Merge branch 'ks/pack-objects-bitmap'
[git/git.git] / Documentation / rev-list-options.txt
1 Commit Limiting
2 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
3
4 Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the
5 special notations explained in the description, additional commit
6 limiting may be applied.
7
8 Using more options generally further limits the output (e.g.
9 `--since=<date1>` limits to commits newer than `<date1>`, and using it
10 with `--grep=<pattern>` further limits to commits whose log message
11 has a line that matches `<pattern>`), unless otherwise noted.
12
13 Note that these are applied before commit
14 ordering and formatting options, such as `--reverse`.
15
16 --
17
18 -<number>::
19 -n <number>::
20 --max-count=<number>::
21 Limit the number of commits to output.
22
23 --skip=<number>::
24 Skip 'number' commits before starting to show the commit output.
25
26 --since=<date>::
27 --after=<date>::
28 Show commits more recent than a specific date.
29
30 --until=<date>::
31 --before=<date>::
32 Show commits older than a specific date.
33
34 ifdef::git-rev-list[]
35 --max-age=<timestamp>::
36 --min-age=<timestamp>::
37 Limit the commits output to specified time range.
38 endif::git-rev-list[]
39
40 --author=<pattern>::
41 --committer=<pattern>::
42 Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer
43 header lines that match the specified pattern (regular
44 expression). With more than one `--author=<pattern>`,
45 commits whose author matches any of the given patterns are
46 chosen (similarly for multiple `--committer=<pattern>`).
47
48 --grep-reflog=<pattern>::
49 Limit the commits output to ones with reflog entries that
50 match the specified pattern (regular expression). With
51 more than one `--grep-reflog`, commits whose reflog message
52 matches any of the given patterns are chosen. It is an
53 error to use this option unless `--walk-reflogs` is in use.
54
55 --grep=<pattern>::
56 Limit the commits output to ones with log message that
57 matches the specified pattern (regular expression). With
58 more than one `--grep=<pattern>`, commits whose message
59 matches any of the given patterns are chosen (but see
60 `--all-match`).
61 ifndef::git-rev-list[]
62 +
63 When `--show-notes` is in effect, the message from the notes is
64 matched as if it were part of the log message.
65 endif::git-rev-list[]
66
67 --all-match::
68 Limit the commits output to ones that match all given `--grep`,
69 instead of ones that match at least one.
70
71 --invert-grep::
72 Limit the commits output to ones with log message that do not
73 match the pattern specified with `--grep=<pattern>`.
74
75 -i::
76 --regexp-ignore-case::
77 Match the regular expression limiting patterns without regard to letter
78 case.
79
80 --basic-regexp::
81 Consider the limiting patterns to be basic regular expressions;
82 this is the default.
83
84 -E::
85 --extended-regexp::
86 Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular expressions
87 instead of the default basic regular expressions.
88
89 -F::
90 --fixed-strings::
91 Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don't interpret
92 pattern as a regular expression).
93
94 --perl-regexp::
95 Consider the limiting patterns to be Perl-compatible regular expressions.
96 Requires libpcre to be compiled in.
97
98 --remove-empty::
99 Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.
100
101 --merges::
102 Print only merge commits. This is exactly the same as `--min-parents=2`.
103
104 --no-merges::
105 Do not print commits with more than one parent. This is
106 exactly the same as `--max-parents=1`.
107
108 --min-parents=<number>::
109 --max-parents=<number>::
110 --no-min-parents::
111 --no-max-parents::
112 Show only commits which have at least (or at most) that many parent
113 commits. In particular, `--max-parents=1` is the same as `--no-merges`,
114 `--min-parents=2` is the same as `--merges`. `--max-parents=0`
115 gives all root commits and `--min-parents=3` all octopus merges.
116 +
117 `--no-min-parents` and `--no-max-parents` reset these limits (to no limit)
118 again. Equivalent forms are `--min-parents=0` (any commit has 0 or more
119 parents) and `--max-parents=-1` (negative numbers denote no upper limit).
120
121 --first-parent::
122 Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge
123 commit. This option can give a better overview when
124 viewing the evolution of a particular topic branch,
125 because merges into a topic branch tend to be only about
126 adjusting to updated upstream from time to time, and
127 this option allows you to ignore the individual commits
128 brought in to your history by such a merge. Cannot be
129 combined with --bisect.
130
131 --not::
132 Reverses the meaning of the '{caret}' prefix (or lack thereof)
133 for all following revision specifiers, up to the next `--not`.
134
135 --all::
136 Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/` are listed on the
137 command line as '<commit>'.
138
139 --branches[=<pattern>]::
140 Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/heads` are listed
141 on the command line as '<commit>'. If '<pattern>' is given, limit
142 branches to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks '?',
143 '{asterisk}', or '[', '/{asterisk}' at the end is implied.
144
145 --tags[=<pattern>]::
146 Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/tags` are listed
147 on the command line as '<commit>'. If '<pattern>' is given, limit
148 tags to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks '?', '{asterisk}',
149 or '[', '/{asterisk}' at the end is implied.
150
151 --remotes[=<pattern>]::
152 Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/remotes` are listed
153 on the command line as '<commit>'. If '<pattern>' is given, limit
154 remote-tracking branches to ones matching given shell glob.
155 If pattern lacks '?', '{asterisk}', or '[', '/{asterisk}' at the end is implied.
156
157 --glob=<glob-pattern>::
158 Pretend as if all the refs matching shell glob '<glob-pattern>'
159 are listed on the command line as '<commit>'. Leading 'refs/',
160 is automatically prepended if missing. If pattern lacks '?', '{asterisk}',
161 or '[', '/{asterisk}' at the end is implied.
162
163 --exclude=<glob-pattern>::
164
165 Do not include refs matching '<glob-pattern>' that the next `--all`,
166 `--branches`, `--tags`, `--remotes`, or `--glob` would otherwise
167 consider. Repetitions of this option accumulate exclusion patterns
168 up to the next `--all`, `--branches`, `--tags`, `--remotes`, or
169 `--glob` option (other options or arguments do not clear
170 accumulated patterns).
171 +
172 The patterns given should not begin with `refs/heads`, `refs/tags`, or
173 `refs/remotes` when applied to `--branches`, `--tags`, or `--remotes`,
174 respectively, and they must begin with `refs/` when applied to `--glob`
175 or `--all`. If a trailing '/{asterisk}' is intended, it must be given
176 explicitly.
177
178 --reflog::
179 Pretend as if all objects mentioned by reflogs are listed on the
180 command line as `<commit>`.
181
182 --ignore-missing::
183 Upon seeing an invalid object name in the input, pretend as if
184 the bad input was not given.
185
186 ifndef::git-rev-list[]
187 --bisect::
188 Pretend as if the bad bisection ref `refs/bisect/bad`
189 was listed and as if it was followed by `--not` and the good
190 bisection refs `refs/bisect/good-*` on the command
191 line. Cannot be combined with --first-parent.
192 endif::git-rev-list[]
193
194 --stdin::
195 In addition to the '<commit>' listed on the command
196 line, read them from the standard input. If a `--` separator is
197 seen, stop reading commits and start reading paths to limit the
198 result.
199
200 ifdef::git-rev-list[]
201 --quiet::
202 Don't print anything to standard output. This form
203 is primarily meant to allow the caller to
204 test the exit status to see if a range of objects is fully
205 connected (or not). It is faster than redirecting stdout
206 to `/dev/null` as the output does not have to be formatted.
207 endif::git-rev-list[]
208
209 --cherry-mark::
210 Like `--cherry-pick` (see below) but mark equivalent commits
211 with `=` rather than omitting them, and inequivalent ones with `+`.
212
213 --cherry-pick::
214 Omit any commit that introduces the same change as
215 another commit on the ``other side'' when the set of
216 commits are limited with symmetric difference.
217 +
218 For example, if you have two branches, `A` and `B`, a usual way
219 to list all commits on only one side of them is with
220 `--left-right` (see the example below in the description of
221 the `--left-right` option). However, it shows the commits that were
222 cherry-picked from the other branch (for example, ``3rd on b'' may be
223 cherry-picked from branch A). With this option, such pairs of commits are
224 excluded from the output.
225
226 --left-only::
227 --right-only::
228 List only commits on the respective side of a symmetric difference,
229 i.e. only those which would be marked `<` resp. `>` by
230 `--left-right`.
231 +
232 For example, `--cherry-pick --right-only A...B` omits those
233 commits from `B` which are in `A` or are patch-equivalent to a commit in
234 `A`. In other words, this lists the `+` commits from `git cherry A B`.
235 More precisely, `--cherry-pick --right-only --no-merges` gives the exact
236 list.
237
238 --cherry::
239 A synonym for `--right-only --cherry-mark --no-merges`; useful to
240 limit the output to the commits on our side and mark those that
241 have been applied to the other side of a forked history with
242 `git log --cherry upstream...mybranch`, similar to
243 `git cherry upstream mybranch`.
244
245 -g::
246 --walk-reflogs::
247 Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk
248 reflog entries from the most recent one to older ones.
249 When this option is used you cannot specify commits to
250 exclude (that is, '{caret}commit', 'commit1..commit2',
251 and 'commit1\...commit2' notations cannot be used).
252 +
253 With `--pretty` format other than `oneline` (for obvious reasons),
254 this causes the output to have two extra lines of information
255 taken from the reflog. The reflog designator in the output may be shown
256 as `ref@{Nth}` (where `Nth` is the reverse-chronological index in the
257 reflog) or as `ref@{timestamp}` (with the timestamp for that entry),
258 depending on a few rules:
259 +
260 --
261 1. If the starting point is specified as `ref@{Nth}`, show the index
262 format.
263 +
264 2. If the starting point was specified as `ref@{now}`, show the
265 timestamp format.
266 +
267 3. If neither was used, but `--date` was given on the command line, show
268 the timestamp in the format requested by `--date`.
269 +
270 4. Otherwise, show the index format.
271 --
272 +
273 Under `--pretty=oneline`, the commit message is
274 prefixed with this information on the same line.
275 This option cannot be combined with `--reverse`.
276 See also linkgit:git-reflog[1].
277
278 --merge::
279 After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a
280 conflict and don't exist on all heads to merge.
281
282 --boundary::
283 Output excluded boundary commits. Boundary commits are
284 prefixed with `-`.
285
286 ifdef::git-rev-list[]
287 --use-bitmap-index::
288
289 Try to speed up the traversal using the pack bitmap index (if
290 one is available). Note that when traversing with `--objects`,
291 trees and blobs will not have their associated path printed.
292
293 --progress=<header>::
294 Show progress reports on stderr as objects are considered. The
295 `<header>` text will be printed with each progress update.
296 endif::git-rev-list[]
297
298 --
299
300 History Simplification
301 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
302
303 Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for example the
304 commits modifying a particular <path>. But there are two parts of
305 'History Simplification', one part is selecting the commits and the other
306 is how to do it, as there are various strategies to simplify the history.
307
308 The following options select the commits to be shown:
309
310 <paths>::
311 Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.
312
313 --simplify-by-decoration::
314 Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are selected.
315
316 Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.
317
318 The following options affect the way the simplification is performed:
319
320 Default mode::
321 Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the
322 final state of the tree. Simplest because it prunes some side
323 branches if the end result is the same (i.e. merging branches
324 with the same content)
325
326 --full-history::
327 Same as the default mode, but does not prune some history.
328
329 --dense::
330 Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a
331 meaningful history.
332
333 --sparse::
334 All commits in the simplified history are shown.
335
336 --simplify-merges::
337 Additional option to `--full-history` to remove some needless
338 merges from the resulting history, as there are no selected
339 commits contributing to this merge.
340
341 --ancestry-path::
342 When given a range of commits to display (e.g. 'commit1..commit2'
343 or 'commit2 {caret}commit1'), only display commits that exist
344 directly on the ancestry chain between the 'commit1' and
345 'commit2', i.e. commits that are both descendants of 'commit1',
346 and ancestors of 'commit2'.
347
348 A more detailed explanation follows.
349
350 Suppose you specified `foo` as the <paths>. We shall call commits
351 that modify `foo` !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME. (In a diff
352 filtered for `foo`, they look different and equal, respectively.)
353
354 In the following, we will always refer to the same example history to
355 illustrate the differences between simplification settings. We assume
356 that you are filtering for a file `foo` in this commit graph:
357 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
358 .-A---M---N---O---P---Q
359 / / / / / /
360 I B C D E Y
361 \ / / / / /
362 `-------------' X
363 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
364 The horizontal line of history A---Q is taken to be the first parent of
365 each merge. The commits are:
366
367 * `I` is the initial commit, in which `foo` exists with contents
368 ``asdf'', and a file `quux` exists with contents ``quux''. Initial
369 commits are compared to an empty tree, so `I` is !TREESAME.
370
371 * In `A`, `foo` contains just ``foo''.
372
373 * `B` contains the same change as `A`. Its merge `M` is trivial and
374 hence TREESAME to all parents.
375
376 * `C` does not change `foo`, but its merge `N` changes it to ``foobar'',
377 so it is not TREESAME to any parent.
378
379 * `D` sets `foo` to ``baz''. Its merge `O` combines the strings from
380 `N` and `D` to ``foobarbaz''; i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.
381
382 * `E` changes `quux` to ``xyzzy'', and its merge `P` combines the
383 strings to ``quux xyzzy''. `P` is TREESAME to `O`, but not to `E`.
384
385 * `X` is an independent root commit that added a new file `side`, and `Y`
386 modified it. `Y` is TREESAME to `X`. Its merge `Q` added `side` to `P`, and
387 `Q` is TREESAME to `P`, but not to `Y`.
388
389 `rev-list` walks backwards through history, including or excluding
390 commits based on whether `--full-history` and/or parent rewriting
391 (via `--parents` or `--children`) are used. The following settings
392 are available.
393
394 Default mode::
395 Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent
396 (though this can be changed, see `--sparse` below). If the
397 commit was a merge, and it was TREESAME to one parent, follow
398 only that parent. (Even if there are several TREESAME
399 parents, follow only one of them.) Otherwise, follow all
400 parents.
401 +
402 This results in:
403 +
404 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
405 .-A---N---O
406 / / /
407 I---------D
408 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
409 +
410 Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if one is
411 available, removed `B` from consideration entirely. `C` was
412 considered via `N`, but is TREESAME. Root commits are compared to an
413 empty tree, so `I` is !TREESAME.
414 +
415 Parent/child relations are only visible with `--parents`, but that does
416 not affect the commits selected in default mode, so we have shown the
417 parent lines.
418
419 --full-history without parent rewriting::
420 This mode differs from the default in one point: always follow
421 all parents of a merge, even if it is TREESAME to one of them.
422 Even if more than one side of the merge has commits that are
423 included, this does not imply that the merge itself is! In
424 the example, we get
425 +
426 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
427 I A B N D O P Q
428 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
429 +
430 `M` was excluded because it is TREESAME to both parents. `E`,
431 `C` and `B` were all walked, but only `B` was !TREESAME, so the others
432 do not appear.
433 +
434 Note that without parent rewriting, it is not really possible to talk
435 about the parent/child relationships between the commits, so we show
436 them disconnected.
437
438 --full-history with parent rewriting::
439 Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME
440 (though this can be changed, see `--sparse` below).
441 +
442 Merges are always included. However, their parent list is rewritten:
443 Along each parent, prune away commits that are not included
444 themselves. This results in
445 +
446 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
447 .-A---M---N---O---P---Q
448 / / / / /
449 I B / D /
450 \ / / / /
451 `-------------'
452 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
453 +
454 Compare to `--full-history` without rewriting above. Note that `E`
455 was pruned away because it is TREESAME, but the parent list of P was
456 rewritten to contain `E`'s parent `I`. The same happened for `C` and
457 `N`, and `X`, `Y` and `Q`.
458
459 In addition to the above settings, you can change whether TREESAME
460 affects inclusion:
461
462 --dense::
463 Commits that are walked are included if they are not TREESAME
464 to any parent.
465
466 --sparse::
467 All commits that are walked are included.
468 +
469 Note that without `--full-history`, this still simplifies merges: if
470 one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so the other
471 sides of the merge are never walked.
472
473 --simplify-merges::
474 First, build a history graph in the same way that
475 `--full-history` with parent rewriting does (see above).
476 +
477 Then simplify each commit `C` to its replacement `C'` in the final
478 history according to the following rules:
479 +
480 --
481 * Set `C'` to `C`.
482 +
483 * Replace each parent `P` of `C'` with its simplification `P'`. In
484 the process, drop parents that are ancestors of other parents or that are
485 root commits TREESAME to an empty tree, and remove duplicates, but take care
486 to never drop all parents that we are TREESAME to.
487 +
488 * If after this parent rewriting, `C'` is a root or merge commit (has
489 zero or >1 parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it remains.
490 Otherwise, it is replaced with its only parent.
491 --
492 +
493 The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to
494 `--full-history` with parent rewriting. The example turns into:
495 +
496 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
497 .-A---M---N---O
498 / / /
499 I B D
500 \ / /
501 `---------'
502 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
503 +
504 Note the major differences in `N`, `P`, and `Q` over `--full-history`:
505 +
506 --
507 * `N`'s parent list had `I` removed, because it is an ancestor of the
508 other parent `M`. Still, `N` remained because it is !TREESAME.
509 +
510 * `P`'s parent list similarly had `I` removed. `P` was then
511 removed completely, because it had one parent and is TREESAME.
512 +
513 * `Q`'s parent list had `Y` simplified to `X`. `X` was then removed, because it
514 was a TREESAME root. `Q` was then removed completely, because it had one
515 parent and is TREESAME.
516 --
517
518 Finally, there is a fifth simplification mode available:
519
520 --ancestry-path::
521 Limit the displayed commits to those directly on the ancestry
522 chain between the ``from'' and ``to'' commits in the given commit
523 range. I.e. only display commits that are ancestor of the ``to''
524 commit and descendants of the ``from'' commit.
525 +
526 As an example use case, consider the following commit history:
527 +
528 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
529 D---E-------F
530 / \ \
531 B---C---G---H---I---J
532 / \
533 A-------K---------------L--M
534 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
535 +
536 A regular 'D..M' computes the set of commits that are ancestors of `M`,
537 but excludes the ones that are ancestors of `D`. This is useful to see
538 what happened to the history leading to `M` since `D`, in the sense
539 that ``what does `M` have that did not exist in `D`''. The result in this
540 example would be all the commits, except `A` and `B` (and `D` itself,
541 of course).
542 +
543 When we want to find out what commits in `M` are contaminated with the
544 bug introduced by `D` and need fixing, however, we might want to view
545 only the subset of 'D..M' that are actually descendants of `D`, i.e.
546 excluding `C` and `K`. This is exactly what the `--ancestry-path`
547 option does. Applied to the 'D..M' range, it results in:
548 +
549 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
550 E-------F
551 \ \
552 G---H---I---J
553 \
554 L--M
555 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
556
557 The `--simplify-by-decoration` option allows you to view only the
558 big picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits
559 that are not referenced by tags. Commits are marked as !TREESAME
560 (in other words, kept after history simplification rules described
561 above) if (1) they are referenced by tags, or (2) they change the
562 contents of the paths given on the command line. All other
563 commits are marked as TREESAME (subject to be simplified away).
564
565 ifdef::git-rev-list[]
566 Bisection Helpers
567 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
568
569 --bisect::
570 Limit output to the one commit object which is roughly halfway between
571 included and excluded commits. Note that the bad bisection ref
572 `refs/bisect/bad` is added to the included commits (if it
573 exists) and the good bisection refs `refs/bisect/good-*` are
574 added to the excluded commits (if they exist). Thus, supposing there
575 are no refs in `refs/bisect/`, if
576 +
577 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
578 $ git rev-list --bisect foo ^bar ^baz
579 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
580 +
581 outputs 'midpoint', the output of the two commands
582 +
583 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
584 $ git rev-list foo ^midpoint
585 $ git rev-list midpoint ^bar ^baz
586 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
587 +
588 would be of roughly the same length. Finding the change which
589 introduces a regression is thus reduced to a binary search: repeatedly
590 generate and test new 'midpoint's until the commit chain is of length
591 one. Cannot be combined with --first-parent.
592
593 --bisect-vars::
594 This calculates the same as `--bisect`, except that refs in
595 `refs/bisect/` are not used, and except that this outputs
596 text ready to be eval'ed by the shell. These lines will assign the
597 name of the midpoint revision to the variable `bisect_rev`, and the
598 expected number of commits to be tested after `bisect_rev` is tested
599 to `bisect_nr`, the expected number of commits to be tested if
600 `bisect_rev` turns out to be good to `bisect_good`, the expected
601 number of commits to be tested if `bisect_rev` turns out to be bad to
602 `bisect_bad`, and the number of commits we are bisecting right now to
603 `bisect_all`.
604
605 --bisect-all::
606 This outputs all the commit objects between the included and excluded
607 commits, ordered by their distance to the included and excluded
608 commits. Refs in `refs/bisect/` are not used. The farthest
609 from them is displayed first. (This is the only one displayed by
610 `--bisect`.)
611 +
612 This is useful because it makes it easy to choose a good commit to
613 test when you want to avoid to test some of them for some reason (they
614 may not compile for example).
615 +
616 This option can be used along with `--bisect-vars`, in this case,
617 after all the sorted commit objects, there will be the same text as if
618 `--bisect-vars` had been used alone.
619 endif::git-rev-list[]
620
621
622 Commit Ordering
623 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
624
625 By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.
626
627 --date-order::
628 Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but
629 otherwise show commits in the commit timestamp order.
630
631 --author-date-order::
632 Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but
633 otherwise show commits in the author timestamp order.
634
635 --topo-order::
636 Show no parents before all of its children are shown, and
637 avoid showing commits on multiple lines of history
638 intermixed.
639 +
640 For example, in a commit history like this:
641 +
642 ----------------------------------------------------------------
643
644 ---1----2----4----7
645 \ \
646 3----5----6----8---
647
648 ----------------------------------------------------------------
649 +
650 where the numbers denote the order of commit timestamps, `git
651 rev-list` and friends with `--date-order` show the commits in the
652 timestamp order: 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1.
653 +
654 With `--topo-order`, they would show 8 6 5 3 7 4 2 1 (or 8 7 4 2 6 5
655 3 1); some older commits are shown before newer ones in order to
656 avoid showing the commits from two parallel development track mixed
657 together.
658
659 --reverse::
660 Output the commits in reverse order.
661 Cannot be combined with `--walk-reflogs`.
662
663 Object Traversal
664 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
665
666 These options are mostly targeted for packing of Git repositories.
667
668 ifdef::git-rev-list[]
669 --objects::
670 Print the object IDs of any object referenced by the listed
671 commits. `--objects foo ^bar` thus means ``send me
672 all object IDs which I need to download if I have the commit
673 object _bar_ but not _foo_''.
674
675 --objects-edge::
676 Similar to `--objects`, but also print the IDs of excluded
677 commits prefixed with a ``-'' character. This is used by
678 linkgit:git-pack-objects[1] to build a ``thin'' pack, which records
679 objects in deltified form based on objects contained in these
680 excluded commits to reduce network traffic.
681
682 --objects-edge-aggressive::
683 Similar to `--objects-edge`, but it tries harder to find excluded
684 commits at the cost of increased time. This is used instead of
685 `--objects-edge` to build ``thin'' packs for shallow repositories.
686
687 --indexed-objects::
688 Pretend as if all trees and blobs used by the index are listed
689 on the command line. Note that you probably want to use
690 `--objects`, too.
691
692 --unpacked::
693 Only useful with `--objects`; print the object IDs that are not
694 in packs.
695 endif::git-rev-list[]
696
697 --no-walk[=(sorted|unsorted)]::
698 Only show the given commits, but do not traverse their ancestors.
699 This has no effect if a range is specified. If the argument
700 `unsorted` is given, the commits are shown in the order they were
701 given on the command line. Otherwise (if `sorted` or no argument
702 was given), the commits are shown in reverse chronological order
703 by commit time.
704 Cannot be combined with `--graph`.
705
706 --do-walk::
707 Overrides a previous `--no-walk`.
708
709 Commit Formatting
710 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
711
712 ifdef::git-rev-list[]
713 Using these options, linkgit:git-rev-list[1] will act similar to the
714 more specialized family of commit log tools: linkgit:git-log[1],
715 linkgit:git-show[1], and linkgit:git-whatchanged[1]
716 endif::git-rev-list[]
717
718 include::pretty-options.txt[]
719
720 --relative-date::
721 Synonym for `--date=relative`.
722
723 --date=<format>::
724 Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such
725 as when using `--pretty`. `log.date` config variable sets a default
726 value for the log command's `--date` option. By default, dates
727 are shown in the original time zone (either committer's or
728 author's). If `-local` is appended to the format (e.g.,
729 `iso-local`), the user's local time zone is used instead.
730 +
731 `--date=relative` shows dates relative to the current time,
732 e.g. ``2 hours ago''. The `-local` option has no effect for
733 `--date=relative`.
734 +
735 `--date=local` is an alias for `--date=default-local`.
736 +
737 `--date=iso` (or `--date=iso8601`) shows timestamps in a ISO 8601-like format.
738 The differences to the strict ISO 8601 format are:
739
740 - a space instead of the `T` date/time delimiter
741 - a space between time and time zone
742 - no colon between hours and minutes of the time zone
743
744 +
745 `--date=iso-strict` (or `--date=iso8601-strict`) shows timestamps in strict
746 ISO 8601 format.
747 +
748 `--date=rfc` (or `--date=rfc2822`) shows timestamps in RFC 2822
749 format, often found in email messages.
750 +
751 `--date=short` shows only the date, but not the time, in `YYYY-MM-DD` format.
752 +
753 `--date=raw` shows the date as seconds since the epoch (1970-01-01
754 00:00:00 UTC), followed by a space, and then the timezone as an offset
755 from UTC (a `+` or `-` with four digits; the first two are hours, and
756 the second two are minutes). I.e., as if the timestamp were formatted
757 with `strftime("%s %z")`).
758 Note that the `-local` option does not affect the seconds-since-epoch
759 value (which is always measured in UTC), but does switch the accompanying
760 timezone value.
761 +
762 `--date=unix` shows the date as a Unix epoch timestamp (seconds since
763 1970). As with `--raw`, this is always in UTC and therefore `-local`
764 has no effect.
765 +
766 `--date=format:...` feeds the format `...` to your system `strftime`.
767 Use `--date=format:%c` to show the date in your system locale's
768 preferred format. See the `strftime` manual for a complete list of
769 format placeholders. When using `-local`, the correct syntax is
770 `--date=format-local:...`.
771 +
772 `--date=default` is the default format, and is similar to
773 `--date=rfc2822`, with a few exceptions:
774
775 - there is no comma after the day-of-week
776
777 - the time zone is omitted when the local time zone is used
778
779 ifdef::git-rev-list[]
780 --header::
781 Print the contents of the commit in raw-format; each record is
782 separated with a NUL character.
783 endif::git-rev-list[]
784
785 --parents::
786 Print also the parents of the commit (in the form "commit parent...").
787 Also enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
788
789 --children::
790 Print also the children of the commit (in the form "commit child...").
791 Also enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
792
793 ifdef::git-rev-list[]
794 --timestamp::
795 Print the raw commit timestamp.
796 endif::git-rev-list[]
797
798 --left-right::
799 Mark which side of a symmetric difference a commit is reachable from.
800 Commits from the left side are prefixed with `<` and those from
801 the right with `>`. If combined with `--boundary`, those
802 commits are prefixed with `-`.
803 +
804 For example, if you have this topology:
805 +
806 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
807 y---b---b branch B
808 / \ /
809 / .
810 / / \
811 o---x---a---a branch A
812 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
813 +
814 you would get an output like this:
815 +
816 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
817 $ git rev-list --left-right --boundary --pretty=oneline A...B
818
819 >bbbbbbb... 3rd on b
820 >bbbbbbb... 2nd on b
821 <aaaaaaa... 3rd on a
822 <aaaaaaa... 2nd on a
823 -yyyyyyy... 1st on b
824 -xxxxxxx... 1st on a
825 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
826
827 --graph::
828 Draw a text-based graphical representation of the commit history
829 on the left hand side of the output. This may cause extra lines
830 to be printed in between commits, in order for the graph history
831 to be drawn properly.
832 Cannot be combined with `--no-walk`.
833 +
834 This enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
835 +
836 This implies the `--topo-order` option by default, but the
837 `--date-order` option may also be specified.
838
839 --show-linear-break[=<barrier>]::
840 When --graph is not used, all history branches are flattened
841 which can make it hard to see that the two consecutive commits
842 do not belong to a linear branch. This option puts a barrier
843 in between them in that case. If `<barrier>` is specified, it
844 is the string that will be shown instead of the default one.
845
846 ifdef::git-rev-list[]
847 --count::
848 Print a number stating how many commits would have been
849 listed, and suppress all other output. When used together
850 with `--left-right`, instead print the counts for left and
851 right commits, separated by a tab. When used together with
852 `--cherry-mark`, omit patch equivalent commits from these
853 counts and print the count for equivalent commits separated
854 by a tab.
855 endif::git-rev-list[]
856
857 ifndef::git-rev-list[]
858 Diff Formatting
859 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
860
861 Listed below are options that control the formatting of diff output.
862 Some of them are specific to linkgit:git-rev-list[1], however other diff
863 options may be given. See linkgit:git-diff-files[1] for more options.
864
865 -c::
866 With this option, diff output for a merge commit
867 shows the differences from each of the parents to the merge result
868 simultaneously instead of showing pairwise diff between a parent
869 and the result one at a time. Furthermore, it lists only files
870 which were modified from all parents.
871
872 --cc::
873 This flag implies the `-c` option and further compresses the
874 patch output by omitting uninteresting hunks whose contents in
875 the parents have only two variants and the merge result picks
876 one of them without modification.
877
878 -m::
879 This flag makes the merge commits show the full diff like
880 regular commits; for each merge parent, a separate log entry
881 and diff is generated. An exception is that only diff against
882 the first parent is shown when `--first-parent` option is given;
883 in that case, the output represents the changes the merge
884 brought _into_ the then-current branch.
885
886 -r::
887 Show recursive diffs.
888
889 -t::
890 Show the tree objects in the diff output. This implies `-r`.
891 endif::git-rev-list[]