Git 2.4.8
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
26 commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27 in-depth introduction.
28
29 After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
30 page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31 individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
32 manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
33
34 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
35 can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
36
37 ifdef::stalenotes[]
38 [NOTE]
39 ============
40
41 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42 unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
43 branch of the `git.git` repository.
44 Documentation for older releases are available here:
45
46 * link:v2.4.8/git.html[documentation for release 2.4.8]
47
48 * release notes for
49 link:RelNotes/2.4.8.txt[2.4.8],
50 link:RelNotes/2.4.7.txt[2.4.7],
51 link:RelNotes/2.4.6.txt[2.4.6],
52 link:RelNotes/2.4.5.txt[2.4.5],
53 link:RelNotes/2.4.4.txt[2.4.4],
54 link:RelNotes/2.4.3.txt[2.4.3],
55 link:RelNotes/2.4.2.txt[2.4.2],
56 link:RelNotes/2.4.1.txt[2.4.1],
57 link:RelNotes/2.4.0.txt[2.4].
58
59 * link:v2.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 2.3.8]
60
61 * release notes for
62 link:RelNotes/2.3.8.txt[2.3.8],
63 link:RelNotes/2.3.7.txt[2.3.7],
64 link:RelNotes/2.3.6.txt[2.3.6],
65 link:RelNotes/2.3.5.txt[2.3.5],
66 link:RelNotes/2.3.4.txt[2.3.4],
67 link:RelNotes/2.3.3.txt[2.3.3],
68 link:RelNotes/2.3.2.txt[2.3.2],
69 link:RelNotes/2.3.1.txt[2.3.1],
70 link:RelNotes/2.3.0.txt[2.3].
71
72 * link:v2.2.2/git.html[documentation for release 2.2.2]
73
74 * release notes for
75 link:RelNotes/2.2.2.txt[2.2.2],
76 link:RelNotes/2.2.1.txt[2.2.1],
77 link:RelNotes/2.2.0.txt[2.2].
78
79 * link:v2.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.1.4]
80
81 * release notes for
82 link:RelNotes/2.1.4.txt[2.1.4],
83 link:RelNotes/2.1.3.txt[2.1.3],
84 link:RelNotes/2.1.2.txt[2.1.2],
85 link:RelNotes/2.1.1.txt[2.1.1],
86 link:RelNotes/2.1.0.txt[2.1].
87
88 * link:v2.0.5/git.html[documentation for release 2.0.5]
89
90 * release notes for
91 link:RelNotes/2.0.5.txt[2.0.5],
92 link:RelNotes/2.0.4.txt[2.0.4],
93 link:RelNotes/2.0.3.txt[2.0.3],
94 link:RelNotes/2.0.2.txt[2.0.2],
95 link:RelNotes/2.0.1.txt[2.0.1],
96 link:RelNotes/2.0.0.txt[2.0.0].
97
98 * link:v1.9.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.9.5]
99
100 * release notes for
101 link:RelNotes/1.9.5.txt[1.9.5],
102 link:RelNotes/1.9.4.txt[1.9.4],
103 link:RelNotes/1.9.3.txt[1.9.3],
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105 link:RelNotes/1.9.1.txt[1.9.1],
106 link:RelNotes/1.9.0.txt[1.9.0].
107
108 * link:v1.8.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.5.6]
109
110 * release notes for
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112 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.5.txt[1.8.5.5],
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116 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.1.txt[1.8.5.1],
117 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.txt[1.8.5].
118
119 * link:v1.8.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.4.5]
120
121 * release notes for
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123 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt[1.8.4.4],
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126 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt[1.8.4.1],
127 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.txt[1.8.4].
128
129 * link:v1.8.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.3.4]
130
131 * release notes for
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133 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.3.txt[1.8.3.3],
134 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.2.txt[1.8.3.2],
135 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt[1.8.3.1],
136 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.txt[1.8.3].
137
138 * link:v1.8.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.2.3]
139
140 * release notes for
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142 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt[1.8.2.2],
143 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt[1.8.2.1],
144 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.txt[1.8.2].
145
146 * link:v1.8.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.1.6]
147
148 * release notes for
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150 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.5.txt[1.8.1.5],
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154 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.1.txt[1.8.1.1],
155 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.txt[1.8.1].
156
157 * link:v1.8.0.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.0.3]
158
159 * release notes for
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161 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.2.txt[1.8.0.2],
162 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.1.txt[1.8.0.1],
163 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.txt[1.8.0].
164
165 * link:v1.7.12.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.12.4]
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167 * release notes for
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171 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.1.txt[1.7.12.1],
172 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.txt[1.7.12].
173
174 * link:v1.7.11.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.7]
175
176 * release notes for
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183 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.1.txt[1.7.11.1],
184 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.txt[1.7.11].
185
186 * link:v1.7.10.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.10.5]
187
188 * release notes for
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190 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt[1.7.10.4],
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194 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.txt[1.7.10].
195
196 * link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
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198 * release notes for
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206 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
207
208 * link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
209
210 * release notes for
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212 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.5.txt[1.7.8.5],
213 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.4.txt[1.7.8.4],
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217 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
218
219 * link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
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231 * link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
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242 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
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251 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
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253 * release notes for
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261 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
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263 * release notes for
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271 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
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281 * link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
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290 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
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304 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
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312 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
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326 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
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353 * link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
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372 * link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
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383 * link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
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419 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
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438 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
439
440 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
441
442 * release notes for
443 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
444 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
445 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
446 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
447 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
448 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
449 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
450
451 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
452 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
453 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
454 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
455
456 ============
457
458 endif::stalenotes[]
459
460 OPTIONS
461 -------
462 --version::
463 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
464
465 --help::
466 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
467 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
468 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
469 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
470 +
471 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
472 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
473 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
474 help ...`.
475
476 -C <path>::
477 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
478 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
479 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
480 <path>`.
481 +
482 This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
483 `--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
484 made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
485 example the following invocations are equivalent:
486
487 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
488 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
489
490 -c <name>=<value>::
491 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
492 given will override values from configuration files.
493 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
494 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
495 +
496 Note that omitting the `=` in `git -c foo.bar ...` is allowed and sets
497 `foo.bar` to the boolean true value (just like `[foo]bar` would in a
498 config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like `git -c
499 foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string.
500
501 --exec-path[=<path>]::
502 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
503 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
504 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
505 the current setting and then exit.
506
507 --html-path::
508 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
509 documentation is installed and exit.
510
511 --man-path::
512 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
513 this version of Git and exit.
514
515 --info-path::
516 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
517 version of Git are installed and exit.
518
519 -p::
520 --paginate::
521 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
522 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
523 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
524 below).
525
526 --no-pager::
527 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
528
529 --git-dir=<path>::
530 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
531 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
532 path or relative path to current working directory.
533
534 --work-tree=<path>::
535 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
536 or a path relative to the current working directory.
537 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
538 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
539 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
540 more detailed discussion).
541
542 --namespace=<path>::
543 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
544 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
545 variable.
546
547 --bare::
548 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
549 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
550 directory.
551
552 --no-replace-objects::
553 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
554 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
555
556 --literal-pathspecs::
557 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
558 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
559 variable to `1`.
560
561 --glob-pathspecs::
562 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
563 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
564 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
565 magic ":(literal)"
566
567 --noglob-pathspecs::
568 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
569 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
570 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
571 magic ":(glob)"
572
573 --icase-pathspecs::
574 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
575 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
576
577 GIT COMMANDS
578 ------------
579
580 We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
581 ("plumbing") commands.
582
583 High-level commands (porcelain)
584 -------------------------------
585
586 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
587 ancillary user utilities.
588
589 Main porcelain commands
590 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
591
592 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
593
594 Ancillary Commands
595 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
596 Manipulators:
597
598 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
599
600 Interrogators:
601
602 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
603
604
605 Interacting with Others
606 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
607
608 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
609 people via patch over e-mail.
610
611 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
612
613
614 Low-level commands (plumbing)
615 -----------------------------
616
617 Although Git includes its
618 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
619 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
620 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
621 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
622
623 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
624 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
625 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
626 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
627 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
628 end user experience.
629
630 The following description divides
631 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
632 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
633 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
634 repositories.
635
636
637 Manipulation commands
638 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
639
640 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
641
642
643 Interrogation commands
644 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
645
646 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
647
648 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
649 the working tree.
650
651
652 Synching repositories
653 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
654
655 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
656
657 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
658 typically do not use them directly.
659
660 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
661
662
663 Internal helper commands
664 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
665
666 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
667 users typically do not use them directly.
668
669 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
670
671
672 Configuration Mechanism
673 -----------------------
674
675 Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
676 repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
677 like this:
678
679 ------------
680 #
681 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
682 #
683
684 ; core variables
685 [core]
686 ; Don't trust file modes
687 filemode = false
688
689 ; user identity
690 [user]
691 name = "Junio C Hamano"
692 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
693
694 ------------
695
696 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
697 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
698 list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
699
700
701 Identifier Terminology
702 ----------------------
703 <object>::
704 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
705
706 <blob>::
707 Indicates a blob object name.
708
709 <tree>::
710 Indicates a tree object name.
711
712 <commit>::
713 Indicates a commit object name.
714
715 <tree-ish>::
716 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
717 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
718 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
719 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
720
721 <commit-ish>::
722 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
723 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
724 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
725 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
726
727 <type>::
728 Indicates that an object type is required.
729 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
730
731 <file>::
732 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
733 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
734
735 Symbolic Identifiers
736 --------------------
737 Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
738 symbolic notation:
739
740 HEAD::
741 indicates the head of the current branch.
742
743 <tag>::
744 a valid tag 'name'
745 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
746
747 <head>::
748 a valid head 'name'
749 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
750
751 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
752 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
753
754
755 File/Directory Structure
756 ------------------------
757
758 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
759
760 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
761
762 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
763 `$GIT_DIR`.
764
765
766 Terminology
767 -----------
768 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
769
770
771 Environment Variables
772 ---------------------
773 Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
774
775 The Git Repository
776 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
777 These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
778 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
779 Git so take care if using Cogito etc.
780
781 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
782 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
783 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
784 is used.
785
786 'GIT_INDEX_VERSION'::
787 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
788 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
789 files. By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See
790 linkgit:git-update-index[1] for more information.
791
792 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
793 If the object storage directory is specified via this
794 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
795 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
796 directory is used.
797
798 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
799 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
800 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
801 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
802 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
803 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
804
805 'GIT_DIR'::
806 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
807 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
808 for the base of the repository.
809 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
810
811 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
812 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
813 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command-line
814 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
815
816 'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
817 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
818 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
819
820 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
821 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
822 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
823 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
824 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
825 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
826 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
827 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
828 might be present in order to compare them with the current
829 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
830 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
831 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
832 e.g.,
833 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
834
835 'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
836 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
837 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
838 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
839 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
840 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
841 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
842 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
843 command line.
844
845 Git Commits
846 ~~~~~~~~~~~
847 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
848 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
849 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
850 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
851 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
852 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
853 'EMAIL'::
854 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
855
856 Git Diffs
857 ~~~~~~~~~
858 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
859 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
860 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
861 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
862 value passed on the Git diff command line.
863
864 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
865 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
866 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
867 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
868 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
869
870 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
871 +
872 where:
873
874 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
875 contents of <old|new>,
876 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
877 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
878 +
879 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
880 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
881 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
882 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
883 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
884 +
885 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
886 parameter, <path>.
887 +
888 For each path 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called, two environment variables,
889 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER' and 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL' are set.
890
891 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER'::
892 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
893
894 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL'::
895 The total number of paths.
896
897 other
898 ~~~~~
899 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
900 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
901 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
902 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
903
904 'GIT_PAGER'::
905 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
906 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
907 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
908 linkgit:git-config[1].
909
910 'GIT_EDITOR'::
911 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
912 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
913 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
914 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
915
916 'GIT_SSH'::
917 'GIT_SSH_COMMAND'::
918 If either of these environment variables is set then 'git fetch'
919 and 'git push' will use the specified command instead of 'ssh'
920 when they need to connect to a remote system.
921 The command will be given exactly two or four arguments: the
922 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the shell
923 command to execute on that remote system, optionally preceded by
924 '-p' (literally) and the 'port' from the URL when it specifies
925 something other than the default SSH port.
926 +
927 `$GIT_SSH_COMMAND` takes precedence over `$GIT_SSH`, and is interpreted
928 by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
929 `$GIT_SSH` on the other hand must be just the path to a program
930 (which can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are
931 needed).
932 +
933 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
934 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
935 for further details.
936
937 'GIT_ASKPASS'::
938 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
939 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
940 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument
941 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askPass'
942 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
943
944 'GIT_TERMINAL_PROMPT'::
945 If this environment variable is set to `0`, git will not prompt
946 on the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).
947
948 'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
949 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
950 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
951 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
952 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
953 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
954 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
955
956 'GIT_FLUSH'::
957 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
958 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
959 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
960 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
961 flushed. If this
962 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
963 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
964 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
965 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
966
967 'GIT_TRACE'::
968 Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
969 command execution and external command execution.
970 +
971 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
972 is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to
973 stderr.
974 +
975 If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2
976 and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
977 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
978 trace messages into this file descriptor.
979 +
980 Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path
981 (starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
982 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
983 into it.
984 +
985 Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
986 "false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
987
988 'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
989 Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
990 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
991 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
992 pack-related performance problems.
993 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
994
995 'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
996 Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
997 given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
998 or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet
999 starting with "PACK".
1000 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1001
1002 'GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE'::
1003 Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
1004 time of each Git command.
1005 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1006
1007 'GIT_TRACE_SETUP'::
1008 Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
1009 working directory after Git has completed its setup phase.
1010 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1011
1012 'GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW'::
1013 Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching /
1014 cloning of shallow repositories.
1015 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1016
1017 GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
1018 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1019 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
1020 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
1021 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
1022 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
1023 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
1024 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
1025
1026 GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS::
1027 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1028 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
1029
1030 GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS::
1031 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1032 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
1033
1034 GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS::
1035 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1036 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
1037
1038 'GIT_REFLOG_ACTION'::
1039 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
1040 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
1041 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
1042 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
1043 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
1044 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
1045 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
1046 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
1047
1048 `GIT_REF_PARANOIA`::
1049 If set to `1`, include broken or badly named refs when iterating
1050 over lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this
1051 does nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and
1052 abort some operations in the presence of broken refs. Git sets
1053 this variable automatically when performing destructive
1054 operations like linkgit:git-prune[1]. You should not need to set
1055 it yourself unless you want to be paranoid about making sure
1056 an operation has touched every ref (e.g., because you are
1057 cloning a repository to make a backup).
1058
1059
1060 Discussion[[Discussion]]
1061 ------------------------
1062
1063 More detail on the following is available from the
1064 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1065 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
1066
1067 A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
1068 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
1069 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
1070 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
1071 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
1072 as tags and branch heads.
1073
1074 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
1075 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
1076 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
1077 and some number of parent commits.
1078
1079 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
1080 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
1081 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
1082 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
1083
1084 All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
1085 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
1086 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
1087 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
1088 purpose.
1089
1090 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
1091 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
1092
1093 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
1094 may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
1095 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
1096 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
1097 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
1098 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
1099
1100 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
1101 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1102 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1103 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1104 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1105 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1106 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1107 content stored in the index.
1108
1109 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1110 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1111 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
1112
1113 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1114 ---------------------
1115
1116 See the references in the "description" section to get started
1117 using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
1118 for a first-time user.
1119
1120 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1121 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
1122 introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
1123
1124 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1125
1126 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1127 examples.
1128
1129 The internals are documented in the
1130 link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
1131
1132 Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1133 read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1134
1135
1136 Authors
1137 -------
1138 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
1139 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
1140 <git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary
1141 gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1142
1143 If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
1144 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1145 the authors for specific parts of the project.
1146
1147 Reporting Bugs
1148 --------------
1149
1150 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1151 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1152 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1153
1154 SEE ALSO
1155 --------
1156 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
1157 linkgit:giteveryday[7], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
1158 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
1159 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1160 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
1161
1162 GIT
1163 ---
1164 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite