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[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-stash.txt
1 git-stash(1)
2 ============
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-stash - Stash the changes in a dirty working directory away
7
8 SYNOPSIS
9 --------
10 [verse]
11 'git stash' list [<options>]
12 'git stash' show [<stash>]
13 'git stash' drop [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]
14 'git stash' ( pop | apply ) [--index] [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]
15 'git stash' branch <branchname> [<stash>]
16 'git stash' [save [-p|--patch] [-k|--[no-]keep-index] [-q|--quiet]
17 [-u|--include-untracked] [-a|--all] [<message>]]
18 'git stash' clear
19 'git stash' create [<message>]
20 'git stash' store [-m|--message <message>] [-q|--quiet] <commit>
21
22 DESCRIPTION
23 -----------
24
25 Use `git stash` when you want to record the current state of the
26 working directory and the index, but want to go back to a clean
27 working directory. The command saves your local modifications away
28 and reverts the working directory to match the `HEAD` commit.
29
30 The modifications stashed away by this command can be listed with
31 `git stash list`, inspected with `git stash show`, and restored
32 (potentially on top of a different commit) with `git stash apply`.
33 Calling `git stash` without any arguments is equivalent to `git stash save`.
34 A stash is by default listed as "WIP on 'branchname' ...", but
35 you can give a more descriptive message on the command line when
36 you create one.
37
38 The latest stash you created is stored in `refs/stash`; older
39 stashes are found in the reflog of this reference and can be named using
40 the usual reflog syntax (e.g. `stash@{0}` is the most recently
41 created stash, `stash@{1}` is the one before it, `stash@{2.hours.ago}`
42 is also possible). Stashes may also be referenced by specifying just the
43 stash index (e.g. the integer `n` is equivalent to `stash@{n}`).
44
45 OPTIONS
46 -------
47
48 save [-p|--patch] [-k|--[no-]keep-index] [-u|--include-untracked] [-a|--all] [-q|--quiet] [<message>]::
49
50 Save your local modifications to a new 'stash' and roll them
51 back to HEAD (in the working tree and in the index).
52 The <message> part is optional and gives
53 the description along with the stashed state. For quickly making
54 a snapshot, you can omit _both_ "save" and <message>, but giving
55 only <message> does not trigger this action to prevent a misspelled
56 subcommand from making an unwanted stash.
57 +
58 If the `--keep-index` option is used, all changes already added to the
59 index are left intact.
60 +
61 If the `--include-untracked` option is used, all untracked files are also
62 stashed and then cleaned up with `git clean`, leaving the working directory
63 in a very clean state. If the `--all` option is used instead then the
64 ignored files are stashed and cleaned in addition to the untracked files.
65 +
66 With `--patch`, you can interactively select hunks from the diff
67 between HEAD and the working tree to be stashed. The stash entry is
68 constructed such that its index state is the same as the index state
69 of your repository, and its worktree contains only the changes you
70 selected interactively. The selected changes are then rolled back
71 from your worktree. See the ``Interactive Mode'' section of
72 linkgit:git-add[1] to learn how to operate the `--patch` mode.
73 +
74 The `--patch` option implies `--keep-index`. You can use
75 `--no-keep-index` to override this.
76
77 list [<options>]::
78
79 List the stashes that you currently have. Each 'stash' is listed
80 with its name (e.g. `stash@{0}` is the latest stash, `stash@{1}` is
81 the one before, etc.), the name of the branch that was current when the
82 stash was made, and a short description of the commit the stash was
83 based on.
84 +
85 ----------------------------------------------------------------
86 stash@{0}: WIP on submit: 6ebd0e2... Update git-stash documentation
87 stash@{1}: On master: 9cc0589... Add git-stash
88 ----------------------------------------------------------------
89 +
90 The command takes options applicable to the 'git log'
91 command to control what is shown and how. See linkgit:git-log[1].
92
93 show [<stash>]::
94
95 Show the changes recorded in the stash as a diff between the
96 stashed state and its original parent. When no `<stash>` is given,
97 shows the latest one. By default, the command shows the diffstat, but
98 it will accept any format known to 'git diff' (e.g., `git stash show
99 -p stash@{1}` to view the second most recent stash in patch form).
100 You can use stash.showStat and/or stash.showPatch config variables
101 to change the default behavior.
102
103 pop [--index] [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]::
104
105 Remove a single stashed state from the stash list and apply it
106 on top of the current working tree state, i.e., do the inverse
107 operation of `git stash save`. The working directory must
108 match the index.
109 +
110 Applying the state can fail with conflicts; in this case, it is not
111 removed from the stash list. You need to resolve the conflicts by hand
112 and call `git stash drop` manually afterwards.
113 +
114 If the `--index` option is used, then tries to reinstate not only the working
115 tree's changes, but also the index's ones. However, this can fail, when you
116 have conflicts (which are stored in the index, where you therefore can no
117 longer apply the changes as they were originally).
118 +
119 When no `<stash>` is given, `stash@{0}` is assumed, otherwise `<stash>` must
120 be a reference of the form `stash@{<revision>}`.
121
122 apply [--index] [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]::
123
124 Like `pop`, but do not remove the state from the stash list. Unlike `pop`,
125 `<stash>` may be any commit that looks like a commit created by
126 `stash save` or `stash create`.
127
128 branch <branchname> [<stash>]::
129
130 Creates and checks out a new branch named `<branchname>` starting from
131 the commit at which the `<stash>` was originally created, applies the
132 changes recorded in `<stash>` to the new working tree and index.
133 If that succeeds, and `<stash>` is a reference of the form
134 `stash@{<revision>}`, it then drops the `<stash>`. When no `<stash>`
135 is given, applies the latest one.
136 +
137 This is useful if the branch on which you ran `git stash save` has
138 changed enough that `git stash apply` fails due to conflicts. Since
139 the stash is applied on top of the commit that was HEAD at the time
140 `git stash` was run, it restores the originally stashed state with
141 no conflicts.
142
143 clear::
144 Remove all the stashed states. Note that those states will then
145 be subject to pruning, and may be impossible to recover (see
146 'Examples' below for a possible strategy).
147
148 drop [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]::
149
150 Remove a single stashed state from the stash list. When no `<stash>`
151 is given, it removes the latest one. i.e. `stash@{0}`, otherwise
152 `<stash>` must be a valid stash log reference of the form
153 `stash@{<revision>}`.
154
155 create::
156
157 Create a stash (which is a regular commit object) and return its
158 object name, without storing it anywhere in the ref namespace.
159 This is intended to be useful for scripts. It is probably not
160 the command you want to use; see "save" above.
161
162 store::
163
164 Store a given stash created via 'git stash create' (which is a
165 dangling merge commit) in the stash ref, updating the stash
166 reflog. This is intended to be useful for scripts. It is
167 probably not the command you want to use; see "save" above.
168
169 DISCUSSION
170 ----------
171
172 A stash is represented as a commit whose tree records the state of the
173 working directory, and its first parent is the commit at `HEAD` when
174 the stash was created. The tree of the second parent records the
175 state of the index when the stash is made, and it is made a child of
176 the `HEAD` commit. The ancestry graph looks like this:
177
178 .----W
179 / /
180 -----H----I
181
182 where `H` is the `HEAD` commit, `I` is a commit that records the state
183 of the index, and `W` is a commit that records the state of the working
184 tree.
185
186
187 EXAMPLES
188 --------
189
190 Pulling into a dirty tree::
191
192 When you are in the middle of something, you learn that there are
193 upstream changes that are possibly relevant to what you are
194 doing. When your local changes do not conflict with the changes in
195 the upstream, a simple `git pull` will let you move forward.
196 +
197 However, there are cases in which your local changes do conflict with
198 the upstream changes, and `git pull` refuses to overwrite your
199 changes. In such a case, you can stash your changes away,
200 perform a pull, and then unstash, like this:
201 +
202 ----------------------------------------------------------------
203 $ git pull
204 ...
205 file foobar not up to date, cannot merge.
206 $ git stash
207 $ git pull
208 $ git stash pop
209 ----------------------------------------------------------------
210
211 Interrupted workflow::
212
213 When you are in the middle of something, your boss comes in and
214 demands that you fix something immediately. Traditionally, you would
215 make a commit to a temporary branch to store your changes away, and
216 return to your original branch to make the emergency fix, like this:
217 +
218 ----------------------------------------------------------------
219 # ... hack hack hack ...
220 $ git checkout -b my_wip
221 $ git commit -a -m "WIP"
222 $ git checkout master
223 $ edit emergency fix
224 $ git commit -a -m "Fix in a hurry"
225 $ git checkout my_wip
226 $ git reset --soft HEAD^
227 # ... continue hacking ...
228 ----------------------------------------------------------------
229 +
230 You can use 'git stash' to simplify the above, like this:
231 +
232 ----------------------------------------------------------------
233 # ... hack hack hack ...
234 $ git stash
235 $ edit emergency fix
236 $ git commit -a -m "Fix in a hurry"
237 $ git stash pop
238 # ... continue hacking ...
239 ----------------------------------------------------------------
240
241 Testing partial commits::
242
243 You can use `git stash save --keep-index` when you want to make two or
244 more commits out of the changes in the work tree, and you want to test
245 each change before committing:
246 +
247 ----------------------------------------------------------------
248 # ... hack hack hack ...
249 $ git add --patch foo # add just first part to the index
250 $ git stash save --keep-index # save all other changes to the stash
251 $ edit/build/test first part
252 $ git commit -m 'First part' # commit fully tested change
253 $ git stash pop # prepare to work on all other changes
254 # ... repeat above five steps until one commit remains ...
255 $ edit/build/test remaining parts
256 $ git commit foo -m 'Remaining parts'
257 ----------------------------------------------------------------
258
259 Recovering stashes that were cleared/dropped erroneously::
260
261 If you mistakenly drop or clear stashes, they cannot be recovered
262 through the normal safety mechanisms. However, you can try the
263 following incantation to get a list of stashes that are still in your
264 repository, but not reachable any more:
265 +
266 ----------------------------------------------------------------
267 git fsck --unreachable |
268 grep commit | cut -d\ -f3 |
269 xargs git log --merges --no-walk --grep=WIP
270 ----------------------------------------------------------------
271
272
273 SEE ALSO
274 --------
275 linkgit:git-checkout[1],
276 linkgit:git-commit[1],
277 linkgit:git-reflog[1],
278 linkgit:git-reset[1]
279
280 GIT
281 ---
282 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite