Git 1.7.9
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
13 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
14 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
15 [-c <name>=<value>]
16 [--help] <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of commands, and
26 "man git-commandname" for documentation of each command. CVS users may
27 also want to read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7]. See
28 the link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] for a more in-depth
29 introduction.
30
31 The '<command>' is either a name of a Git command (see below) or an alias
32 as defined in the configuration file (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
33
34 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest git
35 documentation can be viewed at
36 `http://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/`.
37
38 ifdef::stalenotes[]
39 [NOTE]
40 ============
41
42 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
43 unreleased) version of git, that is available from 'master'
44 branch of the `git.git` repository.
45 Documentation for older releases are available here:
46
47 * link:v1.7.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9]
48
49 * release notes for
50 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
51
52 * link:v1.7.8.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.4]
53
54 * release notes for
55 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.4.txt[1.7.8.4],
56 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.3.txt[1.7.8.3],
57 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt[1.7.8.2],
58 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.1.txt[1.7.8.1],
59 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
60
61 * link:v1.7.7.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.6]
62
63 * release notes for
64 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.6.txt[1.7.7.6],
65 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.5.txt[1.7.7.5],
66 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.4.txt[1.7.7.4],
67 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.3.txt[1.7.7.3],
68 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.2.txt[1.7.7.2],
69 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.1.txt[1.7.7.1],
70 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.txt[1.7.7].
71
72 * link:v1.7.6.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.5]
73
74 * release notes for
75 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.5.txt[1.7.6.5],
76 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.4.txt[1.7.6.4],
77 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.3.txt[1.7.6.3],
78 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.2.txt[1.7.6.2],
79 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.1.txt[1.7.6.1],
80 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
81
82 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
83
84 * release notes for
85 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt[1.7.5.4],
86 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt[1.7.5.3],
87 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.2.txt[1.7.5.2],
88 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.1.txt[1.7.5.1],
89 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.txt[1.7.5].
90
91 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
92
93 * release notes for
94 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.5.txt[1.7.4.5],
95 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.4.txt[1.7.4.4],
96 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.3.txt[1.7.4.3],
97 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.2.txt[1.7.4.2],
98 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.1.txt[1.7.4.1],
99 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.txt[1.7.4].
100
101 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
102
103 * release notes for
104 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.5.txt[1.7.3.5],
105 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.4.txt[1.7.3.4],
106 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.3.txt[1.7.3.3],
107 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.2.txt[1.7.3.2],
108 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.1.txt[1.7.3.1],
109 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.txt[1.7.3].
110
111 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
112
113 * release notes for
114 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.5.txt[1.7.2.5],
115 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.4.txt[1.7.2.4],
116 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.3.txt[1.7.2.3],
117 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.2.txt[1.7.2.2],
118 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.1.txt[1.7.2.1],
119 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.txt[1.7.2].
120
121 * link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
122
123 * release notes for
124 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.4.txt[1.7.1.4],
125 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.3.txt[1.7.1.3],
126 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.2.txt[1.7.1.2],
127 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.1.txt[1.7.1.1],
128 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.txt[1.7.1].
129
130 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
131
132 * release notes for
133 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.9.txt[1.7.0.9],
134 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.8.txt[1.7.0.8],
135 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.7.txt[1.7.0.7],
136 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.6.txt[1.7.0.6],
137 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.5.txt[1.7.0.5],
138 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.4.txt[1.7.0.4],
139 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.3.txt[1.7.0.3],
140 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt[1.7.0.2],
141 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.1.txt[1.7.0.1],
142 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.txt[1.7.0].
143
144 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
145
146 * release notes for
147 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt[1.6.6.3],
148 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
149 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
150 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
151
152 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
153
154 * release notes for
155 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.9.txt[1.6.5.9],
156 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.8.txt[1.6.5.8],
157 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.7.txt[1.6.5.7],
158 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.6.txt[1.6.5.6],
159 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.5.txt[1.6.5.5],
160 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt[1.6.5.4],
161 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.3.txt[1.6.5.3],
162 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.2.txt[1.6.5.2],
163 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.1.txt[1.6.5.1],
164 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
165
166 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
167
168 * release notes for
169 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.5.txt[1.6.4.5],
170 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
171 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
172 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.2.txt[1.6.4.2],
173 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
174 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
175
176 * link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
177
178 * release notes for
179 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
180 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
181 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
182 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
183 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
184
185 * release notes for
186 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
187 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
188 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
189 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
190 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
191 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
192
193 * link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
194
195 * release notes for
196 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
197 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
198 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
199 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
200
201 * link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
202
203 * release notes for
204 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
205 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
206 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
207 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
208 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
209 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
210 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
211
212 * link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
213
214 * release notes for
215 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
216 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
217 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
218 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
219 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
220 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
221 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
222
223 * link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
224
225 * release notes for
226 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
227 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
228 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
229 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
230 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
231 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
232 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
233
234 * link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
235
236 * release notes for
237 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
238 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
239 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
240 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
241 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
242 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
243 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
244 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
245
246 * link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
247
248 * release notes for
249 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
250 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
251 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
252 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
253 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
254 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
255 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
256 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
257 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
258
259 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
260
261 * release notes for
262 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
263 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
264 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
265 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
266 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
267 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
268
269 * link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
270
271 * release notes for
272 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
273 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
274 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
275 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
276 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
277 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
278 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
279
280 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
281
282 * release notes for
283 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
284 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
285 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
286 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
287 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
288 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
289 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
290
291 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
292 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
293 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
294 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
295
296 ============
297
298 endif::stalenotes[]
299
300 OPTIONS
301 -------
302 --version::
303 Prints the git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
304
305 --help::
306 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
307 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
308 available commands are printed. If a git command is named this
309 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
310 +
311 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
312 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
313 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
314 help ...`.
315
316 -c <name>=<value>::
317 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
318 given will override values from configuration files.
319 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
320 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
321
322 --exec-path[=<path>]::
323 Path to wherever your core git programs are installed.
324 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
325 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
326 the current setting and then exit.
327
328 --html-path::
329 Print the path, without trailing slash, where git's HTML
330 documentation is installed and exit.
331
332 --man-path::
333 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
334 this version of git and exit.
335
336 --info-path::
337 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
338 version of git are installed and exit.
339
340 -p::
341 --paginate::
342 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
343 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
344 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
345 below).
346
347 --no-pager::
348 Do not pipe git output into a pager.
349
350 --git-dir=<path>::
351 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
352 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
353 path or relative path to current working directory.
354
355 --work-tree=<path>::
356 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
357 or a path relative to the current working directory.
358 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
359 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
360 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
361 more detailed discussion).
362
363 --namespace=<path>::
364 Set the git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
365 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
366 variable.
367
368 --bare::
369 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
370 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
371 directory.
372
373 --no-replace-objects::
374 Do not use replacement refs to replace git objects. See
375 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
376
377
378 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
379 ---------------------
380
381 See the references above to get started using git. The following is
382 probably more detail than necessary for a first-time user.
383
384 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
385 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
386 introductions to the underlying git architecture.
387
388 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
389
390 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
391 examples.
392
393 The internals are documented in the
394 link:technical/api-index.html[GIT API documentation].
395
396 GIT COMMANDS
397 ------------
398
399 We divide git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
400 ("plumbing") commands.
401
402 High-level commands (porcelain)
403 -------------------------------
404
405 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
406 ancillary user utilities.
407
408 Main porcelain commands
409 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
410
411 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
412
413 Ancillary Commands
414 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
415 Manipulators:
416
417 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
418
419 Interrogators:
420
421 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
422
423
424 Interacting with Others
425 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
426
427 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
428 people via patch over e-mail.
429
430 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
431
432
433 Low-level commands (plumbing)
434 -----------------------------
435
436 Although git includes its
437 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
438 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
439 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
440 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
441
442 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
443 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
444 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
445 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
446 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
447 end user experience.
448
449 The following description divides
450 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
451 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
452 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
453 repositories.
454
455
456 Manipulation commands
457 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
458
459 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
460
461
462 Interrogation commands
463 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
464
465 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
466
467 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
468 the working tree.
469
470
471 Synching repositories
472 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
473
474 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
475
476 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
477 typically do not use them directly.
478
479 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
480
481
482 Internal helper commands
483 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
484
485 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
486 users typically do not use them directly.
487
488 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
489
490
491 Configuration Mechanism
492 -----------------------
493
494 Starting from 0.99.9 (actually mid 0.99.8.GIT), `.git/config` file
495 is used to hold per-repository configuration options. It is a
496 simple text file modeled after `.ini` format familiar to some
497 people. Here is an example:
498
499 ------------
500 #
501 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
502 #
503
504 ; core variables
505 [core]
506 ; Don't trust file modes
507 filemode = false
508
509 ; user identity
510 [user]
511 name = "Junio C Hamano"
512 email = "junkio@twinsun.com"
513
514 ------------
515
516 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
517 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
518 list.
519
520
521 Identifier Terminology
522 ----------------------
523 <object>::
524 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
525
526 <blob>::
527 Indicates a blob object name.
528
529 <tree>::
530 Indicates a tree object name.
531
532 <commit>::
533 Indicates a commit object name.
534
535 <tree-ish>::
536 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
537 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
538 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
539 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
540
541 <commit-ish>::
542 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
543 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
544 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
545 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
546
547 <type>::
548 Indicates that an object type is required.
549 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
550
551 <file>::
552 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
553 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
554
555 Symbolic Identifiers
556 --------------------
557 Any git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
558 symbolic notation:
559
560 HEAD::
561 indicates the head of the current branch.
562
563 <tag>::
564 a valid tag 'name'
565 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
566
567 <head>::
568 a valid head 'name'
569 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
570
571 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
572 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
573
574
575 File/Directory Structure
576 ------------------------
577
578 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
579
580 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
581
582 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
583 `$GIT_DIR`.
584
585
586 Terminology
587 -----------
588 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
589
590
591 Environment Variables
592 ---------------------
593 Various git commands use the following environment variables:
594
595 The git Repository
596 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
597 These environment variables apply to 'all' core git commands. Nb: it
598 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
599 git so take care if using Cogito etc.
600
601 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
602 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
603 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
604 is used.
605
606 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
607 If the object storage directory is specified via this
608 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
609 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
610 directory is used.
611
612 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
613 Due to the immutable nature of git objects, old objects can be
614 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
615 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
616 of git object directories which can be used to search for git
617 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
618
619 'GIT_DIR'::
620 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
621 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
622 for the base of the repository.
623
624 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
625 Set the path to the working tree. The value will not be
626 used in combination with repositories found automatically in
627 a .git directory (i.e. $GIT_DIR is not set).
628 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command line
629 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
630
631 'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
632 Set the git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
633 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
634
635 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
636 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths.
637 If set, it is a list of directories that git should not chdir
638 up into while looking for a repository directory.
639 It will not exclude the current working directory or
640 a GIT_DIR set on the command line or in the environment.
641 (Useful for excluding slow-loading network directories.)
642
643 'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
644 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
645 directory, git tries to find such a directory in the parent
646 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
647 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
648 can be set to true to tell git not to stop at filesystem
649 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
650 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
651 command line.
652
653 git Commits
654 ~~~~~~~~~~~
655 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
656 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
657 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
658 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
659 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
660 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
661 'EMAIL'::
662 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
663
664 git Diffs
665 ~~~~~~~~~
666 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
667 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
668 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
669 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
670 value passed on the git diff command line.
671
672 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
673 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
674 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
675 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
676 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
677
678 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
679 +
680 where:
681
682 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
683 contents of <old|new>,
684 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA1 hashes,
685 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
686 +
687 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
688 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
689 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
690 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
691 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
692 +
693 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
694 parameter, <path>.
695
696 other
697 ~~~~~
698 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
699 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
700 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
701 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
702
703 'GIT_PAGER'::
704 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
705 to an empty string or to the value "cat", git will not launch
706 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
707 linkgit:git-config[1].
708
709 'GIT_SSH'::
710 If this environment variable is set then 'git fetch'
711 and 'git push' will use this command instead
712 of 'ssh' when they need to connect to a remote system.
713 The '$GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two arguments:
714 the 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the
715 shell command to execute on that remote system.
716 +
717 To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH
718 you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script,
719 then set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.
720 +
721 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
722 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
723 for further details.
724
725 'GIT_ASKPASS'::
726 If this environment variable is set, then git commands which need to
727 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
728 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command line argument
729 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askpass'
730 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
731
732 'GIT_FLUSH'::
733 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
734 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
735 and 'git whatchanged' will force a flush of the output stream
736 after each commit-oriented record have been flushed. If this
737 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
738 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
739 not set, git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
740 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
741
742 'GIT_TRACE'::
743 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
744 is case insensitive), git will print `trace:` messages on
745 stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
746 execution and external command execution.
747 If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1
748 and lower than 10 (strictly) then git will interpret this
749 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
750 trace messages into this file descriptor.
751 Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path
752 (starting with a '/' character), git will interpret this
753 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
754 into it.
755
756 Discussion[[Discussion]]
757 ------------------------
758
759 More detail on the following is available from the
760 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
761 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
762
763 A git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
764 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
765 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
766 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
767 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
768 as tags and branch heads.
769
770 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
771 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
772 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
773 and some number of parent commits.
774
775 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
776 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
777 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
778 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
779
780 All objects are named by the SHA1 hash of their contents, normally
781 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
782 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
783 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
784 purpose.
785
786 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
787 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
788
789 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
790 may contain the SHA1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
791 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA1 name of the most
792 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA1 names of
793 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
794 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
795
796 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
797 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
798 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
799 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
800 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
801 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
802 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
803 content stored in the index.
804
805 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
806 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
807 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
808
809 Authors
810 -------
811 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
812 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the git mailing list
813 <git@vger.kernel.org>. For a more complete list of contributors, see
814 http://git-scm.com/about. If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
815 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
816 the authors for specific parts of the project.
817
818 Reporting Bugs
819 --------------
820
821 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
822 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
823 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
824
825 SEE ALSO
826 --------
827 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
828 link:everyday.html[Everyday Git], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
829 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
830 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
831 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
832
833 GIT
834 ---
835 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite