add: document the chmod option
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-push.txt
1 git-push(1)
2 ===========
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git push' [--all | --mirror | --tags] [--follow-tags] [--atomic] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
13 [--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [-d | --delete] [--prune] [-v | --verbose]
14 [-u | --set-upstream]
15 [--[no-]signed|--sign=(true|false|if-asked)]
16 [--force-with-lease[=<refname>[:<expect>]]]
17 [--no-verify] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
18
19 DESCRIPTION
20 -----------
21
22 Updates remote refs using local refs, while sending objects
23 necessary to complete the given refs.
24
25 You can make interesting things happen to a repository
26 every time you push into it, by setting up 'hooks' there. See
27 documentation for linkgit:git-receive-pack[1].
28
29 When the command line does not specify where to push with the
30 `<repository>` argument, `branch.*.remote` configuration for the
31 current branch is consulted to determine where to push. If the
32 configuration is missing, it defaults to 'origin'.
33
34 When the command line does not specify what to push with `<refspec>...`
35 arguments or `--all`, `--mirror`, `--tags` options, the command finds
36 the default `<refspec>` by consulting `remote.*.push` configuration,
37 and if it is not found, honors `push.default` configuration to decide
38 what to push (See linkgit:git-config[1] for the meaning of `push.default`).
39
40 When neither the command-line nor the configuration specify what to
41 push, the default behavior is used, which corresponds to the `simple`
42 value for `push.default`: the current branch is pushed to the
43 corresponding upstream branch, but as a safety measure, the push is
44 aborted if the upstream branch does not have the same name as the
45 local one.
46
47
48 OPTIONS[[OPTIONS]]
49 ------------------
50 <repository>::
51 The "remote" repository that is destination of a push
52 operation. This parameter can be either a URL
53 (see the section <<URLS,GIT URLS>> below) or the name
54 of a remote (see the section <<REMOTES,REMOTES>> below).
55
56 <refspec>...::
57 Specify what destination ref to update with what source object.
58 The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus
59 `+`, followed by the source object <src>, followed
60 by a colon `:`, followed by the destination ref <dst>.
61 +
62 The <src> is often the name of the branch you would want to push, but
63 it can be any arbitrary "SHA-1 expression", such as `master~4` or
64 `HEAD` (see linkgit:gitrevisions[7]).
65 +
66 The <dst> tells which ref on the remote side is updated with this
67 push. Arbitrary expressions cannot be used here, an actual ref must
68 be named.
69 If `git push [<repository>]` without any `<refspec>` argument is set to
70 update some ref at the destination with `<src>` with
71 `remote.<repository>.push` configuration variable, `:<dst>` part can
72 be omitted--such a push will update a ref that `<src>` normally updates
73 without any `<refspec>` on the command line. Otherwise, missing
74 `:<dst>` means to update the same ref as the `<src>`.
75 +
76 The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst> reference
77 on the remote side. By default this is only allowed if <dst> is not
78 a tag (annotated or lightweight), and then only if it can fast-forward
79 <dst>. By having the optional leading `+`, you can tell Git to update
80 the <dst> ref even if it is not allowed by default (e.g., it is not a
81 fast-forward.) This does *not* attempt to merge <src> into <dst>. See
82 EXAMPLES below for details.
83 +
84 `tag <tag>` means the same as `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`.
85 +
86 Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from
87 the remote repository.
88 +
89 The special refspec `:` (or `+:` to allow non-fast-forward updates)
90 directs Git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that exists on
91 the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of the same name
92 already exists on the remote side.
93
94 --all::
95 Push all branches (i.e. refs under `refs/heads/`); cannot be
96 used with other <refspec>.
97
98 --prune::
99 Remove remote branches that don't have a local counterpart. For example
100 a remote branch `tmp` will be removed if a local branch with the same
101 name doesn't exist any more. This also respects refspecs, e.g.
102 `git push --prune remote refs/heads/*:refs/tmp/*` would
103 make sure that remote `refs/tmp/foo` will be removed if `refs/heads/foo`
104 doesn't exist.
105
106 --mirror::
107 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
108 refs under `refs/` (which includes but is not
109 limited to `refs/heads/`, `refs/remotes/`, and `refs/tags/`)
110 be mirrored to the remote repository. Newly created local
111 refs will be pushed to the remote end, locally updated refs
112 will be force updated on the remote end, and deleted refs
113 will be removed from the remote end. This is the default
114 if the configuration option `remote.<remote>.mirror` is
115 set.
116
117 -n::
118 --dry-run::
119 Do everything except actually send the updates.
120
121 --porcelain::
122 Produce machine-readable output. The output status line for each ref
123 will be tab-separated and sent to stdout instead of stderr. The full
124 symbolic names of the refs will be given.
125
126 --delete::
127 All listed refs are deleted from the remote repository. This is
128 the same as prefixing all refs with a colon.
129
130 --tags::
131 All refs under `refs/tags` are pushed, in
132 addition to refspecs explicitly listed on the command
133 line.
134
135 --follow-tags::
136 Push all the refs that would be pushed without this option,
137 and also push annotated tags in `refs/tags` that are missing
138 from the remote but are pointing at commit-ish that are
139 reachable from the refs being pushed. This can also be specified
140 with configuration variable 'push.followTags'. For more
141 information, see 'push.followTags' in linkgit:git-config[1].
142
143 --[no-]signed::
144 --sign=(true|false|if-asked)::
145 GPG-sign the push request to update refs on the receiving
146 side, to allow it to be checked by the hooks and/or be
147 logged. If `false` or `--no-signed`, no signing will be
148 attempted. If `true` or `--signed`, the push will fail if the
149 server does not support signed pushes. If set to `if-asked`,
150 sign if and only if the server supports signed pushes. The push
151 will also fail if the actual call to `gpg --sign` fails. See
152 linkgit:git-receive-pack[1] for the details on the receiving end.
153
154 --[no-]atomic::
155 Use an atomic transaction on the remote side if available.
156 Either all refs are updated, or on error, no refs are updated.
157 If the server does not support atomic pushes the push will fail.
158
159 --receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>::
160 --exec=<git-receive-pack>::
161 Path to the 'git-receive-pack' program on the remote
162 end. Sometimes useful when pushing to a remote
163 repository over ssh, and you do not have the program in
164 a directory on the default $PATH.
165
166 --[no-]force-with-lease::
167 --force-with-lease=<refname>::
168 --force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>::
169 Usually, "git push" refuses to update a remote ref that is
170 not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
171 +
172 This option overrides this restriction if the current value of the
173 remote ref is the expected value. "git push" fails otherwise.
174 +
175 Imagine that you have to rebase what you have already published.
176 You will have to bypass the "must fast-forward" rule in order to
177 replace the history you originally published with the rebased history.
178 If somebody else built on top of your original history while you are
179 rebasing, the tip of the branch at the remote may advance with her
180 commit, and blindly pushing with `--force` will lose her work.
181 +
182 This option allows you to say that you expect the history you are
183 updating is what you rebased and want to replace. If the remote ref
184 still points at the commit you specified, you can be sure that no
185 other people did anything to the ref. It is like taking a "lease" on
186 the ref without explicitly locking it, and the remote ref is updated
187 only if the "lease" is still valid.
188 +
189 `--force-with-lease` alone, without specifying the details, will protect
190 all remote refs that are going to be updated by requiring their
191 current value to be the same as the remote-tracking branch we have
192 for them.
193 +
194 `--force-with-lease=<refname>`, without specifying the expected value, will
195 protect the named ref (alone), if it is going to be updated, by
196 requiring its current value to be the same as the remote-tracking
197 branch we have for it.
198 +
199 `--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>` will protect the named ref (alone),
200 if it is going to be updated, by requiring its current value to be
201 the same as the specified value <expect> (which is allowed to be
202 different from the remote-tracking branch we have for the refname,
203 or we do not even have to have such a remote-tracking branch when
204 this form is used).
205 +
206 Note that all forms other than `--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>`
207 that specifies the expected current value of the ref explicitly are
208 still experimental and their semantics may change as we gain experience
209 with this feature.
210 +
211 "--no-force-with-lease" will cancel all the previous --force-with-lease on the
212 command line.
213
214 -f::
215 --force::
216 Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is
217 not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
218 Also, when `--force-with-lease` option is used, the command refuses
219 to update a remote ref whose current value does not match
220 what is expected.
221 +
222 This flag disables these checks, and can cause the remote repository
223 to lose commits; use it with care.
224 +
225 Note that `--force` applies to all the refs that are pushed, hence
226 using it with `push.default` set to `matching` or with multiple push
227 destinations configured with `remote.*.push` may overwrite refs
228 other than the current branch (including local refs that are
229 strictly behind their remote counterpart). To force a push to only
230 one branch, use a `+` in front of the refspec to push (e.g `git push
231 origin +master` to force a push to the `master` branch). See the
232 `<refspec>...` section above for details.
233
234 --repo=<repository>::
235 This option is equivalent to the <repository> argument. If both
236 are specified, the command-line argument takes precedence.
237
238 -u::
239 --set-upstream::
240 For every branch that is up to date or successfully pushed, add
241 upstream (tracking) reference, used by argument-less
242 linkgit:git-pull[1] and other commands. For more information,
243 see 'branch.<name>.merge' in linkgit:git-config[1].
244
245 --[no-]thin::
246 These options are passed to linkgit:git-send-pack[1]. A thin transfer
247 significantly reduces the amount of sent data when the sender and
248 receiver share many of the same objects in common. The default is
249 \--thin.
250
251 -q::
252 --quiet::
253 Suppress all output, including the listing of updated refs,
254 unless an error occurs. Progress is not reported to the standard
255 error stream.
256
257 -v::
258 --verbose::
259 Run verbosely.
260
261 --progress::
262 Progress status is reported on the standard error stream
263 by default when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q
264 is specified. This flag forces progress status even if the
265 standard error stream is not directed to a terminal.
266
267 --no-recurse-submodules::
268 --recurse-submodules=check|on-demand|no::
269 May be used to make sure all submodule commits used by the
270 revisions to be pushed are available on a remote-tracking branch.
271 If 'check' is used Git will verify that all submodule commits that
272 changed in the revisions to be pushed are available on at least one
273 remote of the submodule. If any commits are missing the push will
274 be aborted and exit with non-zero status. If 'on-demand' is used
275 all submodules that changed in the revisions to be pushed will be
276 pushed. If on-demand was not able to push all necessary revisions
277 it will also be aborted and exit with non-zero status. A value of
278 'no' or using '--no-recurse-submodules' can be used to override the
279 push.recurseSubmodules configuration variable when no submodule
280 recursion is required.
281
282 --[no-]verify::
283 Toggle the pre-push hook (see linkgit:githooks[5]). The
284 default is --verify, giving the hook a chance to prevent the
285 push. With --no-verify, the hook is bypassed completely.
286
287 -4::
288 --ipv4::
289 Use IPv4 addresses only, ignoring IPv6 addresses.
290
291 -6::
292 --ipv6::
293 Use IPv6 addresses only, ignoring IPv4 addresses.
294
295 include::urls-remotes.txt[]
296
297 OUTPUT
298 ------
299
300 The output of "git push" depends on the transport method used; this
301 section describes the output when pushing over the Git protocol (either
302 locally or via ssh).
303
304 The status of the push is output in tabular form, with each line
305 representing the status of a single ref. Each line is of the form:
306
307 -------------------------------
308 <flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> (<reason>)
309 -------------------------------
310
311 If --porcelain is used, then each line of the output is of the form:
312
313 -------------------------------
314 <flag> \t <from>:<to> \t <summary> (<reason>)
315 -------------------------------
316
317 The status of up-to-date refs is shown only if --porcelain or --verbose
318 option is used.
319
320 flag::
321 A single character indicating the status of the ref:
322 (space);; for a successfully pushed fast-forward;
323 `+`;; for a successful forced update;
324 `-`;; for a successfully deleted ref;
325 `*`;; for a successfully pushed new ref;
326 `!`;; for a ref that was rejected or failed to push; and
327 `=`;; for a ref that was up to date and did not need pushing.
328
329 summary::
330 For a successfully pushed ref, the summary shows the old and new
331 values of the ref in a form suitable for using as an argument to
332 `git log` (this is `<old>..<new>` in most cases, and
333 `<old>...<new>` for forced non-fast-forward updates).
334 +
335 For a failed update, more details are given:
336 +
337 --
338 rejected::
339 Git did not try to send the ref at all, typically because it
340 is not a fast-forward and you did not force the update.
341
342 remote rejected::
343 The remote end refused the update. Usually caused by a hook
344 on the remote side, or because the remote repository has one
345 of the following safety options in effect:
346 `receive.denyCurrentBranch` (for pushes to the checked out
347 branch), `receive.denyNonFastForwards` (for forced
348 non-fast-forward updates), `receive.denyDeletes` or
349 `receive.denyDeleteCurrent`. See linkgit:git-config[1].
350
351 remote failure::
352 The remote end did not report the successful update of the ref,
353 perhaps because of a temporary error on the remote side, a
354 break in the network connection, or other transient error.
355 --
356
357 from::
358 The name of the local ref being pushed, minus its
359 `refs/<type>/` prefix. In the case of deletion, the
360 name of the local ref is omitted.
361
362 to::
363 The name of the remote ref being updated, minus its
364 `refs/<type>/` prefix.
365
366 reason::
367 A human-readable explanation. In the case of successfully pushed
368 refs, no explanation is needed. For a failed ref, the reason for
369 failure is described.
370
371 Note about fast-forwards
372 ------------------------
373
374 When an update changes a branch (or more in general, a ref) that used to
375 point at commit A to point at another commit B, it is called a
376 fast-forward update if and only if B is a descendant of A.
377
378 In a fast-forward update from A to B, the set of commits that the original
379 commit A built on top of is a subset of the commits the new commit B
380 builds on top of. Hence, it does not lose any history.
381
382 In contrast, a non-fast-forward update will lose history. For example,
383 suppose you and somebody else started at the same commit X, and you built
384 a history leading to commit B while the other person built a history
385 leading to commit A. The history looks like this:
386
387 ----------------
388
389 B
390 /
391 ---X---A
392
393 ----------------
394
395 Further suppose that the other person already pushed changes leading to A
396 back to the original repository from which you two obtained the original
397 commit X.
398
399 The push done by the other person updated the branch that used to point at
400 commit X to point at commit A. It is a fast-forward.
401
402 But if you try to push, you will attempt to update the branch (that
403 now points at A) with commit B. This does _not_ fast-forward. If you did
404 so, the changes introduced by commit A will be lost, because everybody
405 will now start building on top of B.
406
407 The command by default does not allow an update that is not a fast-forward
408 to prevent such loss of history.
409
410 If you do not want to lose your work (history from X to B) or the work by
411 the other person (history from X to A), you would need to first fetch the
412 history from the repository, create a history that contains changes done
413 by both parties, and push the result back.
414
415 You can perform "git pull", resolve potential conflicts, and "git push"
416 the result. A "git pull" will create a merge commit C between commits A
417 and B.
418
419 ----------------
420
421 B---C
422 / /
423 ---X---A
424
425 ----------------
426
427 Updating A with the resulting merge commit will fast-forward and your
428 push will be accepted.
429
430 Alternatively, you can rebase your change between X and B on top of A,
431 with "git pull --rebase", and push the result back. The rebase will
432 create a new commit D that builds the change between X and B on top of
433 A.
434
435 ----------------
436
437 B D
438 / /
439 ---X---A
440
441 ----------------
442
443 Again, updating A with this commit will fast-forward and your push will be
444 accepted.
445
446 There is another common situation where you may encounter non-fast-forward
447 rejection when you try to push, and it is possible even when you are
448 pushing into a repository nobody else pushes into. After you push commit
449 A yourself (in the first picture in this section), replace it with "git
450 commit --amend" to produce commit B, and you try to push it out, because
451 forgot that you have pushed A out already. In such a case, and only if
452 you are certain that nobody in the meantime fetched your earlier commit A
453 (and started building on top of it), you can run "git push --force" to
454 overwrite it. In other words, "git push --force" is a method reserved for
455 a case where you do mean to lose history.
456
457
458 Examples
459 --------
460
461 `git push`::
462 Works like `git push <remote>`, where <remote> is the
463 current branch's remote (or `origin`, if no remote is
464 configured for the current branch).
465
466 `git push origin`::
467 Without additional configuration, pushes the current branch to
468 the configured upstream (`remote.origin.merge` configuration
469 variable) if it has the same name as the current branch, and
470 errors out without pushing otherwise.
471 +
472 The default behavior of this command when no <refspec> is given can be
473 configured by setting the `push` option of the remote, or the `push.default`
474 configuration variable.
475 +
476 For example, to default to pushing only the current branch to `origin`
477 use `git config remote.origin.push HEAD`. Any valid <refspec> (like
478 the ones in the examples below) can be configured as the default for
479 `git push origin`.
480
481 `git push origin :`::
482 Push "matching" branches to `origin`. See
483 <refspec> in the <<OPTIONS,OPTIONS>> section above for a
484 description of "matching" branches.
485
486 `git push origin master`::
487 Find a ref that matches `master` in the source repository
488 (most likely, it would find `refs/heads/master`), and update
489 the same ref (e.g. `refs/heads/master`) in `origin` repository
490 with it. If `master` did not exist remotely, it would be
491 created.
492
493 `git push origin HEAD`::
494 A handy way to push the current branch to the same name on the
495 remote.
496
497 `git push mothership master:satellite/master dev:satellite/dev`::
498 Use the source ref that matches `master` (e.g. `refs/heads/master`)
499 to update the ref that matches `satellite/master` (most probably
500 `refs/remotes/satellite/master`) in the `mothership` repository;
501 do the same for `dev` and `satellite/dev`.
502 +
503 This is to emulate `git fetch` run on the `mothership` using `git
504 push` that is run in the opposite direction in order to integrate
505 the work done on `satellite`, and is often necessary when you can
506 only make connection in one way (i.e. satellite can ssh into
507 mothership but mothership cannot initiate connection to satellite
508 because the latter is behind a firewall or does not run sshd).
509 +
510 After running this `git push` on the `satellite` machine, you would
511 ssh into the `mothership` and run `git merge` there to complete the
512 emulation of `git pull` that were run on `mothership` to pull changes
513 made on `satellite`.
514
515 `git push origin HEAD:master`::
516 Push the current branch to the remote ref matching `master` in the
517 `origin` repository. This form is convenient to push the current
518 branch without thinking about its local name.
519
520 `git push origin master:refs/heads/experimental`::
521 Create the branch `experimental` in the `origin` repository
522 by copying the current `master` branch. This form is only
523 needed to create a new branch or tag in the remote repository when
524 the local name and the remote name are different; otherwise,
525 the ref name on its own will work.
526
527 `git push origin :experimental`::
528 Find a ref that matches `experimental` in the `origin` repository
529 (e.g. `refs/heads/experimental`), and delete it.
530
531 `git push origin +dev:master`::
532 Update the origin repository's master branch with the dev branch,
533 allowing non-fast-forward updates. *This can leave unreferenced
534 commits dangling in the origin repository.* Consider the
535 following situation, where a fast-forward is not possible:
536 +
537 ----
538 o---o---o---A---B origin/master
539 \
540 X---Y---Z dev
541 ----
542 +
543 The above command would change the origin repository to
544 +
545 ----
546 A---B (unnamed branch)
547 /
548 o---o---o---X---Y---Z master
549 ----
550 +
551 Commits A and B would no longer belong to a branch with a symbolic name,
552 and so would be unreachable. As such, these commits would be removed by
553 a `git gc` command on the origin repository.
554
555 GIT
556 ---
557 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite