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[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-submodule.txt
1 git-submodule(1)
2 ================
5 ----
6 git-submodule - Initialize, update or inspect submodules
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git submodule' [--quiet] add [<options>] [--] <repository> [<path>]
13 'git submodule' [--quiet] status [--cached] [--recursive] [--] [<path>...]
14 'git submodule' [--quiet] init [--] [<path>...]
15 'git submodule' [--quiet] deinit [-f|--force] (--all|[--] <path>...)
16 'git submodule' [--quiet] update [<options>] [--] [<path>...]
17 'git submodule' [--quiet] summary [<options>] [--] [<path>...]
18 'git submodule' [--quiet] foreach [--recursive] <command>
19 'git submodule' [--quiet] sync [--recursive] [--] [<path>...]
20 'git submodule' [--quiet] absorbgitdirs [--] [<path>...]
24 -----------
25 Inspects, updates and manages submodules.
27 A submodule allows you to keep another Git repository in a subdirectory
28 of your repository. The other repository has its own history, which does not
29 interfere with the history of the current repository. This can be used to
30 have external dependencies such as third party libraries for example.
32 When cloning or pulling a repository containing submodules however,
33 these will not be checked out by default; the 'init' and 'update'
34 subcommands will maintain submodules checked out and at
35 appropriate revision in your working tree.
37 Submodules are composed from a so-called `gitlink` tree entry
38 in the main repository that refers to a particular commit object
39 within the inner repository that is completely separate.
40 A record in the `.gitmodules` (see linkgit:gitmodules[5]) file at the
41 root of the source tree assigns a logical name to the submodule and
42 describes the default URL the submodule shall be cloned from.
43 The logical name can be used for overriding this URL within your
44 local repository configuration (see 'submodule init').
46 Submodules are not to be confused with remotes, which are other
47 repositories of the same project; submodules are meant for
48 different projects you would like to make part of your source tree,
49 while the history of the two projects still stays completely
50 independent and you cannot modify the contents of the submodule
51 from within the main project.
52 If you want to merge the project histories and want to treat the
53 aggregated whole as a single project from then on, you may want to
54 add a remote for the other project and use the 'subtree' merge strategy,
55 instead of treating the other project as a submodule. Directories
56 that come from both projects can be cloned and checked out as a whole
57 if you choose to go that route.
60 --------
61 add [-b <branch>] [-f|--force] [--name <name>] [--reference <repository>] [--depth <depth>] [--] <repository> [<path>]::
62 Add the given repository as a submodule at the given path
63 to the changeset to be committed next to the current
64 project: the current project is termed the "superproject".
65 +
66 This requires at least one argument: <repository>. The optional
67 argument <path> is the relative location for the cloned submodule
68 to exist in the superproject. If <path> is not given, the
69 "humanish" part of the source repository is used ("repo" for
70 "/path/to/repo.git" and "foo" for "host.xz:foo/.git").
71 The <path> is also used as the submodule's logical name in its
72 configuration entries unless `--name` is used to specify a logical name.
73 +
74 <repository> is the URL of the new submodule's origin repository.
75 This may be either an absolute URL, or (if it begins with ./
76 or ../), the location relative to the superproject's origin
77 repository (Please note that to specify a repository 'foo.git'
78 which is located right next to a superproject 'bar.git', you'll
79 have to use '../foo.git' instead of './foo.git' - as one might expect
80 when following the rules for relative URLs - because the evaluation
81 of relative URLs in Git is identical to that of relative directories).
82 If the superproject doesn't have an origin configured
83 the superproject is its own authoritative upstream and the current
84 working directory is used instead.
85 +
86 <path> is the relative location for the cloned submodule to
87 exist in the superproject. If <path> does not exist, then the
88 submodule is created by cloning from the named URL. If <path> does
89 exist and is already a valid Git repository, then this is added
90 to the changeset without cloning. This second form is provided
91 to ease creating a new submodule from scratch, and presumes
92 the user will later push the submodule to the given URL.
93 +
94 In either case, the given URL is recorded into .gitmodules for
95 use by subsequent users cloning the superproject. If the URL is
96 given relative to the superproject's repository, the presumption
97 is the superproject and submodule repositories will be kept
98 together in the same relative location, and only the
99 superproject's URL needs to be provided: git-submodule will correctly
100 locate the submodule using the relative URL in .gitmodules.
102 status [--cached] [--recursive] [--] [<path>...]::
103 Show the status of the submodules. This will print the SHA-1 of the
104 currently checked out commit for each submodule, along with the
105 submodule path and the output of 'git describe' for the
106 SHA-1. Each SHA-1 will be prefixed with `-` if the submodule is not
107 initialized, `+` if the currently checked out submodule commit
108 does not match the SHA-1 found in the index of the containing
109 repository and `U` if the submodule has merge conflicts.
110 +
111 If `--recursive` is specified, this command will recurse into nested
112 submodules, and show their status as well.
113 +
114 If you are only interested in changes of the currently initialized
115 submodules with respect to the commit recorded in the index or the HEAD,
116 linkgit:git-status[1] and linkgit:git-diff[1] will provide that information
117 too (and can also report changes to a submodule's work tree).
119 init [--] [<path>...]::
120 Initialize the submodules recorded in the index (which were
121 added and committed elsewhere) by copying submodule
122 names and urls from .gitmodules to .git/config.
123 Optional <path> arguments limit which submodules will be initialized.
124 It will also copy the value of `submodule.$name.update` into
125 .git/config.
126 The key used in .git/config is `submodule.$name.url`.
127 This command does not alter existing information in .git/config.
128 You can then customize the submodule clone URLs in .git/config
129 for your local setup and proceed to `git submodule update`;
130 you can also just use `git submodule update --init` without
131 the explicit 'init' step if you do not intend to customize
132 any submodule locations.
134 deinit [-f|--force] (--all|[--] <path>...)::
135 Unregister the given submodules, i.e. remove the whole
136 `submodule.$name` section from .git/config together with their work
137 tree. Further calls to `git submodule update`, `git submodule foreach`
138 and `git submodule sync` will skip any unregistered submodules until
139 they are initialized again, so use this command if you don't want to
140 have a local checkout of the submodule in your working tree anymore. If
141 you really want to remove a submodule from the repository and commit
142 that use linkgit:git-rm[1] instead.
143 +
144 When the command is run without pathspec, it errors out,
145 instead of deinit-ing everything, to prevent mistakes.
146 +
147 If `--force` is specified, the submodule's working tree will
148 be removed even if it contains local modifications.
150 update [--init] [--remote] [-N|--no-fetch] [--[no-]recommend-shallow] [-f|--force] [--checkout|--rebase|--merge] [--reference <repository>] [--depth <depth>] [--recursive] [--jobs <n>] [--] [<path>...]::
151 +
152 --
153 Update the registered submodules to match what the superproject
154 expects by cloning missing submodules and updating the working tree of
155 the submodules. The "updating" can be done in several ways depending
156 on command line options and the value of `submodule.<name>.update`
157 configuration variable. The command line option takes precedence over
158 the configuration variable. if neither is given, a checkout is performed.
159 update procedures supported both from the command line as well as setting
160 `submodule.<name>.update`:
162 checkout;; the commit recorded in the superproject will be
163 checked out in the submodule on a detached HEAD.
164 +
165 If `--force` is specified, the submodule will be checked out (using
166 `git checkout --force` if appropriate), even if the commit specified
167 in the index of the containing repository already matches the commit
168 checked out in the submodule.
170 rebase;; the current branch of the submodule will be rebased
171 onto the commit recorded in the superproject.
173 merge;; the commit recorded in the superproject will be merged
174 into the current branch in the submodule.
176 The following procedures are only available via the `submodule.<name>.update`
177 configuration variable:
179 custom command;; arbitrary shell command that takes a single
180 argument (the sha1 of the commit recorded in the
181 superproject) is executed. When `submodule.<name>.update`
182 is set to '!command', the remainder after the exclamation mark
183 is the custom command.
185 none;; the submodule is not updated.
187 If the submodule is not yet initialized, and you just want to use the
188 setting as stored in .gitmodules, you can automatically initialize the
189 submodule with the `--init` option.
191 If `--recursive` is specified, this command will recurse into the
192 registered submodules, and update any nested submodules within.
193 --
194 summary [--cached|--files] [(-n|--summary-limit) <n>] [commit] [--] [<path>...]::
195 Show commit summary between the given commit (defaults to HEAD) and
196 working tree/index. For a submodule in question, a series of commits
197 in the submodule between the given super project commit and the
198 index or working tree (switched by `--cached`) are shown. If the option
199 `--files` is given, show the series of commits in the submodule between
200 the index of the super project and the working tree of the submodule
201 (this option doesn't allow to use the `--cached` option or to provide an
202 explicit commit).
203 +
204 Using the `--submodule=log` option with linkgit:git-diff[1] will provide that
205 information too.
207 foreach [--recursive] <command>::
208 Evaluates an arbitrary shell command in each checked out submodule.
209 The command has access to the variables $name, $path, $sha1 and
210 $toplevel:
211 $name is the name of the relevant submodule section in .gitmodules,
212 $path is the name of the submodule directory relative to the
213 superproject, $sha1 is the commit as recorded in the superproject,
214 and $toplevel is the absolute path to the top-level of the superproject.
215 Any submodules defined in the superproject but not checked out are
216 ignored by this command. Unless given `--quiet`, foreach prints the name
217 of each submodule before evaluating the command.
218 If `--recursive` is given, submodules are traversed recursively (i.e.
219 the given shell command is evaluated in nested submodules as well).
220 A non-zero return from the command in any submodule causes
221 the processing to terminate. This can be overridden by adding '|| :'
222 to the end of the command.
223 +
224 As an example, the command below will show the path and currently
225 checked out commit for each submodule:
226 +
227 --------------
228 git submodule foreach 'echo $path `git rev-parse HEAD`'
229 --------------
231 sync [--recursive] [--] [<path>...]::
232 Synchronizes submodules' remote URL configuration setting
233 to the value specified in .gitmodules. It will only affect those
234 submodules which already have a URL entry in .git/config (that is the
235 case when they are initialized or freshly added). This is useful when
236 submodule URLs change upstream and you need to update your local
237 repositories accordingly.
238 +
239 "git submodule sync" synchronizes all submodules while
240 "git submodule sync \-- A" synchronizes submodule "A" only.
241 +
242 If `--recursive` is specified, this command will recurse into the
243 registered submodules, and sync any nested submodules within.
245 absorbgitdirs::
246 If a git directory of a submodule is inside the submodule,
247 move the git directory of the submodule into its superprojects
248 `$GIT_DIR/modules` path and then connect the git directory and
249 its working directory by setting the `core.worktree` and adding
250 a .git file pointing to the git directory embedded in the
251 superprojects git directory.
252 +
253 A repository that was cloned independently and later added as a submodule or
254 old setups have the submodules git directory inside the submodule instead of
255 embedded into the superprojects git directory.
256 +
257 This command is recursive by default.
260 -------
261 -q::
262 --quiet::
263 Only print error messages.
265 --all::
266 This option is only valid for the deinit command. Unregister all
267 submodules in the working tree.
269 -b::
270 --branch::
271 Branch of repository to add as submodule.
272 The name of the branch is recorded as `submodule.<name>.branch` in
273 `.gitmodules` for `update --remote`. A special value of `.` is used to
274 indicate that the name of the branch in the submodule should be the
275 same name as the current branch in the current repository.
277 -f::
278 --force::
279 This option is only valid for add, deinit and update commands.
280 When running add, allow adding an otherwise ignored submodule path.
281 When running deinit the submodule working trees will be removed even
282 if they contain local changes.
283 When running update (only effective with the checkout procedure),
284 throw away local changes in submodules when switching to a
285 different commit; and always run a checkout operation in the
286 submodule, even if the commit listed in the index of the
287 containing repository matches the commit checked out in the
288 submodule.
290 --cached::
291 This option is only valid for status and summary commands. These
292 commands typically use the commit found in the submodule HEAD, but
293 with this option, the commit stored in the index is used instead.
295 --files::
296 This option is only valid for the summary command. This command
297 compares the commit in the index with that in the submodule HEAD
298 when this option is used.
300 -n::
301 --summary-limit::
302 This option is only valid for the summary command.
303 Limit the summary size (number of commits shown in total).
304 Giving 0 will disable the summary; a negative number means unlimited
305 (the default). This limit only applies to modified submodules. The
306 size is always limited to 1 for added/deleted/typechanged submodules.
308 --remote::
309 This option is only valid for the update command. Instead of using
310 the superproject's recorded SHA-1 to update the submodule, use the
311 status of the submodule's remote-tracking branch. The remote used
312 is branch's remote (`branch.<name>.remote`), defaulting to `origin`.
313 The remote branch used defaults to `master`, but the branch name may
314 be overridden by setting the `submodule.<name>.branch` option in
315 either `.gitmodules` or `.git/config` (with `.git/config` taking
316 precedence).
317 +
318 This works for any of the supported update procedures (`--checkout`,
319 `--rebase`, etc.). The only change is the source of the target SHA-1.
320 For example, `submodule update --remote --merge` will merge upstream
321 submodule changes into the submodules, while `submodule update
322 --merge` will merge superproject gitlink changes into the submodules.
323 +
324 In order to ensure a current tracking branch state, `update --remote`
325 fetches the submodule's remote repository before calculating the
326 SHA-1. If you don't want to fetch, you should use `submodule update
327 --remote --no-fetch`.
328 +
329 Use this option to integrate changes from the upstream subproject with
330 your submodule's current HEAD. Alternatively, you can run `git pull`
331 from the submodule, which is equivalent except for the remote branch
332 name: `update --remote` uses the default upstream repository and
333 `submodule.<name>.branch`, while `git pull` uses the submodule's
334 `branch.<name>.merge`. Prefer `submodule.<name>.branch` if you want
335 to distribute the default upstream branch with the superproject and
336 `branch.<name>.merge` if you want a more native feel while working in
337 the submodule itself.
339 -N::
340 --no-fetch::
341 This option is only valid for the update command.
342 Don't fetch new objects from the remote site.
344 --checkout::
345 This option is only valid for the update command.
346 Checkout the commit recorded in the superproject on a detached HEAD
347 in the submodule. This is the default behavior, the main use of
348 this option is to override `submodule.$name.update` when set to
349 a value other than `checkout`.
350 If the key `submodule.$name.update` is either not explicitly set or
351 set to `checkout`, this option is implicit.
353 --merge::
354 This option is only valid for the update command.
355 Merge the commit recorded in the superproject into the current branch
356 of the submodule. If this option is given, the submodule's HEAD will
357 not be detached. If a merge failure prevents this process, you will
358 have to resolve the resulting conflicts within the submodule with the
359 usual conflict resolution tools.
360 If the key `submodule.$name.update` is set to `merge`, this option is
361 implicit.
363 --rebase::
364 This option is only valid for the update command.
365 Rebase the current branch onto the commit recorded in the
366 superproject. If this option is given, the submodule's HEAD will not
367 be detached. If a merge failure prevents this process, you will have
368 to resolve these failures with linkgit:git-rebase[1].
369 If the key `submodule.$name.update` is set to `rebase`, this option is
370 implicit.
372 --init::
373 This option is only valid for the update command.
374 Initialize all submodules for which "git submodule init" has not been
375 called so far before updating.
377 --name::
378 This option is only valid for the add command. It sets the submodule's
379 name to the given string instead of defaulting to its path. The name
380 must be valid as a directory name and may not end with a '/'.
382 --reference <repository>::
383 This option is only valid for add and update commands. These
384 commands sometimes need to clone a remote repository. In this case,
385 this option will be passed to the linkgit:git-clone[1] command.
386 +
387 *NOTE*: Do *not* use this option unless you have read the note
388 for linkgit:git-clone[1]'s `--reference` and `--shared` options carefully.
390 --recursive::
391 This option is only valid for foreach, update, status and sync commands.
392 Traverse submodules recursively. The operation is performed not
393 only in the submodules of the current repo, but also
394 in any nested submodules inside those submodules (and so on).
396 --depth::
397 This option is valid for add and update commands. Create a 'shallow'
398 clone with a history truncated to the specified number of revisions.
399 See linkgit:git-clone[1]
401 --[no-]recommend-shallow::
402 This option is only valid for the update command.
403 The initial clone of a submodule will use the recommended
404 `submodule.<name>.shallow` as provided by the .gitmodules file
405 by default. To ignore the suggestions use `--no-recommend-shallow`.
407 -j <n>::
408 --jobs <n>::
409 This option is only valid for the update command.
410 Clone new submodules in parallel with as many jobs.
411 Defaults to the `submodule.fetchJobs` option.
413 <path>...::
414 Paths to submodule(s). When specified this will restrict the command
415 to only operate on the submodules found at the specified paths.
416 (This argument is required with add).
419 -----
420 When initializing submodules, a .gitmodules file in the top-level directory
421 of the containing repository is used to find the url of each submodule.
422 This file should be formatted in the same way as `$GIT_DIR/config`. The key
423 to each submodule url is "submodule.$name.url". See linkgit:gitmodules[5]
424 for details.
426 GIT
427 ---
428 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite