Merge branch 'maint'
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of
26 commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27 in-depth introduction.
28
29 After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
30 page to learn what commands git offers. You can learn more about
31 individual git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
32 manual page gives you an overview of the command line command syntax.
33
34 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest git documentation
35 can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
36
37 ifdef::stalenotes[]
38 [NOTE]
39 ============
40
41 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42 unreleased) version of git, that is available from 'master'
43 branch of the `git.git` repository.
44 Documentation for older releases are available here:
45
46 * link:v1.8.0.2/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.0.2]
47
48 * release notes for
49 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.2.txt[1.8.0.2],
50 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.1.txt[1.8.0.1],
51 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.txt[1.8.0].
52
53 * link:v1.7.12.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.12.4]
54
55 * release notes for
56 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.4.txt[1.7.12.4],
57 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt[1.7.12.3],
58 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.2.txt[1.7.12.2],
59 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.1.txt[1.7.12.1],
60 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.txt[1.7.12].
61
62 * link:v1.7.11.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.7]
63
64 * release notes for
65 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.7.txt[1.7.11.7],
66 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.6.txt[1.7.11.6],
67 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.5.txt[1.7.11.5],
68 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.4.txt[1.7.11.4],
69 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.3.txt[1.7.11.3],
70 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.2.txt[1.7.11.2],
71 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.1.txt[1.7.11.1],
72 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.txt[1.7.11].
73
74 * link:v1.7.10.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.10.5]
75
76 * release notes for
77 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.5.txt[1.7.10.5],
78 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt[1.7.10.4],
79 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.3.txt[1.7.10.3],
80 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.2.txt[1.7.10.2],
81 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt[1.7.10.1],
82 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.txt[1.7.10].
83
84 * link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
85
86 * release notes for
87 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.7.txt[1.7.9.7],
88 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.6.txt[1.7.9.6],
89 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.5.txt[1.7.9.5],
90 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.4.txt[1.7.9.4],
91 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.3.txt[1.7.9.3],
92 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.2.txt[1.7.9.2],
93 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.1.txt[1.7.9.1],
94 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
95
96 * link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
97
98 * release notes for
99 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.6.txt[1.7.8.6],
100 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.5.txt[1.7.8.5],
101 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.4.txt[1.7.8.4],
102 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.3.txt[1.7.8.3],
103 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt[1.7.8.2],
104 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.1.txt[1.7.8.1],
105 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
106
107 * link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
108
109 * release notes for
110 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.7.txt[1.7.7.7],
111 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.6.txt[1.7.7.6],
112 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.5.txt[1.7.7.5],
113 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.4.txt[1.7.7.4],
114 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.3.txt[1.7.7.3],
115 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.2.txt[1.7.7.2],
116 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.1.txt[1.7.7.1],
117 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.txt[1.7.7].
118
119 * link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
120
121 * release notes for
122 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.6.txt[1.7.6.6],
123 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.5.txt[1.7.6.5],
124 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.4.txt[1.7.6.4],
125 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.3.txt[1.7.6.3],
126 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.2.txt[1.7.6.2],
127 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.1.txt[1.7.6.1],
128 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
129
130 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
131
132 * release notes for
133 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt[1.7.5.4],
134 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt[1.7.5.3],
135 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.2.txt[1.7.5.2],
136 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.1.txt[1.7.5.1],
137 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.txt[1.7.5].
138
139 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
140
141 * release notes for
142 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.5.txt[1.7.4.5],
143 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.4.txt[1.7.4.4],
144 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.3.txt[1.7.4.3],
145 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.2.txt[1.7.4.2],
146 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.1.txt[1.7.4.1],
147 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.txt[1.7.4].
148
149 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
150
151 * release notes for
152 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.5.txt[1.7.3.5],
153 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.4.txt[1.7.3.4],
154 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.3.txt[1.7.3.3],
155 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.2.txt[1.7.3.2],
156 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.1.txt[1.7.3.1],
157 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.txt[1.7.3].
158
159 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
160
161 * release notes for
162 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.5.txt[1.7.2.5],
163 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.4.txt[1.7.2.4],
164 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.3.txt[1.7.2.3],
165 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.2.txt[1.7.2.2],
166 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.1.txt[1.7.2.1],
167 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.txt[1.7.2].
168
169 * link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
170
171 * release notes for
172 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.4.txt[1.7.1.4],
173 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.3.txt[1.7.1.3],
174 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.2.txt[1.7.1.2],
175 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.1.txt[1.7.1.1],
176 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.txt[1.7.1].
177
178 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
179
180 * release notes for
181 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.9.txt[1.7.0.9],
182 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.8.txt[1.7.0.8],
183 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.7.txt[1.7.0.7],
184 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.6.txt[1.7.0.6],
185 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.5.txt[1.7.0.5],
186 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.4.txt[1.7.0.4],
187 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.3.txt[1.7.0.3],
188 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt[1.7.0.2],
189 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.1.txt[1.7.0.1],
190 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.txt[1.7.0].
191
192 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
193
194 * release notes for
195 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt[1.6.6.3],
196 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
197 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
198 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
199
200 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
201
202 * release notes for
203 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.9.txt[1.6.5.9],
204 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.8.txt[1.6.5.8],
205 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.7.txt[1.6.5.7],
206 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.6.txt[1.6.5.6],
207 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.5.txt[1.6.5.5],
208 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt[1.6.5.4],
209 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.3.txt[1.6.5.3],
210 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.2.txt[1.6.5.2],
211 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.1.txt[1.6.5.1],
212 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
213
214 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
215
216 * release notes for
217 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.5.txt[1.6.4.5],
218 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
219 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
220 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.2.txt[1.6.4.2],
221 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
222 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
223
224 * link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
225
226 * release notes for
227 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
228 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
229 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
230 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
231 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
232
233 * release notes for
234 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
235 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
236 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
237 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
238 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
239 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
240
241 * link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
242
243 * release notes for
244 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
245 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
246 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
247 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
248
249 * link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
250
251 * release notes for
252 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
253 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
254 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
255 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
256 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
257 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
258 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
259
260 * link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
261
262 * release notes for
263 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
264 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
265 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
266 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
267 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
268 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
269 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
270
271 * link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
272
273 * release notes for
274 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
275 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
276 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
277 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
278 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
279 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
280 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
281
282 * link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
283
284 * release notes for
285 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
286 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
287 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
288 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
289 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
290 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
291 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
292 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
293
294 * link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
295
296 * release notes for
297 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
298 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
299 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
300 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
301 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
302 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
303 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
304 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
305 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
306
307 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
308
309 * release notes for
310 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
311 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
312 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
313 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
314 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
315 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
316
317 * link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
318
319 * release notes for
320 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
321 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
322 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
323 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
324 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
325 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
326 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
327
328 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
329
330 * release notes for
331 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
332 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
333 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
334 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
335 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
336 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
337 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
338
339 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
340 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
341 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
342 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
343
344 ============
345
346 endif::stalenotes[]
347
348 OPTIONS
349 -------
350 --version::
351 Prints the git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
352
353 --help::
354 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
355 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
356 available commands are printed. If a git command is named this
357 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
358 +
359 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
360 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
361 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
362 help ...`.
363
364 -c <name>=<value>::
365 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
366 given will override values from configuration files.
367 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
368 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
369
370 --exec-path[=<path>]::
371 Path to wherever your core git programs are installed.
372 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
373 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
374 the current setting and then exit.
375
376 --html-path::
377 Print the path, without trailing slash, where git's HTML
378 documentation is installed and exit.
379
380 --man-path::
381 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
382 this version of git and exit.
383
384 --info-path::
385 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
386 version of git are installed and exit.
387
388 -p::
389 --paginate::
390 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
391 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
392 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
393 below).
394
395 --no-pager::
396 Do not pipe git output into a pager.
397
398 --git-dir=<path>::
399 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
400 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
401 path or relative path to current working directory.
402
403 --work-tree=<path>::
404 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
405 or a path relative to the current working directory.
406 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
407 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
408 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
409 more detailed discussion).
410
411 --namespace=<path>::
412 Set the git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
413 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
414 variable.
415
416 --bare::
417 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
418 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
419 directory.
420
421 --no-replace-objects::
422 Do not use replacement refs to replace git objects. See
423 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
424
425
426 GIT COMMANDS
427 ------------
428
429 We divide git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
430 ("plumbing") commands.
431
432 High-level commands (porcelain)
433 -------------------------------
434
435 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
436 ancillary user utilities.
437
438 Main porcelain commands
439 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
440
441 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
442
443 Ancillary Commands
444 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
445 Manipulators:
446
447 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
448
449 Interrogators:
450
451 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
452
453
454 Interacting with Others
455 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
456
457 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
458 people via patch over e-mail.
459
460 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
461
462
463 Low-level commands (plumbing)
464 -----------------------------
465
466 Although git includes its
467 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
468 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
469 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
470 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
471
472 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
473 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
474 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
475 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
476 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
477 end user experience.
478
479 The following description divides
480 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
481 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
482 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
483 repositories.
484
485
486 Manipulation commands
487 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
488
489 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
490
491
492 Interrogation commands
493 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
494
495 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
496
497 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
498 the working tree.
499
500
501 Synching repositories
502 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
503
504 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
505
506 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
507 typically do not use them directly.
508
509 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
510
511
512 Internal helper commands
513 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
514
515 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
516 users typically do not use them directly.
517
518 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
519
520
521 Configuration Mechanism
522 -----------------------
523
524 Starting from 0.99.9 (actually mid 0.99.8.GIT), `.git/config` file
525 is used to hold per-repository configuration options. It is a
526 simple text file modeled after `.ini` format familiar to some
527 people. Here is an example:
528
529 ------------
530 #
531 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
532 #
533
534 ; core variables
535 [core]
536 ; Don't trust file modes
537 filemode = false
538
539 ; user identity
540 [user]
541 name = "Junio C Hamano"
542 email = "junkio@twinsun.com"
543
544 ------------
545
546 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
547 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
548 list.
549
550
551 Identifier Terminology
552 ----------------------
553 <object>::
554 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
555
556 <blob>::
557 Indicates a blob object name.
558
559 <tree>::
560 Indicates a tree object name.
561
562 <commit>::
563 Indicates a commit object name.
564
565 <tree-ish>::
566 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
567 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
568 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
569 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
570
571 <commit-ish>::
572 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
573 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
574 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
575 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
576
577 <type>::
578 Indicates that an object type is required.
579 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
580
581 <file>::
582 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
583 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
584
585 Symbolic Identifiers
586 --------------------
587 Any git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
588 symbolic notation:
589
590 HEAD::
591 indicates the head of the current branch.
592
593 <tag>::
594 a valid tag 'name'
595 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
596
597 <head>::
598 a valid head 'name'
599 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
600
601 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
602 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
603
604
605 File/Directory Structure
606 ------------------------
607
608 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
609
610 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
611
612 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
613 `$GIT_DIR`.
614
615
616 Terminology
617 -----------
618 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
619
620
621 Environment Variables
622 ---------------------
623 Various git commands use the following environment variables:
624
625 The git Repository
626 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
627 These environment variables apply to 'all' core git commands. Nb: it
628 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
629 git so take care if using Cogito etc.
630
631 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
632 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
633 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
634 is used.
635
636 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
637 If the object storage directory is specified via this
638 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
639 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
640 directory is used.
641
642 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
643 Due to the immutable nature of git objects, old objects can be
644 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
645 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
646 of git object directories which can be used to search for git
647 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
648
649 'GIT_DIR'::
650 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
651 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
652 for the base of the repository.
653 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
654
655 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
656 Set the path to the working tree. The value will not be
657 used in combination with repositories found automatically in
658 a .git directory (i.e. $GIT_DIR is not set).
659 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command line
660 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
661
662 'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
663 Set the git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
664 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
665
666 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
667 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths.
668 If set, it is a list of directories that git should not chdir
669 up into while looking for a repository directory.
670 It will not exclude the current working directory or
671 a GIT_DIR set on the command line or in the environment.
672 (Useful for excluding slow-loading network directories.)
673
674 'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
675 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
676 directory, git tries to find such a directory in the parent
677 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
678 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
679 can be set to true to tell git not to stop at filesystem
680 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
681 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
682 command line.
683
684 git Commits
685 ~~~~~~~~~~~
686 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
687 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
688 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
689 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
690 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
691 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
692 'EMAIL'::
693 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
694
695 git Diffs
696 ~~~~~~~~~
697 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
698 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
699 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
700 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
701 value passed on the git diff command line.
702
703 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
704 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
705 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
706 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
707 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
708
709 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
710 +
711 where:
712
713 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
714 contents of <old|new>,
715 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA1 hashes,
716 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
717 +
718 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
719 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
720 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
721 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
722 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
723 +
724 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
725 parameter, <path>.
726
727 other
728 ~~~~~
729 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
730 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
731 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
732 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
733
734 'GIT_PAGER'::
735 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
736 to an empty string or to the value "cat", git will not launch
737 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
738 linkgit:git-config[1].
739
740 'GIT_EDITOR'::
741 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
742 It is used by several git commands when, on interactive mode,
743 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
744 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
745
746 'GIT_SSH'::
747 If this environment variable is set then 'git fetch'
748 and 'git push' will use this command instead
749 of 'ssh' when they need to connect to a remote system.
750 The '$GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two arguments:
751 the 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the
752 shell command to execute on that remote system.
753 +
754 To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH
755 you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script,
756 then set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.
757 +
758 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
759 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
760 for further details.
761
762 'GIT_ASKPASS'::
763 If this environment variable is set, then git commands which need to
764 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
765 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command line argument
766 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askpass'
767 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
768
769 'GIT_FLUSH'::
770 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
771 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
772 and 'git whatchanged' will force a flush of the output stream
773 after each commit-oriented record have been flushed. If this
774 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
775 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
776 not set, git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
777 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
778
779 'GIT_TRACE'::
780 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
781 is case insensitive), git will print `trace:` messages on
782 stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
783 execution and external command execution.
784 If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1
785 and lower than 10 (strictly) then git will interpret this
786 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
787 trace messages into this file descriptor.
788 Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path
789 (starting with a '/' character), git will interpret this
790 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
791 into it.
792
793 Discussion[[Discussion]]
794 ------------------------
795
796 More detail on the following is available from the
797 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
798 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
799
800 A git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
801 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
802 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
803 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
804 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
805 as tags and branch heads.
806
807 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
808 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
809 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
810 and some number of parent commits.
811
812 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
813 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
814 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
815 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
816
817 All objects are named by the SHA1 hash of their contents, normally
818 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
819 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
820 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
821 purpose.
822
823 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
824 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
825
826 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
827 may contain the SHA1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
828 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA1 name of the most
829 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA1 names of
830 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
831 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
832
833 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
834 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
835 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
836 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
837 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
838 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
839 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
840 content stored in the index.
841
842 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
843 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
844 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
845
846 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
847 ---------------------
848
849 See the references in the "description" section to get started
850 using git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
851 for a first-time user.
852
853 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
854 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
855 introductions to the underlying git architecture.
856
857 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
858
859 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
860 examples.
861
862 The internals are documented in the
863 link:technical/api-index.html[GIT API documentation].
864
865 Users migrating from CVS may also want to
866 read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
867
868
869 Authors
870 -------
871 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
872 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the git mailing list
873 <git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.ohloh.net/p/git/contributors/summary
874 gives you a more complete list of contributors.
875
876 If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
877 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
878 the authors for specific parts of the project.
879
880 Reporting Bugs
881 --------------
882
883 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
884 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
885 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
886
887 SEE ALSO
888 --------
889 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
890 link:everyday.html[Everyday Git], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
891 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
892 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
893 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
894
895 GIT
896 ---
897 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite