content.
391 modifying existing content::
393 One can also modify context lines by staging them for removal (by
394 converting " " to "-") and adding a "{plus}" line with the new content.
395 Similarly, one can modify "{plus}" lines for existing additions or
396 modifications. In all cases, the new modification will appear reverted
397 in the working tree.
399 new content::
401 You may also add new content that does not exist in the patch; simply
402 add new lines, each starting with "{plus}". The addition will appear
403 reverted in the working tree.
404 --
406 There are also several operations which should be avoided entirely, as
407 they will make the patch impossible to apply:
409 * adding context (" ") or removal ("-") lines
410 * deleting context or removal lines
411 * modifying the contents of context or removal lines
414 --------
415 linkgit:git-status[1]
416 linkgit:git-rm[1]
417 linkgit:git-reset[1]
418 linkgit:git-mv[1]
419 linkgit:git-commit[1]
420 linkgit:git-update-index[1]
422 GIT
423 ---
424 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite