sha1_file: fast-path null sha1 as a missing object
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-branch.txt
1 git-branch(1)
2 =============
5 ----
6 git-branch - List, create, or delete branches
9 --------
10 [verse]
11 'git branch' [--color[=<when>] | --no-color] [-r | -a]
12 [--list] [-v [--abbrev=<length> | --no-abbrev]]
13 [--column[=<options>] | --no-column] [--sort=<key>]
14 [(--merged | --no-merged) [<commit>]]
15 [--contains [<commit]] [--no-contains [<commit>]]
16 [--points-at <object>] [--format=<format>] [<pattern>...]
17 'git branch' [--set-upstream | --track | --no-track] [-l] [-f] <branchname> [<start-point>]
18 'git branch' (--set-upstream-to=<upstream> | -u <upstream>) [<branchname>]
19 'git branch' --unset-upstream [<branchname>]
20 'git branch' (-m | -M) [<oldbranch>] <newbranch>
21 'git branch' (-d | -D) [-r] <branchname>...
22 'git branch' --edit-description [<branchname>]
25 -----------
27 If `--list` is given, or if there are no non-option arguments, existing
28 branches are listed; the current branch will be highlighted with an
29 asterisk. Option `-r` causes the remote-tracking branches to be listed,
30 and option `-a` shows both local and remote branches. If a `<pattern>`
31 is given, it is used as a shell wildcard to restrict the output to
32 matching branches. If multiple patterns are given, a branch is shown if
33 it matches any of the patterns. Note that when providing a
34 `<pattern>`, you must use `--list`; otherwise the command is interpreted
35 as branch creation.
37 With `--contains`, shows only the branches that contain the named commit
38 (in other words, the branches whose tip commits are descendants of the
39 named commit), `--no-contains` inverts it. With `--merged`, only branches
40 merged into the named commit (i.e. the branches whose tip commits are
41 reachable from the named commit) will be listed. With `--no-merged` only
42 branches not merged into the named commit will be listed. If the <commit>
43 argument is missing it defaults to `HEAD` (i.e. the tip of the current
44 branch).
46 The command's second form creates a new branch head named <branchname>
47 which points to the current `HEAD`, or <start-point> if given.
49 Note that this will create the new branch, but it will not switch the
50 working tree to it; use "git checkout <newbranch>" to switch to the
51 new branch.
53 When a local branch is started off a remote-tracking branch, Git sets up the
54 branch (specifically the `branch.<name>.remote` and `branch.<name>.merge`
55 configuration entries) so that 'git pull' will appropriately merge from
56 the remote-tracking branch. This behavior may be changed via the global
57 `branch.autoSetupMerge` configuration flag. That setting can be
58 overridden by using the `--track` and `--no-track` options, and
59 changed later using `git branch --set-upstream-to`.
61 With a `-m` or `-M` option, <oldbranch> will be renamed to <newbranch>.
62 If <oldbranch> had a corresponding reflog, it is renamed to match
63 <newbranch>, and a reflog entry is created to remember the branch
64 renaming. If <newbranch> exists, -M must be used to force the rename
65 to happen.
67 With a `-d` or `-D` option, `<branchname>` will be deleted. You may
68 specify more than one branch for deletion. If the branch currently
69 has a reflog then the reflog will also be deleted.
71 Use `-r` together with `-d` to delete remote-tracking branches. Note, that it
72 only makes sense to delete remote-tracking branches if they no longer exist
73 in the remote repository or if 'git fetch' was configured not to fetch
74 them again. See also the 'prune' subcommand of linkgit:git-remote[1] for a
75 way to clean up all obsolete remote-tracking branches.
79 -------
80 -d::
81 --delete::
82 Delete a branch. The branch must be fully merged in its
83 upstream branch, or in `HEAD` if no upstream was set with
84 `--track` or `--set-upstream`.
86 -D::
87 Shortcut for `--delete --force`.
89 -l::
90 --create-reflog::
91 Create the branch's reflog. This activates recording of
92 all changes made to the branch ref, enabling use of date
93 based sha1 expressions such as "<branchname>@\{yesterday}".
94 Note that in non-bare repositories, reflogs are usually
95 enabled by default by the `core.logAllRefUpdates` config option.
96 The negated form `--no-create-reflog` only overrides an earlier
97 `--create-reflog`, but currently does not negate the setting of
98 `core.logAllRefUpdates`.
100 -f::
101 --force::
102 Reset <branchname> to <startpoint> if <branchname> exists
103 already. Without `-f` 'git branch' refuses to change an existing branch.
104 In combination with `-d` (or `--delete`), allow deleting the
105 branch irrespective of its merged status. In combination with
106 `-m` (or `--move`), allow renaming the branch even if the new
107 branch name already exists.
109 -m::
110 --move::
111 Move/rename a branch and the corresponding reflog.
113 -M::
114 Shortcut for `--move --force`.
116 --color[=<when>]::
117 Color branches to highlight current, local, and
118 remote-tracking branches.
119 The value must be always (the default), never, or auto.
121 --no-color::
122 Turn off branch colors, even when the configuration file gives the
123 default to color output.
124 Same as `--color=never`.
126 -i::
127 --ignore-case::
128 Sorting and filtering branches are case insensitive.
130 --column[=<options>]::
131 --no-column::
132 Display branch listing in columns. See configuration variable
133 column.branch for option syntax.`--column` and `--no-column`
134 without options are equivalent to 'always' and 'never' respectively.
135 +
136 This option is only applicable in non-verbose mode.
138 -r::
139 --remotes::
140 List or delete (if used with -d) the remote-tracking branches.
142 -a::
143 --all::
144 List both remote-tracking branches and local branches.
146 --list::
147 List branches. With optional `<pattern>...`, e.g. `git
148 branch --list 'maint-*'`, list only the branches that match
149 the pattern(s).
150 +
151 This should not be confused with `git branch -l <branchname>`,
152 which creates a branch named `<branchname>` with a reflog.
153 See `--create-reflog` above for details.
155 -v::
156 -vv::
157 --verbose::
158 When in list mode,
159 show sha1 and commit subject line for each head, along with
160 relationship to upstream branch (if any). If given twice, print
161 the name of the upstream branch, as well (see also `git remote
162 show <remote>`).
164 -q::
165 --quiet::
166 Be more quiet when creating or deleting a branch, suppressing
167 non-error messages.
169 --abbrev=<length>::
170 Alter the sha1's minimum display length in the output listing.
171 The default value is 7 and can be overridden by the `core.abbrev`
172 config option.
174 --no-abbrev::
175 Display the full sha1s in the output listing rather than abbreviating them.
177 -t::
178 --track::
179 When creating a new branch, set up `branch.<name>.remote` and
180 `branch.<name>.merge` configuration entries to mark the
181 start-point branch as "upstream" from the new branch. This
182 configuration will tell git to show the relationship between the
183 two branches in `git status` and `git branch -v`. Furthermore,
184 it directs `git pull` without arguments to pull from the
185 upstream when the new branch is checked out.
186 +
187 This behavior is the default when the start point is a remote-tracking branch.
188 Set the branch.autoSetupMerge configuration variable to `false` if you
189 want `git checkout` and `git branch` to always behave as if `--no-track`
190 were given. Set it to `always` if you want this behavior when the
191 start-point is either a local or remote-tracking branch.
193 --no-track::
194 Do not set up "upstream" configuration, even if the
195 branch.autoSetupMerge configuration variable is true.
197 --set-upstream::
198 If specified branch does not exist yet or if `--force` has been
199 given, acts exactly like `--track`. Otherwise sets up configuration
200 like `--track` would when creating the branch, except that where
201 branch points to is not changed.
203 -u <upstream>::
204 --set-upstream-to=<upstream>::
205 Set up <branchname>'s tracking information so <upstream> is
206 considered <branchname>'s upstream branch. If no <branchname>
207 is specified, then it defaults to the current branch.
209 --unset-upstream::
210 Remove the upstream information for <branchname>. If no branch
211 is specified it defaults to the current branch.
213 --edit-description::
214 Open an editor and edit the text to explain what the branch is
215 for, to be used by various other commands (e.g. `format-patch`,
216 `request-pull`, and `merge` (if enabled)). Multi-line explanations
217 may be used.
219 --contains [<commit>]::
220 Only list branches which contain the specified commit (HEAD
221 if not specified). Implies `--list`.
223 --no-contains [<commit>]::
224 Only list branches which don't contain the specified commit
225 (HEAD if not specified). Implies `--list`.
227 --merged [<commit>]::
228 Only list branches whose tips are reachable from the
229 specified commit (HEAD if not specified). Implies `--list`,
230 incompatible with `--no-merged`.
232 --no-merged [<commit>]::
233 Only list branches whose tips are not reachable from the
234 specified commit (HEAD if not specified). Implies `--list`,
235 incompatible with `--merged`.
237 <branchname>::
238 The name of the branch to create or delete.
239 The new branch name must pass all checks defined by
240 linkgit:git-check-ref-format[1]. Some of these checks
241 may restrict the characters allowed in a branch name.
243 <start-point>::
244 The new branch head will point to this commit. It may be
245 given as a branch name, a commit-id, or a tag. If this
246 option is omitted, the current HEAD will be used instead.
248 <oldbranch>::
249 The name of an existing branch to rename.
251 <newbranch>::
252 The new name for an existing branch. The same restrictions as for
253 <branchname> apply.
255 --sort=<key>::
256 Sort based on the key given. Prefix `-` to sort in descending
257 order of the value. You may use the --sort=<key> option
258 multiple times, in which case the last key becomes the primary
259 key. The keys supported are the same as those in `git
260 for-each-ref`. Sort order defaults to sorting based on the
261 full refname (including `refs/...` prefix). This lists
262 detached HEAD (if present) first, then local branches and
263 finally remote-tracking branches.
266 --points-at <object>::
267 Only list branches of the given object.
269 --format <format>::
270 A string that interpolates `%(fieldname)` from a branch ref being shown
271 and the object it points at. The format is the same as
272 that of linkgit:git-for-each-ref[1].
274 Examples
275 --------
277 Start development from a known tag::
278 +
279 ------------
280 $ git clone git:// my2.6
281 $ cd my2.6
282 $ git branch my2.6.14 v2.6.14 <1>
283 $ git checkout my2.6.14
284 ------------
285 +
286 <1> This step and the next one could be combined into a single step with
287 "checkout -b my2.6.14 v2.6.14".
289 Delete an unneeded branch::
290 +
291 ------------
292 $ git clone git:// my.git
293 $ cd my.git
294 $ git branch -d -r origin/todo origin/html origin/man <1>
295 $ git branch -D test <2>
296 ------------
297 +
298 <1> Delete the remote-tracking branches "todo", "html" and "man". The next
299 'fetch' or 'pull' will create them again unless you configure them not to.
300 See linkgit:git-fetch[1].
301 <2> Delete the "test" branch even if the "master" branch (or whichever branch
302 is currently checked out) does not have all commits from the test branch.
305 Notes
306 -----
308 If you are creating a branch that you want to checkout immediately, it is
309 easier to use the git checkout command with its `-b` option to create
310 a branch and check it out with a single command.
312 The options `--contains`, `--no-contains`, `--merged` and `--no-merged`
313 serve four related but different purposes:
315 - `--contains <commit>` is used to find all branches which will need
316 special attention if <commit> were to be rebased or amended, since those
317 branches contain the specified <commit>.
319 - `--no-contains <commit>` is the inverse of that, i.e. branches that don't
320 contain the specified <commit>.
322 - `--merged` is used to find all branches which can be safely deleted,
323 since those branches are fully contained by HEAD.
325 - `--no-merged` is used to find branches which are candidates for merging
326 into HEAD, since those branches are not fully contained by HEAD.
329 --------
330 linkgit:git-check-ref-format[1],
331 linkgit:git-fetch[1],
332 linkgit:git-remote[1],
333 link:user-manual.html#what-is-a-branch[``Understanding history: What is
334 a branch?''] in the Git User's Manual.
336 GIT
337 ---
338 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite