GIT 1.4.4.3
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-commit.txt
1 git-commit(1)
2 =============
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-commit - Record your changes
7
8 SYNOPSIS
9 --------
10 [verse]
11 'git-commit' [-a] [-s] [-v] [(-c | -C) <commit> | -F <file> | -m <msg>]
12 [--no-verify] [--amend] [-e] [--author <author>]
13 [--] [[-i | -o ]<file>...]
14
15 DESCRIPTION
16 -----------
17 Updates the index file for given paths, or all modified files if
18 '-a' is specified, and makes a commit object. The command specified
19 by either the VISUAL or EDITOR environment variables are used to edit
20 the commit log message.
21
22 Several environment variable are used during commits. They are
23 documented in gitlink:git-commit-tree[1].
24
25
26 This command can run `commit-msg`, `pre-commit`, and
27 `post-commit` hooks. See link:hooks.html[hooks] for more
28 information.
29
30 OPTIONS
31 -------
32 -a|--all::
33 Update all paths in the index file. This flag notices
34 files that have been modified and deleted, but new files
35 you have not told git about are not affected.
36
37 -c or -C <commit>::
38 Take existing commit object, and reuse the log message
39 and the authorship information (including the timestamp)
40 when creating the commit. With '-C', the editor is not
41 invoked; with '-c' the user can further edit the commit
42 message.
43
44 -F <file>::
45 Take the commit message from the given file. Use '-' to
46 read the message from the standard input.
47
48 --author <author>::
49 Override the author name used in the commit. Use
50 `A U Thor <author@example.com>` format.
51
52 -m <msg>::
53 Use the given <msg> as the commit message.
54
55 -s|--signoff::
56 Add Signed-off-by line at the end of the commit message.
57
58 -v|--verify::
59 Look for suspicious lines the commit introduces, and
60 abort committing if there is one. The definition of
61 'suspicious lines' is currently the lines that has
62 trailing whitespaces, and the lines whose indentation
63 has a SP character immediately followed by a TAB
64 character. This is the default.
65
66 -n|--no-verify::
67 The opposite of `--verify`.
68
69 -e|--edit::
70 The message taken from file with `-F`, command line with
71 `-m`, and from file with `-C` are usually used as the
72 commit log message unmodified. This option lets you
73 further edit the message taken from these sources.
74
75 --amend::
76
77 Used to amend the tip of the current branch. Prepare the tree
78 object you would want to replace the latest commit as usual
79 (this includes the usual -i/-o and explicit paths), and the
80 commit log editor is seeded with the commit message from the
81 tip of the current branch. The commit you create replaces the
82 current tip -- if it was a merge, it will have the parents of
83 the current tip as parents -- so the current top commit is
84 discarded.
85 +
86 --
87 It is a rough equivalent for:
88 ------
89 $ git reset --soft HEAD^
90 $ ... do something else to come up with the right tree ...
91 $ git commit -c ORIG_HEAD
92
93 ------
94 but can be used to amend a merge commit.
95 --
96
97 -i|--include::
98 Instead of committing only the files specified on the
99 command line, update them in the index file and then
100 commit the whole index. This is the traditional
101 behavior.
102
103 -o|--only::
104 Commit only the files specified on the command line.
105 This format cannot be used during a merge, nor when the
106 index and the latest commit does not match on the
107 specified paths to avoid confusion.
108
109 \--::
110 Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
111
112 <file>...::
113 Files to be committed. The meaning of these is
114 different between `--include` and `--only`. Without
115 either, it defaults `--only` semantics.
116
117 If you make a commit and then found a mistake immediately after
118 that, you can recover from it with gitlink:git-reset[1].
119
120
121 Discussion
122 ----------
123
124 `git commit` without _any_ parameter commits the tree structure
125 recorded by the current index file. This is a whole-tree commit
126 even the command is invoked from a subdirectory.
127
128 `git commit --include paths...` is equivalent to
129
130 git update-index --remove paths...
131 git commit
132
133 That is, update the specified paths to the index and then commit
134 the whole tree.
135
136 `git commit paths...` largely bypasses the index file and
137 commits only the changes made to the specified paths. It has
138 however several safety valves to prevent confusion.
139
140 . It refuses to run during a merge (i.e. when
141 `$GIT_DIR/MERGE_HEAD` exists), and reminds trained git users
142 that the traditional semantics now needs -i flag.
143
144 . It refuses to run if named `paths...` are different in HEAD
145 and the index (ditto about reminding). Added paths are OK.
146 This is because an earlier `git diff` (not `git diff HEAD`)
147 would have shown the differences since the last `git
148 update-index paths...` to the user, and an inexperienced user
149 may mistakenly think that the changes between the index and
150 the HEAD (i.e. earlier changes made before the last `git
151 update-index paths...` was done) are not being committed.
152
153 . It reads HEAD commit into a temporary index file, updates the
154 specified `paths...` and makes a commit. At the same time,
155 the real index file is also updated with the same `paths...`.
156
157 `git commit --all` updates the index file with _all_ changes to
158 the working tree, and makes a whole-tree commit, regardless of
159 which subdirectory the command is invoked in.
160
161
162 Author
163 ------
164 Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org> and
165 Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
166
167
168 GIT
169 ---
170 Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite