Merge branch 'ks/pack-objects-bitmap'
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-worktree.txt
1 git-worktree(1)
2 ===============
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-worktree - Manage multiple working trees
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git worktree add' [-f] [--detach] [--checkout] [-b <new-branch>] <path> [<branch>]
13 'git worktree list' [--porcelain]
14 'git worktree lock' [--reason <string>] <worktree>
15 'git worktree prune' [-n] [-v] [--expire <expire>]
16 'git worktree unlock' <worktree>
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20
21 Manage multiple working trees attached to the same repository.
22
23 A git repository can support multiple working trees, allowing you to check
24 out more than one branch at a time. With `git worktree add` a new working
25 tree is associated with the repository. This new working tree is called a
26 "linked working tree" as opposed to the "main working tree" prepared by "git
27 init" or "git clone". A repository has one main working tree (if it's not a
28 bare repository) and zero or more linked working trees.
29
30 When you are done with a linked working tree you can simply delete it.
31 The working tree's administrative files in the repository (see
32 "DETAILS" below) will eventually be removed automatically (see
33 `gc.worktreePruneExpire` in linkgit:git-config[1]), or you can run
34 `git worktree prune` in the main or any linked working tree to
35 clean up any stale administrative files.
36
37 If you move a linked working tree, you need to manually update the
38 administrative files so that they do not get pruned automatically. See
39 section "DETAILS" for more information.
40
41 If a linked working tree is stored on a portable device or network share
42 which is not always mounted, you can prevent its administrative files from
43 being pruned by issuing the `git worktree lock` command, optionally
44 specifying `--reason` to explain why the working tree is locked.
45
46 COMMANDS
47 --------
48 add <path> [<branch>]::
49
50 Create `<path>` and checkout `<branch>` into it. The new working directory
51 is linked to the current repository, sharing everything except working
52 directory specific files such as HEAD, index, etc. `-` may also be
53 specified as `<branch>`; it is synonymous with `@{-1}`.
54 +
55 If `<branch>` is omitted and neither `-b` nor `-B` nor `--detached` used,
56 then, as a convenience, a new branch based at HEAD is created automatically,
57 as if `-b $(basename <path>)` was specified.
58
59 list::
60
61 List details of each worktree. The main worktree is listed first, followed by
62 each of the linked worktrees. The output details include if the worktree is
63 bare, the revision currently checked out, and the branch currently checked out
64 (or 'detached HEAD' if none).
65
66 lock::
67
68 If a working tree is on a portable device or network share which
69 is not always mounted, lock it to prevent its administrative
70 files from being pruned automatically. This also prevents it from
71 being moved or deleted. Optionally, specify a reason for the lock
72 with `--reason`.
73
74 prune::
75
76 Prune working tree information in $GIT_DIR/worktrees.
77
78 unlock::
79
80 Unlock a working tree, allowing it to be pruned, moved or deleted.
81
82 OPTIONS
83 -------
84
85 -f::
86 --force::
87 By default, `add` refuses to create a new working tree when `<branch>`
88 is already checked out by another working tree. This option overrides
89 that safeguard.
90
91 -b <new-branch>::
92 -B <new-branch>::
93 With `add`, create a new branch named `<new-branch>` starting at
94 `<branch>`, and check out `<new-branch>` into the new working tree.
95 If `<branch>` is omitted, it defaults to HEAD.
96 By default, `-b` refuses to create a new branch if it already
97 exists. `-B` overrides this safeguard, resetting `<new-branch>` to
98 `<branch>`.
99
100 --detach::
101 With `add`, detach HEAD in the new working tree. See "DETACHED HEAD"
102 in linkgit:git-checkout[1].
103
104 --[no-]checkout::
105 By default, `add` checks out `<branch>`, however, `--no-checkout` can
106 be used to suppress checkout in order to make customizations,
107 such as configuring sparse-checkout. See "Sparse checkout"
108 in linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
109
110 -n::
111 --dry-run::
112 With `prune`, do not remove anything; just report what it would
113 remove.
114
115 --porcelain::
116 With `list`, output in an easy-to-parse format for scripts.
117 This format will remain stable across Git versions and regardless of user
118 configuration. See below for details.
119
120 -v::
121 --verbose::
122 With `prune`, report all removals.
123
124 --expire <time>::
125 With `prune`, only expire unused working trees older than <time>.
126
127 --reason <string>::
128 With `lock`, an explanation why the working tree is locked.
129
130 <worktree>::
131 Working trees can be identified by path, either relative or
132 absolute.
133 +
134 If the last path components in the working tree's path is unique among
135 working trees, it can be used to identify worktrees. For example if
136 you only have to working trees at "/abc/def/ghi" and "/abc/def/ggg",
137 then "ghi" or "def/ghi" is enough to point to the former working tree.
138
139 DETAILS
140 -------
141 Each linked working tree has a private sub-directory in the repository's
142 $GIT_DIR/worktrees directory. The private sub-directory's name is usually
143 the base name of the linked working tree's path, possibly appended with a
144 number to make it unique. For example, when `$GIT_DIR=/path/main/.git` the
145 command `git worktree add /path/other/test-next next` creates the linked
146 working tree in `/path/other/test-next` and also creates a
147 `$GIT_DIR/worktrees/test-next` directory (or `$GIT_DIR/worktrees/test-next1`
148 if `test-next` is already taken).
149
150 Within a linked working tree, $GIT_DIR is set to point to this private
151 directory (e.g. `/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next` in the example) and
152 $GIT_COMMON_DIR is set to point back to the main working tree's $GIT_DIR
153 (e.g. `/path/main/.git`). These settings are made in a `.git` file located at
154 the top directory of the linked working tree.
155
156 Path resolution via `git rev-parse --git-path` uses either
157 $GIT_DIR or $GIT_COMMON_DIR depending on the path. For example, in the
158 linked working tree `git rev-parse --git-path HEAD` returns
159 `/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next/HEAD` (not
160 `/path/other/test-next/.git/HEAD` or `/path/main/.git/HEAD`) while `git
161 rev-parse --git-path refs/heads/master` uses
162 $GIT_COMMON_DIR and returns `/path/main/.git/refs/heads/master`,
163 since refs are shared across all working trees.
164
165 See linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] for more information. The rule of
166 thumb is do not make any assumption about whether a path belongs to
167 $GIT_DIR or $GIT_COMMON_DIR when you need to directly access something
168 inside $GIT_DIR. Use `git rev-parse --git-path` to get the final path.
169
170 If you move a linked working tree, you need to update the 'gitdir' file
171 in the entry's directory. For example, if a linked working tree is moved
172 to `/newpath/test-next` and its `.git` file points to
173 `/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next`, then update
174 `/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next/gitdir` to reference `/newpath/test-next`
175 instead.
176
177 To prevent a $GIT_DIR/worktrees entry from being pruned (which
178 can be useful in some situations, such as when the
179 entry's working tree is stored on a portable device), use the
180 `git worktree lock` command, which adds a file named
181 'locked' to the entry's directory. The file contains the reason in
182 plain text. For example, if a linked working tree's `.git` file points
183 to `/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next` then a file named
184 `/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next/locked` will prevent the
185 `test-next` entry from being pruned. See
186 linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] for details.
187
188 LIST OUTPUT FORMAT
189 ------------------
190 The worktree list command has two output formats. The default format shows the
191 details on a single line with columns. For example:
192
193 ------------
194 S git worktree list
195 /path/to/bare-source (bare)
196 /path/to/linked-worktree abcd1234 [master]
197 /path/to/other-linked-worktree 1234abc (detached HEAD)
198 ------------
199
200 Porcelain Format
201 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
202 The porcelain format has a line per attribute. Attributes are listed with a
203 label and value separated by a single space. Boolean attributes (like 'bare'
204 and 'detached') are listed as a label only, and are only present if and only
205 if the value is true. An empty line indicates the end of a worktree. For
206 example:
207
208 ------------
209 S git worktree list --porcelain
210 worktree /path/to/bare-source
211 bare
212
213 worktree /path/to/linked-worktree
214 HEAD abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234
215 branch refs/heads/master
216
217 worktree /path/to/other-linked-worktree
218 HEAD 1234abc1234abc1234abc1234abc1234abc1234a
219 detached
220
221 ------------
222
223 EXAMPLES
224 --------
225 You are in the middle of a refactoring session and your boss comes in and
226 demands that you fix something immediately. You might typically use
227 linkgit:git-stash[1] to store your changes away temporarily, however, your
228 working tree is in such a state of disarray (with new, moved, and removed
229 files, and other bits and pieces strewn around) that you don't want to risk
230 disturbing any of it. Instead, you create a temporary linked working tree to
231 make the emergency fix, remove it when done, and then resume your earlier
232 refactoring session.
233
234 ------------
235 $ git worktree add -b emergency-fix ../temp master
236 $ pushd ../temp
237 # ... hack hack hack ...
238 $ git commit -a -m 'emergency fix for boss'
239 $ popd
240 $ rm -rf ../temp
241 $ git worktree prune
242 ------------
243
244 BUGS
245 ----
246 Multiple checkout in general is still experimental, and the support
247 for submodules is incomplete. It is NOT recommended to make multiple
248 checkouts of a superproject.
249
250 git-worktree could provide more automation for tasks currently
251 performed manually, such as:
252
253 - `remove` to remove a linked working tree and its administrative files (and
254 warn if the working tree is dirty)
255 - `mv` to move or rename a working tree and update its administrative files
256
257 GIT
258 ---
259 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite