Git 2.6.5
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
26 commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27 in-depth introduction.
28
29 After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
30 page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31 individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
32 manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
33
34 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
35 can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
36
37 ifdef::stalenotes[]
38 [NOTE]
39 ============
40
41 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42 unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
43 branch of the `git.git` repository.
44 Documentation for older releases are available here:
45
46 * link:v2.6.5/git.html[documentation for release 2.6.5]
47
48 * release notes for
49 link:RelNotes/2.6.5.txt[2.6.5],
50 link:RelNotes/2.6.4.txt[2.6.4],
51 link:RelNotes/2.6.3.txt[2.6.3],
52 link:RelNotes/2.6.2.txt[2.6.2],
53 link:RelNotes/2.6.1.txt[2.6.1],
54 link:RelNotes/2.6.0.txt[2.6].
55
56 * link:v2.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.5.4]
57
58 * release notes for
59 link:RelNotes/2.5.4.txt[2.5.4],
60 link:RelNotes/2.5.3.txt[2.5.3],
61 link:RelNotes/2.5.2.txt[2.5.2],
62 link:RelNotes/2.5.1.txt[2.5.1],
63 link:RelNotes/2.5.0.txt[2.5].
64
65 * link:v2.4.10/git.html[documentation for release 2.4.10]
66
67 * release notes for
68 link:RelNotes/2.4.10.txt[2.4.10],
69 link:RelNotes/2.4.9.txt[2.4.9],
70 link:RelNotes/2.4.8.txt[2.4.8],
71 link:RelNotes/2.4.7.txt[2.4.7],
72 link:RelNotes/2.4.6.txt[2.4.6],
73 link:RelNotes/2.4.5.txt[2.4.5],
74 link:RelNotes/2.4.4.txt[2.4.4],
75 link:RelNotes/2.4.3.txt[2.4.3],
76 link:RelNotes/2.4.2.txt[2.4.2],
77 link:RelNotes/2.4.1.txt[2.4.1],
78 link:RelNotes/2.4.0.txt[2.4].
79
80 * link:v2.3.10/git.html[documentation for release 2.3.10]
81
82 * release notes for
83 link:RelNotes/2.3.10.txt[2.3.10],
84 link:RelNotes/2.3.9.txt[2.3.9],
85 link:RelNotes/2.3.8.txt[2.3.8],
86 link:RelNotes/2.3.7.txt[2.3.7],
87 link:RelNotes/2.3.6.txt[2.3.6],
88 link:RelNotes/2.3.5.txt[2.3.5],
89 link:RelNotes/2.3.4.txt[2.3.4],
90 link:RelNotes/2.3.3.txt[2.3.3],
91 link:RelNotes/2.3.2.txt[2.3.2],
92 link:RelNotes/2.3.1.txt[2.3.1],
93 link:RelNotes/2.3.0.txt[2.3].
94
95 * link:v2.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 2.2.3]
96
97 * release notes for
98 link:RelNotes/2.2.3.txt[2.2.3],
99 link:RelNotes/2.2.2.txt[2.2.2],
100 link:RelNotes/2.2.1.txt[2.2.1],
101 link:RelNotes/2.2.0.txt[2.2].
102
103 * link:v2.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.1.4]
104
105 * release notes for
106 link:RelNotes/2.1.4.txt[2.1.4],
107 link:RelNotes/2.1.3.txt[2.1.3],
108 link:RelNotes/2.1.2.txt[2.1.2],
109 link:RelNotes/2.1.1.txt[2.1.1],
110 link:RelNotes/2.1.0.txt[2.1].
111
112 * link:v2.0.5/git.html[documentation for release 2.0.5]
113
114 * release notes for
115 link:RelNotes/2.0.5.txt[2.0.5],
116 link:RelNotes/2.0.4.txt[2.0.4],
117 link:RelNotes/2.0.3.txt[2.0.3],
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119 link:RelNotes/2.0.1.txt[2.0.1],
120 link:RelNotes/2.0.0.txt[2.0.0].
121
122 * link:v1.9.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.9.5]
123
124 * release notes for
125 link:RelNotes/1.9.5.txt[1.9.5],
126 link:RelNotes/1.9.4.txt[1.9.4],
127 link:RelNotes/1.9.3.txt[1.9.3],
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129 link:RelNotes/1.9.1.txt[1.9.1],
130 link:RelNotes/1.9.0.txt[1.9.0].
131
132 * link:v1.8.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.5.6]
133
134 * release notes for
135 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.6.txt[1.8.5.6],
136 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.5.txt[1.8.5.5],
137 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.4.txt[1.8.5.4],
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140 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.1.txt[1.8.5.1],
141 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.txt[1.8.5].
142
143 * link:v1.8.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.4.5]
144
145 * release notes for
146 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.5.txt[1.8.4.5],
147 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt[1.8.4.4],
148 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.3.txt[1.8.4.3],
149 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.2.txt[1.8.4.2],
150 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt[1.8.4.1],
151 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.txt[1.8.4].
152
153 * link:v1.8.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.3.4]
154
155 * release notes for
156 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.4.txt[1.8.3.4],
157 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.3.txt[1.8.3.3],
158 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.2.txt[1.8.3.2],
159 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt[1.8.3.1],
160 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.txt[1.8.3].
161
162 * link:v1.8.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.2.3]
163
164 * release notes for
165 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.3.txt[1.8.2.3],
166 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt[1.8.2.2],
167 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt[1.8.2.1],
168 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.txt[1.8.2].
169
170 * link:v1.8.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.1.6]
171
172 * release notes for
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174 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.5.txt[1.8.1.5],
175 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.4.txt[1.8.1.4],
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178 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.1.txt[1.8.1.1],
179 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.txt[1.8.1].
180
181 * link:v1.8.0.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.0.3]
182
183 * release notes for
184 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.3.txt[1.8.0.3],
185 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.2.txt[1.8.0.2],
186 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.1.txt[1.8.0.1],
187 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.txt[1.8.0].
188
189 * link:v1.7.12.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.12.4]
190
191 * release notes for
192 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.4.txt[1.7.12.4],
193 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt[1.7.12.3],
194 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.2.txt[1.7.12.2],
195 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.1.txt[1.7.12.1],
196 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.txt[1.7.12].
197
198 * link:v1.7.11.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.7]
199
200 * release notes for
201 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.7.txt[1.7.11.7],
202 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.6.txt[1.7.11.6],
203 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.5.txt[1.7.11.5],
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207 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.1.txt[1.7.11.1],
208 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.txt[1.7.11].
209
210 * link:v1.7.10.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.10.5]
211
212 * release notes for
213 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.5.txt[1.7.10.5],
214 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt[1.7.10.4],
215 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.3.txt[1.7.10.3],
216 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.2.txt[1.7.10.2],
217 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt[1.7.10.1],
218 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.txt[1.7.10].
219
220 * link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
221
222 * release notes for
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230 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
231
232 * link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
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234 * release notes for
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240 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.1.txt[1.7.8.1],
241 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
242
243 * link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
244
245 * release notes for
246 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.7.txt[1.7.7.7],
247 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.6.txt[1.7.7.6],
248 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.5.txt[1.7.7.5],
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253 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.txt[1.7.7].
254
255 * link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
256
257 * release notes for
258 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.6.txt[1.7.6.6],
259 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.5.txt[1.7.6.5],
260 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.4.txt[1.7.6.4],
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264 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
265
266 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
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268 * release notes for
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274
275 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
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277 * release notes for
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284
285 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
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287 * release notes for
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289 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.4.txt[1.7.3.4],
290 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.3.txt[1.7.3.3],
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294
295 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
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297 * release notes for
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304
305 * link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
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307 * release notes for
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309 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.3.txt[1.7.1.3],
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313
314 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
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328 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
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330 * release notes for
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335
336 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
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350 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
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352 * release notes for
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360 * link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
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362 * release notes for
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377 * link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
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385 * link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
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396 * link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
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407 * link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
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418 * link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
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429
430 * link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
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441 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
442
443 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
444
445 * release notes for
446 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
447 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
448 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
449 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
450 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
451 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
452
453 * link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
454
455 * release notes for
456 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
457 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
458 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
459 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
460 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
461 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
462 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
463
464 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
465
466 * release notes for
467 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
468 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
469 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
470 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
471 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
472 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
473 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
474
475 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
476 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
477 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
478 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
479
480 ============
481
482 endif::stalenotes[]
483
484 OPTIONS
485 -------
486 --version::
487 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
488
489 --help::
490 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
491 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
492 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
493 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
494 +
495 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
496 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
497 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
498 help ...`.
499
500 -C <path>::
501 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
502 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
503 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
504 <path>`.
505 +
506 This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
507 `--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
508 made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
509 example the following invocations are equivalent:
510
511 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
512 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
513
514 -c <name>=<value>::
515 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
516 given will override values from configuration files.
517 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
518 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
519 +
520 Note that omitting the `=` in `git -c foo.bar ...` is allowed and sets
521 `foo.bar` to the boolean true value (just like `[foo]bar` would in a
522 config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like `git -c
523 foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string.
524
525 --exec-path[=<path>]::
526 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
527 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
528 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
529 the current setting and then exit.
530
531 --html-path::
532 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
533 documentation is installed and exit.
534
535 --man-path::
536 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
537 this version of Git and exit.
538
539 --info-path::
540 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
541 version of Git are installed and exit.
542
543 -p::
544 --paginate::
545 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
546 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
547 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
548 below).
549
550 --no-pager::
551 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
552
553 --git-dir=<path>::
554 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
555 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
556 path or relative path to current working directory.
557
558 --work-tree=<path>::
559 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
560 or a path relative to the current working directory.
561 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
562 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
563 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
564 more detailed discussion).
565
566 --namespace=<path>::
567 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
568 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
569 variable.
570
571 --bare::
572 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
573 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
574 directory.
575
576 --no-replace-objects::
577 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
578 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
579
580 --literal-pathspecs::
581 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
582 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
583 variable to `1`.
584
585 --glob-pathspecs::
586 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
587 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
588 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
589 magic ":(literal)"
590
591 --noglob-pathspecs::
592 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
593 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
594 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
595 magic ":(glob)"
596
597 --icase-pathspecs::
598 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
599 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
600
601 GIT COMMANDS
602 ------------
603
604 We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
605 ("plumbing") commands.
606
607 High-level commands (porcelain)
608 -------------------------------
609
610 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
611 ancillary user utilities.
612
613 Main porcelain commands
614 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
615
616 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
617
618 Ancillary Commands
619 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
620 Manipulators:
621
622 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
623
624 Interrogators:
625
626 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
627
628
629 Interacting with Others
630 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
631
632 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
633 people via patch over e-mail.
634
635 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
636
637
638 Low-level commands (plumbing)
639 -----------------------------
640
641 Although Git includes its
642 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
643 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
644 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
645 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
646
647 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
648 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
649 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
650 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
651 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
652 end user experience.
653
654 The following description divides
655 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
656 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
657 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
658 repositories.
659
660
661 Manipulation commands
662 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
663
664 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
665
666
667 Interrogation commands
668 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
669
670 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
671
672 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
673 the working tree.
674
675
676 Synching repositories
677 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
678
679 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
680
681 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
682 typically do not use them directly.
683
684 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
685
686
687 Internal helper commands
688 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
689
690 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
691 users typically do not use them directly.
692
693 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
694
695
696 Configuration Mechanism
697 -----------------------
698
699 Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
700 repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
701 like this:
702
703 ------------
704 #
705 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
706 #
707
708 ; core variables
709 [core]
710 ; Don't trust file modes
711 filemode = false
712
713 ; user identity
714 [user]
715 name = "Junio C Hamano"
716 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
717
718 ------------
719
720 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
721 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
722 list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
723
724
725 Identifier Terminology
726 ----------------------
727 <object>::
728 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
729
730 <blob>::
731 Indicates a blob object name.
732
733 <tree>::
734 Indicates a tree object name.
735
736 <commit>::
737 Indicates a commit object name.
738
739 <tree-ish>::
740 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
741 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
742 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
743 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
744
745 <commit-ish>::
746 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
747 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
748 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
749 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
750
751 <type>::
752 Indicates that an object type is required.
753 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
754
755 <file>::
756 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
757 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
758
759 Symbolic Identifiers
760 --------------------
761 Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
762 symbolic notation:
763
764 HEAD::
765 indicates the head of the current branch.
766
767 <tag>::
768 a valid tag 'name'
769 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
770
771 <head>::
772 a valid head 'name'
773 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
774
775 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
776 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
777
778
779 File/Directory Structure
780 ------------------------
781
782 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
783
784 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
785
786 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
787 `$GIT_DIR`.
788
789
790 Terminology
791 -----------
792 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
793
794
795 Environment Variables
796 ---------------------
797 Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
798
799 The Git Repository
800 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
801 These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
802 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
803 Git so take care if using a foreign front-end.
804
805 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
806 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
807 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
808 is used.
809
810 'GIT_INDEX_VERSION'::
811 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
812 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
813 files. By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See
814 linkgit:git-update-index[1] for more information.
815
816 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
817 If the object storage directory is specified via this
818 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
819 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
820 directory is used.
821
822 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
823 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
824 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
825 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
826 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
827 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
828
829 'GIT_DIR'::
830 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
831 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
832 for the base of the repository.
833 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
834
835 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
836 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
837 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command-line
838 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
839
840 'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
841 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
842 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
843
844 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
845 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
846 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
847 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
848 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
849 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
850 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
851 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
852 might be present in order to compare them with the current
853 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
854 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
855 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
856 e.g.,
857 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
858
859 'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
860 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
861 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
862 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
863 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
864 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
865 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
866 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
867 command line.
868
869 'GIT_COMMON_DIR'::
870 If this variable is set to a path, non-worktree files that are
871 normally in $GIT_DIR will be taken from this path
872 instead. Worktree-specific files such as HEAD or index are
873 taken from $GIT_DIR. See linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] and
874 linkgit:git-worktree[1] for
875 details. This variable has lower precedence than other path
876 variables such as GIT_INDEX_FILE, GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY...
877
878 Git Commits
879 ~~~~~~~~~~~
880 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
881 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
882 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
883 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
884 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
885 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
886 'EMAIL'::
887 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
888
889 Git Diffs
890 ~~~~~~~~~
891 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
892 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
893 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
894 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
895 value passed on the Git diff command line.
896
897 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
898 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
899 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
900 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
901 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
902
903 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
904 +
905 where:
906
907 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
908 contents of <old|new>,
909 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
910 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
911 +
912 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
913 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
914 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
915 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
916 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
917 +
918 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
919 parameter, <path>.
920 +
921 For each path 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called, two environment variables,
922 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER' and 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL' are set.
923
924 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER'::
925 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
926
927 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL'::
928 The total number of paths.
929
930 other
931 ~~~~~
932 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
933 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
934 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
935 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
936
937 'GIT_PAGER'::
938 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
939 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
940 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
941 linkgit:git-config[1].
942
943 'GIT_EDITOR'::
944 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
945 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
946 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
947 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
948
949 'GIT_SSH'::
950 'GIT_SSH_COMMAND'::
951 If either of these environment variables is set then 'git fetch'
952 and 'git push' will use the specified command instead of 'ssh'
953 when they need to connect to a remote system.
954 The command will be given exactly two or four arguments: the
955 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the shell
956 command to execute on that remote system, optionally preceded by
957 '-p' (literally) and the 'port' from the URL when it specifies
958 something other than the default SSH port.
959 +
960 `$GIT_SSH_COMMAND` takes precedence over `$GIT_SSH`, and is interpreted
961 by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
962 `$GIT_SSH` on the other hand must be just the path to a program
963 (which can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are
964 needed).
965 +
966 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
967 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
968 for further details.
969
970 'GIT_ASKPASS'::
971 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
972 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
973 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument
974 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askPass'
975 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
976
977 'GIT_TERMINAL_PROMPT'::
978 If this environment variable is set to `0`, git will not prompt
979 on the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).
980
981 'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
982 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
983 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
984 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
985 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
986 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
987 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
988
989 'GIT_FLUSH'::
990 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
991 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
992 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
993 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
994 flushed. If this
995 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
996 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
997 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
998 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
999
1000 'GIT_TRACE'::
1001 Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
1002 command execution and external command execution.
1003 +
1004 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
1005 is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to
1006 stderr.
1007 +
1008 If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2
1009 and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
1010 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
1011 trace messages into this file descriptor.
1012 +
1013 Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path
1014 (starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
1015 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
1016 into it.
1017 +
1018 Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
1019 "false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
1020
1021 'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
1022 Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
1023 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
1024 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
1025 pack-related performance problems.
1026 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1027
1028 'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
1029 Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
1030 given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
1031 or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet
1032 starting with "PACK" (but see 'GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE' below).
1033 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1034
1035 'GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE'::
1036 Enables tracing of packfiles sent or received by a
1037 given program. Unlike other trace output, this trace is
1038 verbatim: no headers, and no quoting of binary data. You almost
1039 certainly want to direct into a file (e.g.,
1040 `GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE=/tmp/my.pack`) rather than displaying it on
1041 the terminal or mixing it with other trace output.
1042 +
1043 Note that this is currently only implemented for the client side
1044 of clones and fetches.
1045
1046 'GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE'::
1047 Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
1048 time of each Git command.
1049 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1050
1051 'GIT_TRACE_SETUP'::
1052 Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
1053 working directory after Git has completed its setup phase.
1054 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1055
1056 'GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW'::
1057 Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching /
1058 cloning of shallow repositories.
1059 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1060
1061 'GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS'::
1062 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1063 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
1064 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
1065 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
1066 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
1067 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
1068 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
1069
1070 'GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS'::
1071 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1072 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
1073
1074 'GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS'::
1075 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1076 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
1077
1078 'GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS'::
1079 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1080 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
1081
1082 'GIT_REFLOG_ACTION'::
1083 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
1084 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
1085 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
1086 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
1087 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
1088 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
1089 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
1090 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
1091
1092 'GIT_REF_PARANOIA'::
1093 If set to `1`, include broken or badly named refs when iterating
1094 over lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this
1095 does nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and
1096 abort some operations in the presence of broken refs. Git sets
1097 this variable automatically when performing destructive
1098 operations like linkgit:git-prune[1]. You should not need to set
1099 it yourself unless you want to be paranoid about making sure
1100 an operation has touched every ref (e.g., because you are
1101 cloning a repository to make a backup).
1102
1103 'GIT_ALLOW_PROTOCOL'::
1104 If set, provide a colon-separated list of protocols which are
1105 allowed to be used with fetch/push/clone. This is useful to
1106 restrict recursive submodule initialization from an untrusted
1107 repository. Any protocol not mentioned will be disallowed (i.e.,
1108 this is a whitelist, not a blacklist). If the variable is not
1109 set at all, all protocols are enabled. The protocol names
1110 currently used by git are:
1111
1112 - `file`: any local file-based path (including `file://` URLs,
1113 or local paths)
1114
1115 - `git`: the anonymous git protocol over a direct TCP
1116 connection (or proxy, if configured)
1117
1118 - `ssh`: git over ssh (including `host:path` syntax,
1119 `git+ssh://`, etc).
1120
1121 - `rsync`: git over rsync
1122
1123 - `http`: git over http, both "smart http" and "dumb http".
1124 Note that this does _not_ include `https`; if you want both,
1125 you should specify both as `http:https`.
1126
1127 - any external helpers are named by their protocol (e.g., use
1128 `hg` to allow the `git-remote-hg` helper)
1129
1130
1131 Discussion[[Discussion]]
1132 ------------------------
1133
1134 More detail on the following is available from the
1135 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1136 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
1137
1138 A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
1139 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
1140 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
1141 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
1142 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
1143 as tags and branch heads.
1144
1145 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
1146 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
1147 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
1148 and some number of parent commits.
1149
1150 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
1151 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
1152 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
1153 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
1154
1155 All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
1156 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
1157 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
1158 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
1159 purpose.
1160
1161 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
1162 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
1163
1164 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
1165 may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
1166 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
1167 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
1168 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
1169 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
1170
1171 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
1172 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1173 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1174 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1175 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1176 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1177 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1178 content stored in the index.
1179
1180 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1181 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1182 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
1183
1184 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1185 ---------------------
1186
1187 See the references in the "description" section to get started
1188 using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
1189 for a first-time user.
1190
1191 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1192 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
1193 introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
1194
1195 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1196
1197 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1198 examples.
1199
1200 The internals are documented in the
1201 link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
1202
1203 Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1204 read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1205
1206
1207 Authors
1208 -------
1209 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
1210 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
1211 <git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary
1212 gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1213
1214 If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
1215 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1216 the authors for specific parts of the project.
1217
1218 Reporting Bugs
1219 --------------
1220
1221 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1222 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1223 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1224
1225 SEE ALSO
1226 --------
1227 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
1228 linkgit:giteveryday[7], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
1229 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
1230 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1231 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
1232
1233 GIT
1234 ---
1235 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite