GIT 1.4.4.3
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-svn.txt
1 git-svn(1)
2 ==========
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-svn - bidirectional operation between a single Subversion branch and git
7
8 SYNOPSIS
9 --------
10 'git-svn' <command> [options] [arguments]
11
12 DESCRIPTION
13 -----------
14 git-svn is a simple conduit for changesets between a single Subversion
15 branch and git. It is not to be confused with gitlink:git-svnimport[1].
16 They were designed with very different goals in mind.
17
18 git-svn is designed for an individual developer who wants a
19 bidirectional flow of changesets between a single branch in Subversion
20 and an arbitrary number of branches in git. git-svnimport is designed
21 for read-only operation on repositories that match a particular layout
22 (albeit the recommended one by SVN developers).
23
24 For importing svn, git-svnimport is potentially more powerful when
25 operating on repositories organized under the recommended
26 trunk/branch/tags structure, and should be faster, too.
27
28 git-svn mostly ignores the very limited view of branching that
29 Subversion has. This allows git-svn to be much easier to use,
30 especially on repositories that are not organized in a manner that
31 git-svnimport is designed for.
32
33 COMMANDS
34 --------
35 --
36
37 'init'::
38 Creates an empty git repository with additional metadata
39 directories for git-svn. The Subversion URL must be specified
40 as a command-line argument. Optionally, the target directory
41 to operate on can be specified as a second argument. Normally
42 this command initializes the current directory.
43
44 'fetch'::
45
46 Fetch unfetched revisions from the Subversion URL we are
47 tracking. refs/remotes/git-svn will be updated to the
48 latest revision.
49
50 Note: You should never attempt to modify the remotes/git-svn
51 branch outside of git-svn. Instead, create a branch from
52 remotes/git-svn and work on that branch. Use the 'commit'
53 command (see below) to write git commits back to
54 remotes/git-svn.
55
56 See '<<fetch-args,Additional Fetch Arguments>>' if you are interested in
57 manually joining branches on commit.
58
59 'dcommit'::
60 Commit all diffs from the current HEAD directly to the SVN
61 repository, and then rebase or reset (depending on whether or
62 not there is a diff between SVN and HEAD). It is recommended
63 that you run git-svn fetch and rebase (not pull) your commits
64 against the latest changes in the SVN repository.
65 This is advantageous over 'commit' (below) because it produces
66 cleaner, more linear history.
67
68 'log'::
69 This should make it easy to look up svn log messages when svn
70 users refer to -r/--revision numbers.
71
72 The following features from `svn log' are supported:
73
74 --revision=<n>[:<n>] - is supported, non-numeric args are not:
75 HEAD, NEXT, BASE, PREV, etc ...
76 -v/--verbose - it's not completely compatible with
77 the --verbose output in svn log, but
78 reasonably close.
79 --limit=<n> - is NOT the same as --max-count,
80 doesn't count merged/excluded commits
81 --incremental - supported
82
83 New features:
84
85 --show-commit - shows the git commit sha1, as well
86 --oneline - our version of --pretty=oneline
87
88 Any other arguments are passed directly to `git log'
89
90 'commit'::
91 You should consider using 'dcommit' instead of this command.
92 Commit specified commit or tree objects to SVN. This relies on
93 your imported fetch data being up-to-date. This makes
94 absolutely no attempts to do patching when committing to SVN, it
95 simply overwrites files with those specified in the tree or
96 commit. All merging is assumed to have taken place
97 independently of git-svn functions.
98
99 'rebuild'::
100 Not a part of daily usage, but this is a useful command if
101 you've just cloned a repository (using gitlink:git-clone[1]) that was
102 tracked with git-svn. Unfortunately, git-clone does not clone
103 git-svn metadata and the svn working tree that git-svn uses for
104 its operations. This rebuilds the metadata so git-svn can
105 resume fetch operations. A Subversion URL may be optionally
106 specified at the command-line if the directory/repository you're
107 tracking has moved or changed protocols.
108
109 'show-ignore'::
110 Recursively finds and lists the svn:ignore property on
111 directories. The output is suitable for appending to
112 the $GIT_DIR/info/exclude file.
113
114 'commit-diff'::
115 Commits the diff of two tree-ish arguments from the
116 command-line. This command is intended for interopability with
117 git-svnimport and does not rely on being inside an git-svn
118 init-ed repository. This command takes three arguments, (a) the
119 original tree to diff against, (b) the new tree result, (c) the
120 URL of the target Subversion repository. The final argument
121 (URL) may be omitted if you are working from a git-svn-aware
122 repository (that has been init-ed with git-svn).
123 The -r<revision> option is required for this.
124
125 'graft-branches'::
126 This command attempts to detect merges/branches from already
127 imported history. Techniques used currently include regexes,
128 file copies, and tree-matches). This command generates (or
129 modifies) the $GIT_DIR/info/grafts file. This command is
130 considered experimental, and inherently flawed because
131 merge-tracking in SVN is inherently flawed and inconsistent
132 across different repositories.
133
134 'multi-init'::
135 This command supports git-svnimport-like command-line syntax for
136 importing repositories that are layed out as recommended by the
137 SVN folks. This is a bit more tolerant than the git-svnimport
138 command-line syntax and doesn't require the user to figure out
139 where the repository URL ends and where the repository path
140 begins.
141
142 'multi-fetch'::
143 This runs fetch on all known SVN branches we're tracking. This
144 will NOT discover new branches (unlike git-svnimport), so
145 multi-init will need to be re-run (it's idempotent).
146
147 --
148
149 OPTIONS
150 -------
151 --
152
153 --shared::
154 --template=<template_directory>::
155 Only used with the 'init' command.
156 These are passed directly to gitlink:git-init-db[1].
157
158 -r <ARG>::
159 --revision <ARG>::
160
161 Only used with the 'fetch' command.
162
163 Takes any valid -r<argument> svn would accept and passes it
164 directly to svn. -r<ARG1>:<ARG2> ranges and "{" DATE "}" syntax
165 is also supported. This is passed directly to svn, see svn
166 documentation for more details.
167
168 This can allow you to make partial mirrors when running fetch.
169
170 -::
171 --stdin::
172
173 Only used with the 'commit' command.
174
175 Read a list of commits from stdin and commit them in reverse
176 order. Only the leading sha1 is read from each line, so
177 git-rev-list --pretty=oneline output can be used.
178
179 --rmdir::
180
181 Only used with the 'dcommit', 'commit' and 'commit-diff' commands.
182
183 Remove directories from the SVN tree if there are no files left
184 behind. SVN can version empty directories, and they are not
185 removed by default if there are no files left in them. git
186 cannot version empty directories. Enabling this flag will make
187 the commit to SVN act like git.
188
189 repo-config key: svn.rmdir
190
191 -e::
192 --edit::
193
194 Only used with the 'dcommit', 'commit' and 'commit-diff' commands.
195
196 Edit the commit message before committing to SVN. This is off by
197 default for objects that are commits, and forced on when committing
198 tree objects.
199
200 repo-config key: svn.edit
201
202 -l<num>::
203 --find-copies-harder::
204
205 Only used with the 'dcommit', 'commit' and 'commit-diff' commands.
206
207 They are both passed directly to git-diff-tree see
208 gitlink:git-diff-tree[1] for more information.
209
210 [verse]
211 repo-config key: svn.l
212 repo-config key: svn.findcopiesharder
213
214 -A<filename>::
215 --authors-file=<filename>::
216
217 Syntax is compatible with the files used by git-svnimport and
218 git-cvsimport:
219
220 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
221 loginname = Joe User <user@example.com>
222 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
223
224 If this option is specified and git-svn encounters an SVN
225 committer name that does not exist in the authors-file, git-svn
226 will abort operation. The user will then have to add the
227 appropriate entry. Re-running the previous git-svn command
228 after the authors-file is modified should continue operation.
229
230 repo-config key: svn.authorsfile
231
232 -q::
233 --quiet::
234 Make git-svn less verbose. This only affects git-svn if you
235 have the SVN::* libraries installed and are using them.
236
237 --repack[=<n>]::
238 --repack-flags=<flags>
239 These should help keep disk usage sane for large fetches
240 with many revisions.
241
242 --repack takes an optional argument for the number of revisions
243 to fetch before repacking. This defaults to repacking every
244 1000 commits fetched if no argument is specified.
245
246 --repack-flags are passed directly to gitlink:git-repack[1].
247
248 repo-config key: svn.repack
249 repo-config key: svn.repackflags
250
251 -m::
252 --merge::
253 -s<strategy>::
254 --strategy=<strategy>::
255
256 These are only used with the 'dcommit' command.
257
258 Passed directly to git-rebase when using 'dcommit' if a
259 'git-reset' cannot be used (see dcommit).
260
261 -n::
262 --dry-run::
263
264 This is only used with the 'dcommit' command.
265
266 Print out the series of git arguments that would show
267 which diffs would be committed to SVN.
268
269 --
270
271 ADVANCED OPTIONS
272 ----------------
273 --
274
275 -b<refname>::
276 --branch <refname>::
277 Used with 'fetch' or 'commit'.
278
279 This can be used to join arbitrary git branches to remotes/git-svn
280 on new commits where the tree object is equivalent.
281
282 When used with different GIT_SVN_ID values, tags and branches in
283 SVN can be tracked this way, as can some merges where the heads
284 end up having completely equivalent content. This can even be
285 used to track branches across multiple SVN _repositories_.
286
287 This option may be specified multiple times, once for each
288 branch.
289
290 repo-config key: svn.branch
291
292 -i<GIT_SVN_ID>::
293 --id <GIT_SVN_ID>::
294
295 This sets GIT_SVN_ID (instead of using the environment). See the
296 section on
297 '<<tracking-multiple-repos,Tracking Multiple Repositories or Branches>>'
298 for more information on using GIT_SVN_ID.
299
300 --follow-parent::
301 This is especially helpful when we're tracking a directory
302 that has been moved around within the repository, or if we
303 started tracking a branch and never tracked the trunk it was
304 descended from.
305
306 This relies on the SVN::* libraries to work.
307
308 repo-config key: svn.followparent
309
310 --no-metadata::
311 This gets rid of the git-svn-id: lines at the end of every commit.
312
313 With this, you lose the ability to use the rebuild command. If
314 you ever lose your .git/svn/git-svn/.rev_db file, you won't be
315 able to fetch again, either. This is fine for one-shot imports.
316
317 The 'git-svn log' command will not work on repositories using this,
318 either.
319
320 repo-config key: svn.nometadata
321
322 --
323
324 COMPATIBILITY OPTIONS
325 ---------------------
326 --
327
328 --upgrade::
329 Only used with the 'rebuild' command.
330
331 Run this if you used an old version of git-svn that used
332 "git-svn-HEAD" instead of "remotes/git-svn" as the branch
333 for tracking the remote.
334
335 --no-ignore-externals::
336 Only used with the 'fetch' and 'rebuild' command.
337
338 This command has no effect when you are using the SVN::*
339 libraries with git, svn:externals are always avoided.
340
341 By default, git-svn passes --ignore-externals to svn to avoid
342 fetching svn:external trees into git. Pass this flag to enable
343 externals tracking directly via git.
344
345 Versions of svn that do not support --ignore-externals are
346 automatically detected and this flag will be automatically
347 enabled for them.
348
349 Otherwise, do not enable this flag unless you know what you're
350 doing.
351
352 repo-config key: svn.noignoreexternals
353
354 --ignore-nodate::
355 Only used with the 'fetch' command.
356
357 By default git-svn will crash if it tries to import a revision
358 from SVN which has '(no date)' listed as the date of the revision.
359 This is repository corruption on SVN's part, plain and simple.
360 But sometimes you really need those revisions anyway.
361
362 If supplied git-svn will convert '(no date)' entries to the UNIX
363 epoch (midnight on Jan. 1, 1970). Yes, that's probably very wrong.
364 SVN was very wrong.
365
366 --
367
368 Basic Examples
369 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
370
371 Tracking and contributing to an Subversion managed-project:
372
373 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
374 # Initialize a repo (like git init-db):
375 git-svn init http://svn.foo.org/project/trunk
376 # Fetch remote revisions:
377 git-svn fetch
378 # Create your own branch to hack on:
379 git checkout -b my-branch remotes/git-svn
380 # Commit only the git commits you want to SVN:
381 git-svn commit <tree-ish> [<tree-ish_2> ...]
382 # Commit all the git commits from my-branch that don't exist in SVN:
383 git-svn commit remotes/git-svn..my-branch
384 # Something is committed to SVN, rebase the latest into your branch:
385 git-svn fetch && git rebase remotes/git-svn
386 # Append svn:ignore settings to the default git exclude file:
387 git-svn show-ignore >> .git/info/exclude
388 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
389
390 REBASE VS. PULL
391 ---------------
392
393 Originally, git-svn recommended that the remotes/git-svn branch be
394 pulled from. This is because the author favored 'git-svn commit B'
395 to commit a single head rather than the 'git-svn commit A..B' notation
396 to commit multiple commits.
397
398 If you use 'git-svn commit A..B' to commit several diffs and you do not
399 have the latest remotes/git-svn merged into my-branch, you should use
400 'git rebase' to update your work branch instead of 'git pull'. 'pull'
401 can cause non-linear history to be flattened when committing into SVN,
402 which can lead to merge commits reversing previous commits in SVN.
403
404 DESIGN PHILOSOPHY
405 -----------------
406 Merge tracking in Subversion is lacking and doing branched development
407 with Subversion is cumbersome as a result. git-svn completely forgoes
408 any automated merge/branch tracking on the Subversion side and leaves it
409 entirely up to the user on the git side. It's simply not worth it to do
410 a useful translation when the original signal is weak.
411
412 [[tracking-multiple-repos]]
413 TRACKING MULTIPLE REPOSITORIES OR BRANCHES
414 ------------------------------------------
415 This is for advanced users, most users should ignore this section.
416
417 Because git-svn does not care about relationships between different
418 branches or directories in a Subversion repository, git-svn has a simple
419 hack to allow it to track an arbitrary number of related _or_ unrelated
420 SVN repositories via one git repository. Simply set the GIT_SVN_ID
421 environment variable to a name other other than "git-svn" (the default)
422 and git-svn will ignore the contents of the $GIT_DIR/svn/git-svn directory
423 and instead do all of its work in $GIT_DIR/svn/$GIT_SVN_ID for that
424 invocation. The interface branch will be remotes/$GIT_SVN_ID, instead of
425 remotes/git-svn. Any remotes/$GIT_SVN_ID branch should never be modified
426 by the user outside of git-svn commands.
427
428 [[fetch-args]]
429 ADDITIONAL FETCH ARGUMENTS
430 --------------------------
431 This is for advanced users, most users should ignore this section.
432
433 Unfetched SVN revisions may be imported as children of existing commits
434 by specifying additional arguments to 'fetch'. Additional parents may
435 optionally be specified in the form of sha1 hex sums at the
436 command-line. Unfetched SVN revisions may also be tied to particular
437 git commits with the following syntax:
438
439 ------------------------------------------------
440 svn_revision_number=git_commit_sha1
441 ------------------------------------------------
442
443 This allows you to tie unfetched SVN revision 375 to your current HEAD:
444
445 ------------------------------------------------
446 git-svn fetch 375=$(git-rev-parse HEAD)
447 ------------------------------------------------
448
449 Advanced Example: Tracking a Reorganized Repository
450 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
451 Note: this example is now obsolete if you have SVN::* libraries
452 installed. Simply use --follow-parent when fetching.
453
454 If you're tracking a directory that has moved, or otherwise been
455 branched or tagged off of another directory in the repository and you
456 care about the full history of the project, then you can read this
457 section.
458
459 This is how Yann Dirson tracked the trunk of the ufoai directory when
460 the /trunk directory of his repository was moved to /ufoai/trunk and
461 he needed to continue tracking /ufoai/trunk where /trunk left off.
462
463 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
464 # This log message shows when the repository was reorganized:
465 r166 | ydirson | 2006-03-02 01:36:55 +0100 (Thu, 02 Mar 2006) | 1 line
466 Changed paths:
467 D /trunk
468 A /ufoai/trunk (from /trunk:165)
469
470 # First we start tracking the old revisions:
471 GIT_SVN_ID=git-oldsvn git-svn init \
472 https://svn.sourceforge.net/svnroot/ufoai/trunk
473 GIT_SVN_ID=git-oldsvn git-svn fetch -r1:165
474
475 # And now, we continue tracking the new revisions:
476 GIT_SVN_ID=git-newsvn git-svn init \
477 https://svn.sourceforge.net/svnroot/ufoai/ufoai/trunk
478 GIT_SVN_ID=git-newsvn git-svn fetch \
479 166=`git-rev-parse refs/remotes/git-oldsvn`
480 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
481
482 BUGS
483 ----
484
485 If you are not using the SVN::* Perl libraries and somebody commits a
486 conflicting changeset to SVN at a bad moment (right before you commit)
487 causing a conflict and your commit to fail, your svn working tree
488 ($GIT_DIR/git-svn/tree) may be dirtied. The easiest thing to do is
489 probably just to rm -rf $GIT_DIR/git-svn/tree and run 'rebuild'.
490
491 We ignore all SVN properties except svn:executable. Too difficult to
492 map them since we rely heavily on git write-tree being _exactly_ the
493 same on both the SVN and git working trees and I prefer not to clutter
494 working trees with metadata files.
495
496 Renamed and copied directories are not detected by git and hence not
497 tracked when committing to SVN. I do not plan on adding support for
498 this as it's quite difficult and time-consuming to get working for all
499 the possible corner cases (git doesn't do it, either). Renamed and
500 copied files are fully supported if they're similar enough for git to
501 detect them.
502
503 SEE ALSO
504 --------
505 gitlink:git-rebase[1]
506
507 Author
508 ------
509 Written by Eric Wong <normalperson@yhbt.net>.
510
511 Documentation
512 -------------
513 Written by Eric Wong <normalperson@yhbt.net>.