889fa51f909bf369c5d37eb2c8d3ad5c56fa31d8
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
26 commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27 in-depth introduction.
28
29 After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
30 page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31 individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
32 manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
33
34 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
35 can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
36
37 ifdef::stalenotes[]
38 [NOTE]
39 ============
40
41 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42 unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
43 branch of the `git.git` repository.
44 Documentation for older releases are available here:
45
46 * link:v2.4.11/git.html[documentation for release 2.4.11]
47
48 * release notes for
49 link:RelNotes/2.4.11.txt[2.4.11],
50 link:RelNotes/2.4.10.txt[2.4.10],
51 link:RelNotes/2.4.9.txt[2.4.9],
52 link:RelNotes/2.4.8.txt[2.4.8],
53 link:RelNotes/2.4.7.txt[2.4.7],
54 link:RelNotes/2.4.6.txt[2.4.6],
55 link:RelNotes/2.4.5.txt[2.4.5],
56 link:RelNotes/2.4.4.txt[2.4.4],
57 link:RelNotes/2.4.3.txt[2.4.3],
58 link:RelNotes/2.4.2.txt[2.4.2],
59 link:RelNotes/2.4.1.txt[2.4.1],
60 link:RelNotes/2.4.0.txt[2.4].
61
62 * link:v2.3.10/git.html[documentation for release 2.3.10]
63
64 * release notes for
65 link:RelNotes/2.3.10.txt[2.3.10],
66 link:RelNotes/2.3.9.txt[2.3.9],
67 link:RelNotes/2.3.8.txt[2.3.8],
68 link:RelNotes/2.3.7.txt[2.3.7],
69 link:RelNotes/2.3.6.txt[2.3.6],
70 link:RelNotes/2.3.5.txt[2.3.5],
71 link:RelNotes/2.3.4.txt[2.3.4],
72 link:RelNotes/2.3.3.txt[2.3.3],
73 link:RelNotes/2.3.2.txt[2.3.2],
74 link:RelNotes/2.3.1.txt[2.3.1],
75 link:RelNotes/2.3.0.txt[2.3].
76
77 * link:v2.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 2.2.3]
78
79 * release notes for
80 link:RelNotes/2.2.3.txt[2.2.3],
81 link:RelNotes/2.2.2.txt[2.2.2],
82 link:RelNotes/2.2.1.txt[2.2.1],
83 link:RelNotes/2.2.0.txt[2.2].
84
85 * link:v2.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.1.4]
86
87 * release notes for
88 link:RelNotes/2.1.4.txt[2.1.4],
89 link:RelNotes/2.1.3.txt[2.1.3],
90 link:RelNotes/2.1.2.txt[2.1.2],
91 link:RelNotes/2.1.1.txt[2.1.1],
92 link:RelNotes/2.1.0.txt[2.1].
93
94 * link:v2.0.5/git.html[documentation for release 2.0.5]
95
96 * release notes for
97 link:RelNotes/2.0.5.txt[2.0.5],
98 link:RelNotes/2.0.4.txt[2.0.4],
99 link:RelNotes/2.0.3.txt[2.0.3],
100 link:RelNotes/2.0.2.txt[2.0.2],
101 link:RelNotes/2.0.1.txt[2.0.1],
102 link:RelNotes/2.0.0.txt[2.0.0].
103
104 * link:v1.9.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.9.5]
105
106 * release notes for
107 link:RelNotes/1.9.5.txt[1.9.5],
108 link:RelNotes/1.9.4.txt[1.9.4],
109 link:RelNotes/1.9.3.txt[1.9.3],
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111 link:RelNotes/1.9.1.txt[1.9.1],
112 link:RelNotes/1.9.0.txt[1.9.0].
113
114 * link:v1.8.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.5.6]
115
116 * release notes for
117 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.6.txt[1.8.5.6],
118 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.5.txt[1.8.5.5],
119 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.4.txt[1.8.5.4],
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122 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.1.txt[1.8.5.1],
123 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.txt[1.8.5].
124
125 * link:v1.8.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.4.5]
126
127 * release notes for
128 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.5.txt[1.8.4.5],
129 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt[1.8.4.4],
130 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.3.txt[1.8.4.3],
131 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.2.txt[1.8.4.2],
132 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt[1.8.4.1],
133 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.txt[1.8.4].
134
135 * link:v1.8.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.3.4]
136
137 * release notes for
138 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.4.txt[1.8.3.4],
139 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.3.txt[1.8.3.3],
140 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.2.txt[1.8.3.2],
141 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt[1.8.3.1],
142 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.txt[1.8.3].
143
144 * link:v1.8.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.2.3]
145
146 * release notes for
147 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.3.txt[1.8.2.3],
148 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt[1.8.2.2],
149 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt[1.8.2.1],
150 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.txt[1.8.2].
151
152 * link:v1.8.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.1.6]
153
154 * release notes for
155 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.6.txt[1.8.1.6],
156 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.5.txt[1.8.1.5],
157 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.4.txt[1.8.1.4],
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160 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.1.txt[1.8.1.1],
161 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.txt[1.8.1].
162
163 * link:v1.8.0.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.0.3]
164
165 * release notes for
166 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.3.txt[1.8.0.3],
167 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.2.txt[1.8.0.2],
168 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.1.txt[1.8.0.1],
169 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.txt[1.8.0].
170
171 * link:v1.7.12.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.12.4]
172
173 * release notes for
174 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.4.txt[1.7.12.4],
175 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt[1.7.12.3],
176 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.2.txt[1.7.12.2],
177 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.1.txt[1.7.12.1],
178 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.txt[1.7.12].
179
180 * link:v1.7.11.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.7]
181
182 * release notes for
183 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.7.txt[1.7.11.7],
184 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.6.txt[1.7.11.6],
185 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.5.txt[1.7.11.5],
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189 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.1.txt[1.7.11.1],
190 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.txt[1.7.11].
191
192 * link:v1.7.10.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.10.5]
193
194 * release notes for
195 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.5.txt[1.7.10.5],
196 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt[1.7.10.4],
197 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.3.txt[1.7.10.3],
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199 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt[1.7.10.1],
200 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.txt[1.7.10].
201
202 * link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
203
204 * release notes for
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206 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.6.txt[1.7.9.6],
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211 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.1.txt[1.7.9.1],
212 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
213
214 * link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
215
216 * release notes for
217 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.6.txt[1.7.8.6],
218 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.5.txt[1.7.8.5],
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223 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
224
225 * link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
226
227 * release notes for
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229 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.6.txt[1.7.7.6],
230 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.5.txt[1.7.7.5],
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234 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.1.txt[1.7.7.1],
235 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.txt[1.7.7].
236
237 * link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
238
239 * release notes for
240 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.6.txt[1.7.6.6],
241 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.5.txt[1.7.6.5],
242 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.4.txt[1.7.6.4],
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246 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
247
248 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
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250 * release notes for
251 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt[1.7.5.4],
252 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt[1.7.5.3],
253 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.2.txt[1.7.5.2],
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255 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.txt[1.7.5].
256
257 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
258
259 * release notes for
260 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.5.txt[1.7.4.5],
261 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.4.txt[1.7.4.4],
262 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.3.txt[1.7.4.3],
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264 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.1.txt[1.7.4.1],
265 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.txt[1.7.4].
266
267 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
268
269 * release notes for
270 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.5.txt[1.7.3.5],
271 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.4.txt[1.7.3.4],
272 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.3.txt[1.7.3.3],
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275 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.txt[1.7.3].
276
277 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
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279 * release notes for
280 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.5.txt[1.7.2.5],
281 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.4.txt[1.7.2.4],
282 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.3.txt[1.7.2.3],
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285 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.txt[1.7.2].
286
287 * link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
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289 * release notes for
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291 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.3.txt[1.7.1.3],
292 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.2.txt[1.7.1.2],
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294 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.txt[1.7.1].
295
296 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
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298 * release notes for
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309
310 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
311
312 * release notes for
313 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt[1.6.6.3],
314 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
315 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
316 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
317
318 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
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320 * release notes for
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331
332 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
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342 * link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
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344 * release notes for
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359 * link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
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367 * link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
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378 * link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
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389 * link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
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400 * link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
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411
412 * link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
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414 * release notes for
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424
425 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
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435 * link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
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438 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
439 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
440 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
441 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
442 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
443 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
444 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
445
446 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
447
448 * release notes for
449 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
450 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
451 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
452 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
453 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
454 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
455 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
456
457 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
458 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
459 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
460 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
461
462 ============
463
464 endif::stalenotes[]
465
466 OPTIONS
467 -------
468 --version::
469 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
470
471 --help::
472 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
473 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
474 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
475 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
476 +
477 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
478 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
479 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
480 help ...`.
481
482 -C <path>::
483 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
484 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
485 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
486 <path>`.
487 +
488 This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
489 `--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
490 made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
491 example the following invocations are equivalent:
492
493 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
494 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
495
496 -c <name>=<value>::
497 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
498 given will override values from configuration files.
499 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
500 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
501 +
502 Note that omitting the `=` in `git -c foo.bar ...` is allowed and sets
503 `foo.bar` to the boolean true value (just like `[foo]bar` would in a
504 config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like `git -c
505 foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string.
506
507 --exec-path[=<path>]::
508 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
509 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
510 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
511 the current setting and then exit.
512
513 --html-path::
514 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
515 documentation is installed and exit.
516
517 --man-path::
518 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
519 this version of Git and exit.
520
521 --info-path::
522 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
523 version of Git are installed and exit.
524
525 -p::
526 --paginate::
527 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
528 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
529 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
530 below).
531
532 --no-pager::
533 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
534
535 --git-dir=<path>::
536 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
537 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
538 path or relative path to current working directory.
539
540 --work-tree=<path>::
541 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
542 or a path relative to the current working directory.
543 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
544 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
545 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
546 more detailed discussion).
547
548 --namespace=<path>::
549 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
550 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
551 variable.
552
553 --bare::
554 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
555 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
556 directory.
557
558 --no-replace-objects::
559 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
560 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
561
562 --literal-pathspecs::
563 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
564 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
565 variable to `1`.
566
567 --glob-pathspecs::
568 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
569 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
570 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
571 magic ":(literal)"
572
573 --noglob-pathspecs::
574 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
575 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
576 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
577 magic ":(glob)"
578
579 --icase-pathspecs::
580 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
581 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
582
583 GIT COMMANDS
584 ------------
585
586 We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
587 ("plumbing") commands.
588
589 High-level commands (porcelain)
590 -------------------------------
591
592 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
593 ancillary user utilities.
594
595 Main porcelain commands
596 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
597
598 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
599
600 Ancillary Commands
601 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
602 Manipulators:
603
604 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
605
606 Interrogators:
607
608 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
609
610
611 Interacting with Others
612 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
613
614 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
615 people via patch over e-mail.
616
617 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
618
619
620 Low-level commands (plumbing)
621 -----------------------------
622
623 Although Git includes its
624 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
625 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
626 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
627 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
628
629 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
630 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
631 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
632 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
633 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
634 end user experience.
635
636 The following description divides
637 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
638 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
639 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
640 repositories.
641
642
643 Manipulation commands
644 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
645
646 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
647
648
649 Interrogation commands
650 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
651
652 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
653
654 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
655 the working tree.
656
657
658 Synching repositories
659 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
660
661 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
662
663 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
664 typically do not use them directly.
665
666 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
667
668
669 Internal helper commands
670 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
671
672 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
673 users typically do not use them directly.
674
675 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
676
677
678 Configuration Mechanism
679 -----------------------
680
681 Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
682 repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
683 like this:
684
685 ------------
686 #
687 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
688 #
689
690 ; core variables
691 [core]
692 ; Don't trust file modes
693 filemode = false
694
695 ; user identity
696 [user]
697 name = "Junio C Hamano"
698 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
699
700 ------------
701
702 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
703 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
704 list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
705
706
707 Identifier Terminology
708 ----------------------
709 <object>::
710 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
711
712 <blob>::
713 Indicates a blob object name.
714
715 <tree>::
716 Indicates a tree object name.
717
718 <commit>::
719 Indicates a commit object name.
720
721 <tree-ish>::
722 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
723 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
724 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
725 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
726
727 <commit-ish>::
728 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
729 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
730 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
731 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
732
733 <type>::
734 Indicates that an object type is required.
735 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
736
737 <file>::
738 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
739 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
740
741 Symbolic Identifiers
742 --------------------
743 Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
744 symbolic notation:
745
746 HEAD::
747 indicates the head of the current branch.
748
749 <tag>::
750 a valid tag 'name'
751 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
752
753 <head>::
754 a valid head 'name'
755 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
756
757 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
758 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
759
760
761 File/Directory Structure
762 ------------------------
763
764 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
765
766 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
767
768 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
769 `$GIT_DIR`.
770
771
772 Terminology
773 -----------
774 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
775
776
777 Environment Variables
778 ---------------------
779 Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
780
781 The Git Repository
782 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
783 These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
784 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
785 Git so take care if using Cogito etc.
786
787 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
788 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
789 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
790 is used.
791
792 'GIT_INDEX_VERSION'::
793 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
794 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
795 files. By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See
796 linkgit:git-update-index[1] for more information.
797
798 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
799 If the object storage directory is specified via this
800 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
801 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
802 directory is used.
803
804 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
805 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
806 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
807 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
808 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
809 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
810
811 'GIT_DIR'::
812 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
813 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
814 for the base of the repository.
815 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
816
817 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
818 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
819 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command-line
820 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
821
822 'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
823 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
824 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
825
826 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
827 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
828 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
829 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
830 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
831 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
832 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
833 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
834 might be present in order to compare them with the current
835 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
836 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
837 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
838 e.g.,
839 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
840
841 'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
842 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
843 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
844 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
845 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
846 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
847 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
848 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
849 command line.
850
851 Git Commits
852 ~~~~~~~~~~~
853 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
854 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
855 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
856 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
857 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
858 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
859 'EMAIL'::
860 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
861
862 Git Diffs
863 ~~~~~~~~~
864 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
865 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
866 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
867 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
868 value passed on the Git diff command line.
869
870 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
871 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
872 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
873 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
874 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
875
876 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
877 +
878 where:
879
880 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
881 contents of <old|new>,
882 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
883 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
884 +
885 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
886 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
887 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
888 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
889 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
890 +
891 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
892 parameter, <path>.
893 +
894 For each path 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called, two environment variables,
895 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER' and 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL' are set.
896
897 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER'::
898 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
899
900 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL'::
901 The total number of paths.
902
903 other
904 ~~~~~
905 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
906 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
907 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
908 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
909
910 'GIT_PAGER'::
911 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
912 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
913 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
914 linkgit:git-config[1].
915
916 'GIT_EDITOR'::
917 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
918 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
919 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
920 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
921
922 'GIT_SSH'::
923 'GIT_SSH_COMMAND'::
924 If either of these environment variables is set then 'git fetch'
925 and 'git push' will use the specified command instead of 'ssh'
926 when they need to connect to a remote system.
927 The command will be given exactly two or four arguments: the
928 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the shell
929 command to execute on that remote system, optionally preceded by
930 '-p' (literally) and the 'port' from the URL when it specifies
931 something other than the default SSH port.
932 +
933 `$GIT_SSH_COMMAND` takes precedence over `$GIT_SSH`, and is interpreted
934 by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
935 `$GIT_SSH` on the other hand must be just the path to a program
936 (which can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are
937 needed).
938 +
939 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
940 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
941 for further details.
942
943 'GIT_ASKPASS'::
944 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
945 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
946 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument
947 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askPass'
948 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
949
950 'GIT_TERMINAL_PROMPT'::
951 If this environment variable is set to `0`, git will not prompt
952 on the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).
953
954 'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
955 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
956 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
957 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
958 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
959 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
960 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
961
962 'GIT_FLUSH'::
963 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
964 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
965 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
966 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
967 flushed. If this
968 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
969 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
970 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
971 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
972
973 'GIT_TRACE'::
974 Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
975 command execution and external command execution.
976 +
977 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
978 is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to
979 stderr.
980 +
981 If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2
982 and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
983 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
984 trace messages into this file descriptor.
985 +
986 Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path
987 (starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
988 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
989 into it.
990 +
991 Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
992 "false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
993
994 'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
995 Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
996 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
997 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
998 pack-related performance problems.
999 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1000
1001 'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
1002 Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
1003 given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
1004 or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet
1005 starting with "PACK".
1006 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1007
1008 'GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE'::
1009 Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
1010 time of each Git command.
1011 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1012
1013 'GIT_TRACE_SETUP'::
1014 Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
1015 working directory after Git has completed its setup phase.
1016 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1017
1018 'GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW'::
1019 Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching /
1020 cloning of shallow repositories.
1021 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1022
1023 GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
1024 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1025 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
1026 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
1027 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
1028 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
1029 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
1030 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
1031
1032 GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS::
1033 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1034 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
1035
1036 GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS::
1037 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1038 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
1039
1040 GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS::
1041 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1042 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
1043
1044 'GIT_REFLOG_ACTION'::
1045 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
1046 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
1047 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
1048 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
1049 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
1050 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
1051 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
1052 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
1053
1054 `GIT_REF_PARANOIA`::
1055 If set to `1`, include broken or badly named refs when iterating
1056 over lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this
1057 does nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and
1058 abort some operations in the presence of broken refs. Git sets
1059 this variable automatically when performing destructive
1060 operations like linkgit:git-prune[1]. You should not need to set
1061 it yourself unless you want to be paranoid about making sure
1062 an operation has touched every ref (e.g., because you are
1063 cloning a repository to make a backup).
1064
1065 `GIT_ALLOW_PROTOCOL`::
1066 If set, provide a colon-separated list of protocols which are
1067 allowed to be used with fetch/push/clone. This is useful to
1068 restrict recursive submodule initialization from an untrusted
1069 repository. Any protocol not mentioned will be disallowed (i.e.,
1070 this is a whitelist, not a blacklist). If the variable is not
1071 set at all, all protocols are enabled. The protocol names
1072 currently used by git are:
1073
1074 - `file`: any local file-based path (including `file://` URLs,
1075 or local paths)
1076
1077 - `git`: the anonymous git protocol over a direct TCP
1078 connection (or proxy, if configured)
1079
1080 - `ssh`: git over ssh (including `host:path` syntax,
1081 `git+ssh://`, etc).
1082
1083 - `rsync`: git over rsync
1084
1085 - `http`: git over http, both "smart http" and "dumb http".
1086 Note that this does _not_ include `https`; if you want both,
1087 you should specify both as `http:https`.
1088
1089 - any external helpers are named by their protocol (e.g., use
1090 `hg` to allow the `git-remote-hg` helper)
1091
1092
1093 Discussion[[Discussion]]
1094 ------------------------
1095
1096 More detail on the following is available from the
1097 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1098 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
1099
1100 A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
1101 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
1102 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
1103 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
1104 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
1105 as tags and branch heads.
1106
1107 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
1108 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
1109 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
1110 and some number of parent commits.
1111
1112 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
1113 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
1114 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
1115 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
1116
1117 All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
1118 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
1119 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
1120 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
1121 purpose.
1122
1123 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
1124 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
1125
1126 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
1127 may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
1128 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
1129 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
1130 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
1131 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
1132
1133 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
1134 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1135 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1136 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1137 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1138 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1139 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1140 content stored in the index.
1141
1142 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1143 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1144 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
1145
1146 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1147 ---------------------
1148
1149 See the references in the "description" section to get started
1150 using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
1151 for a first-time user.
1152
1153 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1154 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
1155 introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
1156
1157 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1158
1159 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1160 examples.
1161
1162 The internals are documented in the
1163 link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
1164
1165 Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1166 read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1167
1168
1169 Authors
1170 -------
1171 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
1172 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
1173 <git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary
1174 gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1175
1176 If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
1177 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1178 the authors for specific parts of the project.
1179
1180 Reporting Bugs
1181 --------------
1182
1183 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1184 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1185 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1186
1187 SEE ALSO
1188 --------
1189 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
1190 linkgit:giteveryday[7], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
1191 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
1192 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1193 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
1194
1195 GIT
1196 ---
1197 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite