Git 1.7.12
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of commands, and
26 "man git-commandname" for documentation of each command. CVS users may
27 also want to read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7]. See
28 the link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] for a more in-depth
29 introduction.
30
31 The '<command>' is either a name of a Git command (see below) or an alias
32 as defined in the configuration file (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
33
34 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest git
35 documentation can be viewed at
36 `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
37
38 ifdef::stalenotes[]
39 [NOTE]
40 ============
41
42 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
43 unreleased) version of git, that is available from 'master'
44 branch of the `git.git` repository.
45 Documentation for older releases are available here:
46
47 * link:v1.7.12/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.12]
48
49 * release notes for
50 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.txt[1.7.12].
51
52 * link:v1.7.11.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.5]
53
54 * release notes for
55 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.5.txt[1.7.11.5],
56 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.4.txt[1.7.11.4],
57 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.3.txt[1.7.11.3],
58 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.2.txt[1.7.11.2],
59 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.1.txt[1.7.11.1],
60 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.txt[1.7.11].
61
62 * link:v1.7.10.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.10.5]
63
64 * release notes for
65 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.5.txt[1.7.10.5],
66 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt[1.7.10.4],
67 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.3.txt[1.7.10.3],
68 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.2.txt[1.7.10.2],
69 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt[1.7.10.1],
70 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.txt[1.7.10].
71
72 * link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
73
74 * release notes for
75 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.7.txt[1.7.9.7],
76 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.6.txt[1.7.9.6],
77 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.5.txt[1.7.9.5],
78 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.4.txt[1.7.9.4],
79 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.3.txt[1.7.9.3],
80 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.2.txt[1.7.9.2],
81 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.1.txt[1.7.9.1],
82 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
83
84 * link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
85
86 * release notes for
87 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.6.txt[1.7.8.6],
88 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.5.txt[1.7.8.5],
89 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.4.txt[1.7.8.4],
90 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.3.txt[1.7.8.3],
91 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt[1.7.8.2],
92 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.1.txt[1.7.8.1],
93 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
94
95 * link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
96
97 * release notes for
98 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.7.txt[1.7.7.7],
99 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.6.txt[1.7.7.6],
100 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.5.txt[1.7.7.5],
101 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.4.txt[1.7.7.4],
102 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.3.txt[1.7.7.3],
103 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.2.txt[1.7.7.2],
104 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.1.txt[1.7.7.1],
105 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.txt[1.7.7].
106
107 * link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
108
109 * release notes for
110 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.6.txt[1.7.6.6],
111 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.5.txt[1.7.6.5],
112 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.4.txt[1.7.6.4],
113 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.3.txt[1.7.6.3],
114 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.2.txt[1.7.6.2],
115 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.1.txt[1.7.6.1],
116 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
117
118 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
119
120 * release notes for
121 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt[1.7.5.4],
122 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt[1.7.5.3],
123 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.2.txt[1.7.5.2],
124 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.1.txt[1.7.5.1],
125 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.txt[1.7.5].
126
127 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
128
129 * release notes for
130 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.5.txt[1.7.4.5],
131 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.4.txt[1.7.4.4],
132 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.3.txt[1.7.4.3],
133 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.2.txt[1.7.4.2],
134 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.1.txt[1.7.4.1],
135 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.txt[1.7.4].
136
137 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
138
139 * release notes for
140 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.5.txt[1.7.3.5],
141 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.4.txt[1.7.3.4],
142 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.3.txt[1.7.3.3],
143 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.2.txt[1.7.3.2],
144 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.1.txt[1.7.3.1],
145 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.txt[1.7.3].
146
147 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
148
149 * release notes for
150 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.5.txt[1.7.2.5],
151 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.4.txt[1.7.2.4],
152 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.3.txt[1.7.2.3],
153 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.2.txt[1.7.2.2],
154 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.1.txt[1.7.2.1],
155 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.txt[1.7.2].
156
157 * link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
158
159 * release notes for
160 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.4.txt[1.7.1.4],
161 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.3.txt[1.7.1.3],
162 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.2.txt[1.7.1.2],
163 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.1.txt[1.7.1.1],
164 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.txt[1.7.1].
165
166 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
167
168 * release notes for
169 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.9.txt[1.7.0.9],
170 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.8.txt[1.7.0.8],
171 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.7.txt[1.7.0.7],
172 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.6.txt[1.7.0.6],
173 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.5.txt[1.7.0.5],
174 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.4.txt[1.7.0.4],
175 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.3.txt[1.7.0.3],
176 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt[1.7.0.2],
177 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.1.txt[1.7.0.1],
178 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.txt[1.7.0].
179
180 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
181
182 * release notes for
183 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt[1.6.6.3],
184 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
185 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
186 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
187
188 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
189
190 * release notes for
191 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.9.txt[1.6.5.9],
192 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.8.txt[1.6.5.8],
193 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.7.txt[1.6.5.7],
194 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.6.txt[1.6.5.6],
195 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.5.txt[1.6.5.5],
196 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt[1.6.5.4],
197 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.3.txt[1.6.5.3],
198 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.2.txt[1.6.5.2],
199 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.1.txt[1.6.5.1],
200 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
201
202 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
203
204 * release notes for
205 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.5.txt[1.6.4.5],
206 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
207 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
208 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.2.txt[1.6.4.2],
209 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
210 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
211
212 * link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
213
214 * release notes for
215 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
216 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
217 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
218 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
219 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
220
221 * release notes for
222 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
223 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
224 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
225 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
226 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
227 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
228
229 * link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
230
231 * release notes for
232 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
233 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
234 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
235 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
236
237 * link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
238
239 * release notes for
240 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
241 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
242 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
243 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
244 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
245 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
246 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
247
248 * link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
249
250 * release notes for
251 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
252 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
253 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
254 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
255 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
256 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
257 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
258
259 * link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
260
261 * release notes for
262 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
263 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
264 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
265 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
266 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
267 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
268 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
269
270 * link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
271
272 * release notes for
273 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
274 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
275 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
276 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
277 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
278 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
279 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
280 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
281
282 * link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
283
284 * release notes for
285 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
286 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
287 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
288 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
289 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
290 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
291 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
292 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
293 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
294
295 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
296
297 * release notes for
298 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
299 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
300 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
301 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
302 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
303 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
304
305 * link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
306
307 * release notes for
308 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
309 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
310 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
311 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
312 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
313 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
314 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
315
316 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
317
318 * release notes for
319 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
320 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
321 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
322 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
323 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
324 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
325 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
326
327 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
328 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
329 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
330 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
331
332 ============
333
334 endif::stalenotes[]
335
336 OPTIONS
337 -------
338 --version::
339 Prints the git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
340
341 --help::
342 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
343 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
344 available commands are printed. If a git command is named this
345 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
346 +
347 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
348 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
349 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
350 help ...`.
351
352 -c <name>=<value>::
353 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
354 given will override values from configuration files.
355 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
356 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
357
358 --exec-path[=<path>]::
359 Path to wherever your core git programs are installed.
360 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
361 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
362 the current setting and then exit.
363
364 --html-path::
365 Print the path, without trailing slash, where git's HTML
366 documentation is installed and exit.
367
368 --man-path::
369 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
370 this version of git and exit.
371
372 --info-path::
373 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
374 version of git are installed and exit.
375
376 -p::
377 --paginate::
378 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
379 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
380 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
381 below).
382
383 --no-pager::
384 Do not pipe git output into a pager.
385
386 --git-dir=<path>::
387 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
388 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
389 path or relative path to current working directory.
390
391 --work-tree=<path>::
392 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
393 or a path relative to the current working directory.
394 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
395 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
396 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
397 more detailed discussion).
398
399 --namespace=<path>::
400 Set the git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
401 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
402 variable.
403
404 --bare::
405 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
406 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
407 directory.
408
409 --no-replace-objects::
410 Do not use replacement refs to replace git objects. See
411 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
412
413
414 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
415 ---------------------
416
417 See the references above to get started using git. The following is
418 probably more detail than necessary for a first-time user.
419
420 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
421 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
422 introductions to the underlying git architecture.
423
424 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
425
426 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
427 examples.
428
429 The internals are documented in the
430 link:technical/api-index.html[GIT API documentation].
431
432 GIT COMMANDS
433 ------------
434
435 We divide git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
436 ("plumbing") commands.
437
438 High-level commands (porcelain)
439 -------------------------------
440
441 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
442 ancillary user utilities.
443
444 Main porcelain commands
445 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
446
447 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
448
449 Ancillary Commands
450 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
451 Manipulators:
452
453 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
454
455 Interrogators:
456
457 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
458
459
460 Interacting with Others
461 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
462
463 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
464 people via patch over e-mail.
465
466 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
467
468
469 Low-level commands (plumbing)
470 -----------------------------
471
472 Although git includes its
473 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
474 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
475 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
476 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
477
478 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
479 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
480 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
481 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
482 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
483 end user experience.
484
485 The following description divides
486 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
487 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
488 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
489 repositories.
490
491
492 Manipulation commands
493 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
494
495 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
496
497
498 Interrogation commands
499 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
500
501 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
502
503 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
504 the working tree.
505
506
507 Synching repositories
508 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
509
510 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
511
512 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
513 typically do not use them directly.
514
515 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
516
517
518 Internal helper commands
519 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
520
521 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
522 users typically do not use them directly.
523
524 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
525
526
527 Configuration Mechanism
528 -----------------------
529
530 Starting from 0.99.9 (actually mid 0.99.8.GIT), `.git/config` file
531 is used to hold per-repository configuration options. It is a
532 simple text file modeled after `.ini` format familiar to some
533 people. Here is an example:
534
535 ------------
536 #
537 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
538 #
539
540 ; core variables
541 [core]
542 ; Don't trust file modes
543 filemode = false
544
545 ; user identity
546 [user]
547 name = "Junio C Hamano"
548 email = "junkio@twinsun.com"
549
550 ------------
551
552 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
553 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
554 list.
555
556
557 Identifier Terminology
558 ----------------------
559 <object>::
560 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
561
562 <blob>::
563 Indicates a blob object name.
564
565 <tree>::
566 Indicates a tree object name.
567
568 <commit>::
569 Indicates a commit object name.
570
571 <tree-ish>::
572 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
573 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
574 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
575 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
576
577 <commit-ish>::
578 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
579 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
580 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
581 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
582
583 <type>::
584 Indicates that an object type is required.
585 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
586
587 <file>::
588 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
589 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
590
591 Symbolic Identifiers
592 --------------------
593 Any git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
594 symbolic notation:
595
596 HEAD::
597 indicates the head of the current branch.
598
599 <tag>::
600 a valid tag 'name'
601 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
602
603 <head>::
604 a valid head 'name'
605 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
606
607 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
608 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
609
610
611 File/Directory Structure
612 ------------------------
613
614 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
615
616 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
617
618 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
619 `$GIT_DIR`.
620
621
622 Terminology
623 -----------
624 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
625
626
627 Environment Variables
628 ---------------------
629 Various git commands use the following environment variables:
630
631 The git Repository
632 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
633 These environment variables apply to 'all' core git commands. Nb: it
634 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
635 git so take care if using Cogito etc.
636
637 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
638 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
639 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
640 is used.
641
642 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
643 If the object storage directory is specified via this
644 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
645 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
646 directory is used.
647
648 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
649 Due to the immutable nature of git objects, old objects can be
650 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
651 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
652 of git object directories which can be used to search for git
653 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
654
655 'GIT_DIR'::
656 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
657 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
658 for the base of the repository.
659
660 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
661 Set the path to the working tree. The value will not be
662 used in combination with repositories found automatically in
663 a .git directory (i.e. $GIT_DIR is not set).
664 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command line
665 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
666
667 'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
668 Set the git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
669 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
670
671 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
672 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths.
673 If set, it is a list of directories that git should not chdir
674 up into while looking for a repository directory.
675 It will not exclude the current working directory or
676 a GIT_DIR set on the command line or in the environment.
677 (Useful for excluding slow-loading network directories.)
678
679 'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
680 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
681 directory, git tries to find such a directory in the parent
682 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
683 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
684 can be set to true to tell git not to stop at filesystem
685 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
686 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
687 command line.
688
689 git Commits
690 ~~~~~~~~~~~
691 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
692 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
693 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
694 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
695 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
696 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
697 'EMAIL'::
698 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
699
700 git Diffs
701 ~~~~~~~~~
702 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
703 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
704 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
705 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
706 value passed on the git diff command line.
707
708 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
709 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
710 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
711 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
712 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
713
714 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
715 +
716 where:
717
718 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
719 contents of <old|new>,
720 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA1 hashes,
721 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
722 +
723 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
724 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
725 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
726 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
727 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
728 +
729 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
730 parameter, <path>.
731
732 other
733 ~~~~~
734 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
735 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
736 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
737 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
738
739 'GIT_PAGER'::
740 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
741 to an empty string or to the value "cat", git will not launch
742 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
743 linkgit:git-config[1].
744
745 'GIT_EDITOR'::
746 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
747 It is used by several git commands when, on interactive mode,
748 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
749 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
750
751 'GIT_SSH'::
752 If this environment variable is set then 'git fetch'
753 and 'git push' will use this command instead
754 of 'ssh' when they need to connect to a remote system.
755 The '$GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two arguments:
756 the 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the
757 shell command to execute on that remote system.
758 +
759 To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH
760 you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script,
761 then set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.
762 +
763 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
764 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
765 for further details.
766
767 'GIT_ASKPASS'::
768 If this environment variable is set, then git commands which need to
769 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
770 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command line argument
771 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askpass'
772 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
773
774 'GIT_FLUSH'::
775 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
776 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
777 and 'git whatchanged' will force a flush of the output stream
778 after each commit-oriented record have been flushed. If this
779 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
780 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
781 not set, git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
782 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
783
784 'GIT_TRACE'::
785 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
786 is case insensitive), git will print `trace:` messages on
787 stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
788 execution and external command execution.
789 If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1
790 and lower than 10 (strictly) then git will interpret this
791 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
792 trace messages into this file descriptor.
793 Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path
794 (starting with a '/' character), git will interpret this
795 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
796 into it.
797
798 Discussion[[Discussion]]
799 ------------------------
800
801 More detail on the following is available from the
802 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
803 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
804
805 A git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
806 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
807 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
808 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
809 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
810 as tags and branch heads.
811
812 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
813 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
814 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
815 and some number of parent commits.
816
817 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
818 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
819 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
820 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
821
822 All objects are named by the SHA1 hash of their contents, normally
823 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
824 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
825 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
826 purpose.
827
828 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
829 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
830
831 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
832 may contain the SHA1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
833 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA1 name of the most
834 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA1 names of
835 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
836 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
837
838 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
839 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
840 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
841 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
842 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
843 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
844 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
845 content stored in the index.
846
847 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
848 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
849 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
850
851 Authors
852 -------
853 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
854 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the git mailing list
855 <git@vger.kernel.org>. For a more complete list of contributors, see
856 http://git-scm.com/about. If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
857 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
858 the authors for specific parts of the project.
859
860 Reporting Bugs
861 --------------
862
863 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
864 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
865 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
866
867 SEE ALSO
868 --------
869 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
870 link:everyday.html[Everyday Git], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
871 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
872 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
873 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
874
875 GIT
876 ---
877 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite