contrib/subtree: ensure only one rev is provided
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-svn.txt
1 git-svn(1)
2 ==========
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-svn - Bidirectional operation between a Subversion repository and Git
7
8 SYNOPSIS
9 --------
10 [verse]
11 'git svn' <command> [<options>] [<arguments>]
12
13 DESCRIPTION
14 -----------
15 'git svn' is a simple conduit for changesets between Subversion and Git.
16 It provides a bidirectional flow of changes between a Subversion and a Git
17 repository.
18
19 'git svn' can track a standard Subversion repository,
20 following the common "trunk/branches/tags" layout, with the --stdlayout option.
21 It can also follow branches and tags in any layout with the -T/-t/-b options
22 (see options to 'init' below, and also the 'clone' command).
23
24 Once tracking a Subversion repository (with any of the above methods), the Git
25 repository can be updated from Subversion by the 'fetch' command and
26 Subversion updated from Git by the 'dcommit' command.
27
28 COMMANDS
29 --------
30
31 'init'::
32 Initializes an empty Git repository with additional
33 metadata directories for 'git svn'. The Subversion URL
34 may be specified as a command-line argument, or as full
35 URL arguments to -T/-t/-b. Optionally, the target
36 directory to operate on can be specified as a second
37 argument. Normally this command initializes the current
38 directory.
39
40 -T<trunk_subdir>;;
41 --trunk=<trunk_subdir>;;
42 -t<tags_subdir>;;
43 --tags=<tags_subdir>;;
44 -b<branches_subdir>;;
45 --branches=<branches_subdir>;;
46 -s;;
47 --stdlayout;;
48 These are optional command-line options for init. Each of
49 these flags can point to a relative repository path
50 (--tags=project/tags) or a full url
51 (--tags=https://foo.org/project/tags).
52 You can specify more than one --tags and/or --branches options, in case
53 your Subversion repository places tags or branches under multiple paths.
54 The option --stdlayout is
55 a shorthand way of setting trunk,tags,branches as the relative paths,
56 which is the Subversion default. If any of the other options are given
57 as well, they take precedence.
58 --no-metadata;;
59 Set the 'noMetadata' option in the [svn-remote] config.
60 This option is not recommended, please read the 'svn.noMetadata'
61 section of this manpage before using this option.
62 --use-svm-props;;
63 Set the 'useSvmProps' option in the [svn-remote] config.
64 --use-svnsync-props;;
65 Set the 'useSvnsyncProps' option in the [svn-remote] config.
66 --rewrite-root=<URL>;;
67 Set the 'rewriteRoot' option in the [svn-remote] config.
68 --rewrite-uuid=<UUID>;;
69 Set the 'rewriteUUID' option in the [svn-remote] config.
70 --username=<user>;;
71 For transports that SVN handles authentication for (http,
72 https, and plain svn), specify the username. For other
73 transports (e.g. `svn+ssh://`), you must include the username in
74 the URL, e.g. `svn+ssh://foo@svn.bar.com/project`
75 --prefix=<prefix>;;
76 This allows one to specify a prefix which is prepended
77 to the names of remotes if trunk/branches/tags are
78 specified. The prefix does not automatically include a
79 trailing slash, so be sure you include one in the
80 argument if that is what you want. If --branches/-b is
81 specified, the prefix must include a trailing slash.
82 Setting a prefix (with a trailing slash) is strongly
83 encouraged in any case, as your SVN-tracking refs will
84 then be located at "refs/remotes/$prefix/*", which is
85 compatible with Git's own remote-tracking ref layout
86 (refs/remotes/$remote/*). Setting a prefix is also useful
87 if you wish to track multiple projects that share a common
88 repository.
89 By default, the prefix is set to 'origin/'.
90 +
91 NOTE: Before Git v2.0, the default prefix was "" (no prefix). This
92 meant that SVN-tracking refs were put at "refs/remotes/*", which is
93 incompatible with how Git's own remote-tracking refs are organized.
94 If you still want the old default, you can get it by passing
95 `--prefix ""` on the command line (`--prefix=""` may not work if
96 your Perl's Getopt::Long is < v2.37).
97
98 --ignore-refs=<regex>;;
99 When passed to 'init' or 'clone' this regular expression will
100 be preserved as a config key. See 'fetch' for a description
101 of `--ignore-refs`.
102 --ignore-paths=<regex>;;
103 When passed to 'init' or 'clone' this regular expression will
104 be preserved as a config key. See 'fetch' for a description
105 of `--ignore-paths`.
106 --include-paths=<regex>;;
107 When passed to 'init' or 'clone' this regular expression will
108 be preserved as a config key. See 'fetch' for a description
109 of `--include-paths`.
110 --no-minimize-url;;
111 When tracking multiple directories (using --stdlayout,
112 --branches, or --tags options), git svn will attempt to connect
113 to the root (or highest allowed level) of the Subversion
114 repository. This default allows better tracking of history if
115 entire projects are moved within a repository, but may cause
116 issues on repositories where read access restrictions are in
117 place. Passing `--no-minimize-url` will allow git svn to
118 accept URLs as-is without attempting to connect to a higher
119 level directory. This option is off by default when only
120 one URL/branch is tracked (it would do little good).
121
122 'fetch'::
123 Fetch unfetched revisions from the Subversion remote we are
124 tracking. The name of the [svn-remote "..."] section in the
125 $GIT_DIR/config file may be specified as an optional
126 command-line argument.
127 +
128 This automatically updates the rev_map if needed (see
129 '$GIT_DIR/svn/\*\*/.rev_map.*' in the FILES section below for details).
130
131 --localtime;;
132 Store Git commit times in the local time zone instead of UTC. This
133 makes 'git log' (even without --date=local) show the same times
134 that `svn log` would in the local time zone.
135 +
136 This doesn't interfere with interoperating with the Subversion
137 repository you cloned from, but if you wish for your local Git
138 repository to be able to interoperate with someone else's local Git
139 repository, either don't use this option or you should both use it in
140 the same local time zone.
141
142 --parent;;
143 Fetch only from the SVN parent of the current HEAD.
144
145 --ignore-refs=<regex>;;
146 Ignore refs for branches or tags matching the Perl regular
147 expression. A "negative look-ahead assertion" like
148 `^refs/remotes/origin/(?!tags/wanted-tag|wanted-branch).*$`
149 can be used to allow only certain refs.
150 +
151 [verse]
152 config key: svn-remote.<name>.ignore-refs
153 +
154 If the ignore-refs configuration key is set, and the command-line
155 option is also given, both regular expressions will be used.
156
157 --ignore-paths=<regex>;;
158 This allows one to specify a Perl regular expression that will
159 cause skipping of all matching paths from checkout from SVN.
160 The `--ignore-paths` option should match for every 'fetch'
161 (including automatic fetches due to 'clone', 'dcommit',
162 'rebase', etc) on a given repository.
163 +
164 [verse]
165 config key: svn-remote.<name>.ignore-paths
166 +
167 If the ignore-paths configuration key is set, and the command-line
168 option is also given, both regular expressions will be used.
169 +
170 Examples:
171 +
172 --
173 Skip "doc*" directory for every fetch;;
174 +
175 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
176 --ignore-paths="^doc"
177 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
178
179 Skip "branches" and "tags" of first level directories;;
180 +
181 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
182 --ignore-paths="^[^/]+/(?:branches|tags)"
183 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
184 --
185
186 --include-paths=<regex>;;
187 This allows one to specify a Perl regular expression that will
188 cause the inclusion of only matching paths from checkout from SVN.
189 The `--include-paths` option should match for every 'fetch'
190 (including automatic fetches due to 'clone', 'dcommit',
191 'rebase', etc) on a given repository. `--ignore-paths` takes
192 precedence over `--include-paths`.
193 +
194 [verse]
195 config key: svn-remote.<name>.include-paths
196
197 --log-window-size=<n>;;
198 Fetch <n> log entries per request when scanning Subversion history.
199 The default is 100. For very large Subversion repositories, larger
200 values may be needed for 'clone'/'fetch' to complete in reasonable
201 time. But overly large values may lead to higher memory usage and
202 request timeouts.
203
204 'clone'::
205 Runs 'init' and 'fetch'. It will automatically create a
206 directory based on the basename of the URL passed to it;
207 or if a second argument is passed; it will create a directory
208 and work within that. It accepts all arguments that the
209 'init' and 'fetch' commands accept; with the exception of
210 `--fetch-all` and `--parent`. After a repository is cloned,
211 the 'fetch' command will be able to update revisions without
212 affecting the working tree; and the 'rebase' command will be
213 able to update the working tree with the latest changes.
214
215 --preserve-empty-dirs;;
216 Create a placeholder file in the local Git repository for each
217 empty directory fetched from Subversion. This includes directories
218 that become empty by removing all entries in the Subversion
219 repository (but not the directory itself). The placeholder files
220 are also tracked and removed when no longer necessary.
221
222 --placeholder-filename=<filename>;;
223 Set the name of placeholder files created by --preserve-empty-dirs.
224 Default: ".gitignore"
225
226 'rebase'::
227 This fetches revisions from the SVN parent of the current HEAD
228 and rebases the current (uncommitted to SVN) work against it.
229 +
230 This works similarly to `svn update` or 'git pull' except that
231 it preserves linear history with 'git rebase' instead of
232 'git merge' for ease of dcommitting with 'git svn'.
233 +
234 This accepts all options that 'git svn fetch' and 'git rebase'
235 accept. However, `--fetch-all` only fetches from the current
236 [svn-remote], and not all [svn-remote] definitions.
237 +
238 Like 'git rebase'; this requires that the working tree be clean
239 and have no uncommitted changes.
240 +
241 This automatically updates the rev_map if needed (see
242 '$GIT_DIR/svn/\*\*/.rev_map.*' in the FILES section below for details).
243
244 -l;;
245 --local;;
246 Do not fetch remotely; only run 'git rebase' against the
247 last fetched commit from the upstream SVN.
248
249 'dcommit'::
250 Commit each diff from the current branch directly to the SVN
251 repository, and then rebase or reset (depending on whether or
252 not there is a diff between SVN and head). This will create
253 a revision in SVN for each commit in Git.
254 +
255 When an optional Git branch name (or a Git commit object name)
256 is specified as an argument, the subcommand works on the specified
257 branch, not on the current branch.
258 +
259 Use of 'dcommit' is preferred to 'set-tree' (below).
260 +
261 --no-rebase;;
262 After committing, do not rebase or reset.
263 --commit-url <URL>;;
264 Commit to this SVN URL (the full path). This is intended to
265 allow existing 'git svn' repositories created with one transport
266 method (e.g. `svn://` or `http://` for anonymous read) to be
267 reused if a user is later given access to an alternate transport
268 method (e.g. `svn+ssh://` or `https://`) for commit.
269 +
270 [verse]
271 config key: svn-remote.<name>.commiturl
272 config key: svn.commiturl (overwrites all svn-remote.<name>.commiturl options)
273 +
274 Note that the SVN URL of the commiturl config key includes the SVN branch.
275 If you rather want to set the commit URL for an entire SVN repository use
276 svn-remote.<name>.pushurl instead.
277 +
278 Using this option for any other purpose (don't ask) is very strongly
279 discouraged.
280
281 --mergeinfo=<mergeinfo>;;
282 Add the given merge information during the dcommit
283 (e.g. `--mergeinfo="/branches/foo:1-10"`). All svn server versions can
284 store this information (as a property), and svn clients starting from
285 version 1.5 can make use of it. To specify merge information from multiple
286 branches, use a single space character between the branches
287 (`--mergeinfo="/branches/foo:1-10 /branches/bar:3,5-6,8"`)
288 +
289 [verse]
290 config key: svn.pushmergeinfo
291 +
292 This option will cause git-svn to attempt to automatically populate the
293 svn:mergeinfo property in the SVN repository when possible. Currently, this can
294 only be done when dcommitting non-fast-forward merges where all parents but the
295 first have already been pushed into SVN.
296
297 --interactive;;
298 Ask the user to confirm that a patch set should actually be sent to SVN.
299 For each patch, one may answer "yes" (accept this patch), "no" (discard this
300 patch), "all" (accept all patches), or "quit".
301 +
302 'git svn dcommit' returns immediately if answer is "no" or "quit", without
303 committing anything to SVN.
304
305 'branch'::
306 Create a branch in the SVN repository.
307
308 -m;;
309 --message;;
310 Allows to specify the commit message.
311
312 -t;;
313 --tag;;
314 Create a tag by using the tags_subdir instead of the branches_subdir
315 specified during git svn init.
316
317 -d<path>;;
318 --destination=<path>;;
319
320 If more than one --branches (or --tags) option was given to the 'init'
321 or 'clone' command, you must provide the location of the branch (or
322 tag) you wish to create in the SVN repository. <path> specifies which
323 path to use to create the branch or tag and should match the pattern
324 on the left-hand side of one of the configured branches or tags
325 refspecs. You can see these refspecs with the commands
326 +
327 git config --get-all svn-remote.<name>.branches
328 git config --get-all svn-remote.<name>.tags
329 +
330 where <name> is the name of the SVN repository as specified by the -R option to
331 'init' (or "svn" by default).
332
333 --username;;
334 Specify the SVN username to perform the commit as. This option overrides
335 the 'username' configuration property.
336
337 --commit-url;;
338 Use the specified URL to connect to the destination Subversion
339 repository. This is useful in cases where the source SVN
340 repository is read-only. This option overrides configuration
341 property 'commiturl'.
342 +
343 git config --get-all svn-remote.<name>.commiturl
344 +
345
346 --parents;;
347 Create parent folders. This parameter is equivalent to the parameter
348 --parents on svn cp commands and is useful for non-standard repository
349 layouts.
350
351 'tag'::
352 Create a tag in the SVN repository. This is a shorthand for
353 'branch -t'.
354
355 'log'::
356 This should make it easy to look up svn log messages when svn
357 users refer to -r/--revision numbers.
358 +
359 The following features from `svn log' are supported:
360 +
361 --
362 -r <n>[:<n>];;
363 --revision=<n>[:<n>];;
364 is supported, non-numeric args are not:
365 HEAD, NEXT, BASE, PREV, etc ...
366 -v;;
367 --verbose;;
368 it's not completely compatible with the --verbose
369 output in svn log, but reasonably close.
370 --limit=<n>;;
371 is NOT the same as --max-count, doesn't count
372 merged/excluded commits
373 --incremental;;
374 supported
375 --
376 +
377 New features:
378 +
379 --
380 --show-commit;;
381 shows the Git commit sha1, as well
382 --oneline;;
383 our version of --pretty=oneline
384 --
385 +
386 NOTE: SVN itself only stores times in UTC and nothing else. The regular svn
387 client converts the UTC time to the local time (or based on the TZ=
388 environment). This command has the same behaviour.
389 +
390 Any other arguments are passed directly to 'git log'
391
392 'blame'::
393 Show what revision and author last modified each line of a file. The
394 output of this mode is format-compatible with the output of
395 `svn blame' by default. Like the SVN blame command,
396 local uncommitted changes in the working tree are ignored;
397 the version of the file in the HEAD revision is annotated. Unknown
398 arguments are passed directly to 'git blame'.
399 +
400 --git-format;;
401 Produce output in the same format as 'git blame', but with
402 SVN revision numbers instead of Git commit hashes. In this mode,
403 changes that haven't been committed to SVN (including local
404 working-copy edits) are shown as revision 0.
405
406 'find-rev'::
407 When given an SVN revision number of the form 'rN', returns the
408 corresponding Git commit hash (this can optionally be followed by a
409 tree-ish to specify which branch should be searched). When given a
410 tree-ish, returns the corresponding SVN revision number.
411 +
412 -B;;
413 --before;;
414 Don't require an exact match if given an SVN revision, instead find
415 the commit corresponding to the state of the SVN repository (on the
416 current branch) at the specified revision.
417 +
418 -A;;
419 --after;;
420 Don't require an exact match if given an SVN revision; if there is
421 not an exact match return the closest match searching forward in the
422 history.
423
424 'set-tree'::
425 You should consider using 'dcommit' instead of this command.
426 Commit specified commit or tree objects to SVN. This relies on
427 your imported fetch data being up to date. This makes
428 absolutely no attempts to do patching when committing to SVN, it
429 simply overwrites files with those specified in the tree or
430 commit. All merging is assumed to have taken place
431 independently of 'git svn' functions.
432
433 'create-ignore'::
434 Recursively finds the svn:ignore property on directories and
435 creates matching .gitignore files. The resulting files are staged to
436 be committed, but are not committed. Use -r/--revision to refer to a
437 specific revision.
438
439 'show-ignore'::
440 Recursively finds and lists the svn:ignore property on
441 directories. The output is suitable for appending to
442 the $GIT_DIR/info/exclude file.
443
444 'mkdirs'::
445 Attempts to recreate empty directories that core Git cannot track
446 based on information in $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>/unhandled.log files.
447 Empty directories are automatically recreated when using
448 "git svn clone" and "git svn rebase", so "mkdirs" is intended
449 for use after commands like "git checkout" or "git reset".
450 (See the svn-remote.<name>.automkdirs config file option for
451 more information.)
452
453 'commit-diff'::
454 Commits the diff of two tree-ish arguments from the
455 command-line. This command does not rely on being inside a `git svn
456 init`-ed repository. This command takes three arguments, (a) the
457 original tree to diff against, (b) the new tree result, (c) the
458 URL of the target Subversion repository. The final argument
459 (URL) may be omitted if you are working from a 'git svn'-aware
460 repository (that has been `init`-ed with 'git svn').
461 The -r<revision> option is required for this.
462 +
463 The commit message is supplied either directly with the `-m` or `-F`
464 option, or indirectly from the tag or commit when the second tree-ish
465 denotes such an object, or it is requested by invoking an editor (see
466 `--edit` option below).
467
468 -m <msg>;;
469 --message=<msg>;;
470 Use the given `msg` as the commit message. This option
471 disables the `--edit` option.
472
473 -F <filename>;;
474 --file=<filename>;;
475 Take the commit message from the given file. This option
476 disables the `--edit` option.
477
478 'info'::
479 Shows information about a file or directory similar to what
480 `svn info' provides. Does not currently support a -r/--revision
481 argument. Use the --url option to output only the value of the
482 'URL:' field.
483
484 'proplist'::
485 Lists the properties stored in the Subversion repository about a
486 given file or directory. Use -r/--revision to refer to a specific
487 Subversion revision.
488
489 'propget'::
490 Gets the Subversion property given as the first argument, for a
491 file. A specific revision can be specified with -r/--revision.
492
493 'propset'::
494 Sets the Subversion property given as the first argument, to the
495 value given as the second argument for the file given as the
496 third argument.
497 +
498 Example:
499 +
500 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
501 git svn propset svn:keywords "FreeBSD=%H" devel/py-tipper/Makefile
502 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
503 +
504 This will set the property 'svn:keywords' to 'FreeBSD=%H' for the file
505 'devel/py-tipper/Makefile'.
506
507 'show-externals'::
508 Shows the Subversion externals. Use -r/--revision to specify a
509 specific revision.
510
511 'gc'::
512 Compress $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>/unhandled.log files and remove
513 $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>/index files.
514
515 'reset'::
516 Undoes the effects of 'fetch' back to the specified revision.
517 This allows you to re-'fetch' an SVN revision. Normally the
518 contents of an SVN revision should never change and 'reset'
519 should not be necessary. However, if SVN permissions change,
520 or if you alter your --ignore-paths option, a 'fetch' may fail
521 with "not found in commit" (file not previously visible) or
522 "checksum mismatch" (missed a modification). If the problem
523 file cannot be ignored forever (with --ignore-paths) the only
524 way to repair the repo is to use 'reset'.
525 +
526 Only the rev_map and refs/remotes/git-svn are changed (see
527 '$GIT_DIR/svn/\*\*/.rev_map.*' in the FILES section below for details).
528 Follow 'reset' with a 'fetch' and then 'git reset' or 'git rebase' to
529 move local branches onto the new tree.
530
531 -r <n>;;
532 --revision=<n>;;
533 Specify the most recent revision to keep. All later revisions
534 are discarded.
535 -p;;
536 --parent;;
537 Discard the specified revision as well, keeping the nearest
538 parent instead.
539 Example:;;
540 Assume you have local changes in "master", but you need to refetch "r2".
541 +
542 ------------
543 r1---r2---r3 remotes/git-svn
544 \
545 A---B master
546 ------------
547 +
548 Fix the ignore-paths or SVN permissions problem that caused "r2" to
549 be incomplete in the first place. Then:
550 +
551 [verse]
552 git svn reset -r2 -p
553 git svn fetch
554 +
555 ------------
556 r1---r2'--r3' remotes/git-svn
557 \
558 r2---r3---A---B master
559 ------------
560 +
561 Then fixup "master" with 'git rebase'.
562 Do NOT use 'git merge' or your history will not be compatible with a
563 future 'dcommit'!
564 +
565 [verse]
566 git rebase --onto remotes/git-svn A^ master
567 +
568 ------------
569 r1---r2'--r3' remotes/git-svn
570 \
571 A'--B' master
572 ------------
573
574 OPTIONS
575 -------
576
577 --shared[=(false|true|umask|group|all|world|everybody)]::
578 --template=<template_directory>::
579 Only used with the 'init' command.
580 These are passed directly to 'git init'.
581
582 -r <arg>::
583 --revision <arg>::
584 Used with the 'fetch' command.
585 +
586 This allows revision ranges for partial/cauterized history
587 to be supported. $NUMBER, $NUMBER1:$NUMBER2 (numeric ranges),
588 $NUMBER:HEAD, and BASE:$NUMBER are all supported.
589 +
590 This can allow you to make partial mirrors when running fetch;
591 but is generally not recommended because history will be skipped
592 and lost.
593
594 -::
595 --stdin::
596 Only used with the 'set-tree' command.
597 +
598 Read a list of commits from stdin and commit them in reverse
599 order. Only the leading sha1 is read from each line, so
600 'git rev-list --pretty=oneline' output can be used.
601
602 --rmdir::
603 Only used with the 'dcommit', 'set-tree' and 'commit-diff' commands.
604 +
605 Remove directories from the SVN tree if there are no files left
606 behind. SVN can version empty directories, and they are not
607 removed by default if there are no files left in them. Git
608 cannot version empty directories. Enabling this flag will make
609 the commit to SVN act like Git.
610 +
611 [verse]
612 config key: svn.rmdir
613
614 -e::
615 --edit::
616 Only used with the 'dcommit', 'set-tree' and 'commit-diff' commands.
617 +
618 Edit the commit message before committing to SVN. This is off by
619 default for objects that are commits, and forced on when committing
620 tree objects.
621 +
622 [verse]
623 config key: svn.edit
624
625 -l<num>::
626 --find-copies-harder::
627 Only used with the 'dcommit', 'set-tree' and 'commit-diff' commands.
628 +
629 They are both passed directly to 'git diff-tree'; see
630 linkgit:git-diff-tree[1] for more information.
631 +
632 [verse]
633 config key: svn.l
634 config key: svn.findcopiesharder
635
636 -A<filename>::
637 --authors-file=<filename>::
638 Syntax is compatible with the file used by 'git cvsimport' but
639 an empty email address can be supplied with '<>':
640 +
641 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
642 loginname = Joe User <user@example.com>
643 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
644 +
645 If this option is specified and 'git svn' encounters an SVN
646 committer name that does not exist in the authors-file, 'git svn'
647 will abort operation. The user will then have to add the
648 appropriate entry. Re-running the previous 'git svn' command
649 after the authors-file is modified should continue operation.
650 +
651 [verse]
652 config key: svn.authorsfile
653
654 --authors-prog=<filename>::
655 If this option is specified, for each SVN committer name that
656 does not exist in the authors file, the given file is executed
657 with the committer name as the first argument. The program is
658 expected to return a single line of the form "Name <email>" or
659 "Name <>", which will be treated as if included in the authors
660 file.
661 +
662 Due to historical reasons a relative 'filename' is first searched
663 relative to the current directory for 'init' and 'clone' and relative
664 to the root of the working tree for 'fetch'. If 'filename' is
665 not found, it is searched like any other command in '$PATH'.
666 +
667 [verse]
668 config key: svn.authorsProg
669
670 -q::
671 --quiet::
672 Make 'git svn' less verbose. Specify a second time to make it
673 even less verbose.
674
675 -m::
676 --merge::
677 -s<strategy>::
678 --strategy=<strategy>::
679 -p::
680 --preserve-merges::
681 These are only used with the 'dcommit' and 'rebase' commands.
682 +
683 Passed directly to 'git rebase' when using 'dcommit' if a
684 'git reset' cannot be used (see 'dcommit').
685
686 -n::
687 --dry-run::
688 This can be used with the 'dcommit', 'rebase', 'branch' and
689 'tag' commands.
690 +
691 For 'dcommit', print out the series of Git arguments that would show
692 which diffs would be committed to SVN.
693 +
694 For 'rebase', display the local branch associated with the upstream svn
695 repository associated with the current branch and the URL of svn
696 repository that will be fetched from.
697 +
698 For 'branch' and 'tag', display the urls that will be used for copying when
699 creating the branch or tag.
700
701 --use-log-author::
702 When retrieving svn commits into Git (as part of 'fetch', 'rebase', or
703 'dcommit' operations), look for the first `From:` or `Signed-off-by:` line
704 in the log message and use that as the author string.
705 +
706 [verse]
707 config key: svn.useLogAuthor
708
709 --add-author-from::
710 When committing to svn from Git (as part of 'set-tree' or 'dcommit'
711 operations), if the existing log message doesn't already have a
712 `From:` or `Signed-off-by:` line, append a `From:` line based on the
713 Git commit's author string. If you use this, then `--use-log-author`
714 will retrieve a valid author string for all commits.
715 +
716 [verse]
717 config key: svn.addAuthorFrom
718
719 ADVANCED OPTIONS
720 ----------------
721
722 -i<GIT_SVN_ID>::
723 --id <GIT_SVN_ID>::
724 This sets GIT_SVN_ID (instead of using the environment). This
725 allows the user to override the default refname to fetch from
726 when tracking a single URL. The 'log' and 'dcommit' commands
727 no longer require this switch as an argument.
728
729 -R<remote name>::
730 --svn-remote <remote name>::
731 Specify the [svn-remote "<remote name>"] section to use,
732 this allows SVN multiple repositories to be tracked.
733 Default: "svn"
734
735 --follow-parent::
736 This option is only relevant if we are tracking branches (using
737 one of the repository layout options --trunk, --tags,
738 --branches, --stdlayout). For each tracked branch, try to find
739 out where its revision was copied from, and set
740 a suitable parent in the first Git commit for the branch.
741 This is especially helpful when we're tracking a directory
742 that has been moved around within the repository. If this
743 feature is disabled, the branches created by 'git svn' will all
744 be linear and not share any history, meaning that there will be
745 no information on where branches were branched off or merged.
746 However, following long/convoluted histories can take a long
747 time, so disabling this feature may speed up the cloning
748 process. This feature is enabled by default, use
749 --no-follow-parent to disable it.
750 +
751 [verse]
752 config key: svn.followparent
753
754 CONFIG FILE-ONLY OPTIONS
755 ------------------------
756
757 svn.noMetadata::
758 svn-remote.<name>.noMetadata::
759 This gets rid of the 'git-svn-id:' lines at the end of every commit.
760 +
761 This option can only be used for one-shot imports as 'git svn'
762 will not be able to fetch again without metadata. Additionally,
763 if you lose your '$GIT_DIR/svn/\*\*/.rev_map.*' files, 'git svn' will not
764 be able to rebuild them.
765 +
766 The 'git svn log' command will not work on repositories using
767 this, either. Using this conflicts with the 'useSvmProps'
768 option for (hopefully) obvious reasons.
769 +
770 This option is NOT recommended as it makes it difficult to track down
771 old references to SVN revision numbers in existing documentation, bug
772 reports and archives. If you plan to eventually migrate from SVN to Git
773 and are certain about dropping SVN history, consider
774 linkgit:git-filter-branch[1] instead. filter-branch also allows
775 reformatting of metadata for ease-of-reading and rewriting authorship
776 info for non-"svn.authorsFile" users.
777
778 svn.useSvmProps::
779 svn-remote.<name>.useSvmProps::
780 This allows 'git svn' to re-map repository URLs and UUIDs from
781 mirrors created using SVN::Mirror (or svk) for metadata.
782 +
783 If an SVN revision has a property, "svm:headrev", it is likely
784 that the revision was created by SVN::Mirror (also used by SVK).
785 The property contains a repository UUID and a revision. We want
786 to make it look like we are mirroring the original URL, so
787 introduce a helper function that returns the original identity
788 URL and UUID, and use it when generating metadata in commit
789 messages.
790
791 svn.useSvnsyncProps::
792 svn-remote.<name>.useSvnsyncprops::
793 Similar to the useSvmProps option; this is for users
794 of the svnsync(1) command distributed with SVN 1.4.x and
795 later.
796
797 svn-remote.<name>.rewriteRoot::
798 This allows users to create repositories from alternate
799 URLs. For example, an administrator could run 'git svn' on the
800 server locally (accessing via file://) but wish to distribute
801 the repository with a public http:// or svn:// URL in the
802 metadata so users of it will see the public URL.
803
804 svn-remote.<name>.rewriteUUID::
805 Similar to the useSvmProps option; this is for users who need
806 to remap the UUID manually. This may be useful in situations
807 where the original UUID is not available via either useSvmProps
808 or useSvnsyncProps.
809
810 svn-remote.<name>.pushurl::
811
812 Similar to Git's `remote.<name>.pushurl`, this key is designed
813 to be used in cases where 'url' points to an SVN repository
814 via a read-only transport, to provide an alternate read/write
815 transport. It is assumed that both keys point to the same
816 repository. Unlike 'commiturl', 'pushurl' is a base path. If
817 either 'commiturl' or 'pushurl' could be used, 'commiturl'
818 takes precedence.
819
820 svn.brokenSymlinkWorkaround::
821 This disables potentially expensive checks to workaround
822 broken symlinks checked into SVN by broken clients. Set this
823 option to "false" if you track a SVN repository with many
824 empty blobs that are not symlinks. This option may be changed
825 while 'git svn' is running and take effect on the next
826 revision fetched. If unset, 'git svn' assumes this option to
827 be "true".
828
829 svn.pathnameencoding::
830 This instructs git svn to recode pathnames to a given encoding.
831 It can be used by windows users and by those who work in non-utf8
832 locales to avoid corrupted file names with non-ASCII characters.
833 Valid encodings are the ones supported by Perl's Encode module.
834
835 svn-remote.<name>.automkdirs::
836 Normally, the "git svn clone" and "git svn rebase" commands
837 attempt to recreate empty directories that are in the
838 Subversion repository. If this option is set to "false", then
839 empty directories will only be created if the "git svn mkdirs"
840 command is run explicitly. If unset, 'git svn' assumes this
841 option to be "true".
842
843 Since the noMetadata, rewriteRoot, rewriteUUID, useSvnsyncProps and useSvmProps
844 options all affect the metadata generated and used by 'git svn'; they
845 *must* be set in the configuration file before any history is imported
846 and these settings should never be changed once they are set.
847
848 Additionally, only one of these options can be used per svn-remote
849 section because they affect the 'git-svn-id:' metadata line, except
850 for rewriteRoot and rewriteUUID which can be used together.
851
852
853 BASIC EXAMPLES
854 --------------
855
856 Tracking and contributing to the trunk of a Subversion-managed project
857 (ignoring tags and branches):
858
859 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
860 # Clone a repo (like git clone):
861 git svn clone http://svn.example.com/project/trunk
862 # Enter the newly cloned directory:
863 cd trunk
864 # You should be on master branch, double-check with 'git branch'
865 git branch
866 # Do some work and commit locally to Git:
867 git commit ...
868 # Something is committed to SVN, rebase your local changes against the
869 # latest changes in SVN:
870 git svn rebase
871 # Now commit your changes (that were committed previously using Git) to SVN,
872 # as well as automatically updating your working HEAD:
873 git svn dcommit
874 # Append svn:ignore settings to the default Git exclude file:
875 git svn show-ignore >> .git/info/exclude
876 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
877
878 Tracking and contributing to an entire Subversion-managed project
879 (complete with a trunk, tags and branches):
880
881 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
882 # Clone a repo with standard SVN directory layout (like git clone):
883 git svn clone http://svn.example.com/project --stdlayout --prefix svn/
884 # Or, if the repo uses a non-standard directory layout:
885 git svn clone http://svn.example.com/project -T tr -b branch -t tag --prefix svn/
886 # View all branches and tags you have cloned:
887 git branch -r
888 # Create a new branch in SVN
889 git svn branch waldo
890 # Reset your master to trunk (or any other branch, replacing 'trunk'
891 # with the appropriate name):
892 git reset --hard svn/trunk
893 # You may only dcommit to one branch/tag/trunk at a time. The usage
894 # of dcommit/rebase/show-ignore should be the same as above.
895 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
896
897 The initial 'git svn clone' can be quite time-consuming
898 (especially for large Subversion repositories). If multiple
899 people (or one person with multiple machines) want to use
900 'git svn' to interact with the same Subversion repository, you can
901 do the initial 'git svn clone' to a repository on a server and
902 have each person clone that repository with 'git clone':
903
904 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
905 # Do the initial import on a server
906 ssh server "cd /pub && git svn clone http://svn.example.com/project [options...]"
907 # Clone locally - make sure the refs/remotes/ space matches the server
908 mkdir project
909 cd project
910 git init
911 git remote add origin server:/pub/project
912 git config --replace-all remote.origin.fetch '+refs/remotes/*:refs/remotes/*'
913 git fetch
914 # Prevent fetch/pull from remote Git server in the future,
915 # we only want to use git svn for future updates
916 git config --remove-section remote.origin
917 # Create a local branch from one of the branches just fetched
918 git checkout -b master FETCH_HEAD
919 # Initialize 'git svn' locally (be sure to use the same URL and
920 # --stdlayout/-T/-b/-t/--prefix options as were used on server)
921 git svn init http://svn.example.com/project [options...]
922 # Pull the latest changes from Subversion
923 git svn rebase
924 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
925
926 REBASE VS. PULL/MERGE
927 ---------------------
928 Prefer to use 'git svn rebase' or 'git rebase', rather than
929 'git pull' or 'git merge' to synchronize unintegrated commits with a 'git svn'
930 branch. Doing so will keep the history of unintegrated commits linear with
931 respect to the upstream SVN repository and allow the use of the preferred
932 'git svn dcommit' subcommand to push unintegrated commits back into SVN.
933
934 Originally, 'git svn' recommended that developers pulled or merged from
935 the 'git svn' branch. This was because the author favored
936 `git svn set-tree B` to commit a single head rather than the
937 `git svn set-tree A..B` notation to commit multiple commits. Use of
938 'git pull' or 'git merge' with `git svn set-tree A..B` will cause non-linear
939 history to be flattened when committing into SVN and this can lead to merge
940 commits unexpectedly reversing previous commits in SVN.
941
942 MERGE TRACKING
943 --------------
944 While 'git svn' can track
945 copy history (including branches and tags) for repositories adopting a
946 standard layout, it cannot yet represent merge history that happened
947 inside git back upstream to SVN users. Therefore it is advised that
948 users keep history as linear as possible inside Git to ease
949 compatibility with SVN (see the CAVEATS section below).
950
951 HANDLING OF SVN BRANCHES
952 ------------------------
953 If 'git svn' is configured to fetch branches (and --follow-branches
954 is in effect), it sometimes creates multiple Git branches for one
955 SVN branch, where the additional branches have names of the form
956 'branchname@nnn' (with nnn an SVN revision number). These additional
957 branches are created if 'git svn' cannot find a parent commit for the
958 first commit in an SVN branch, to connect the branch to the history of
959 the other branches.
960
961 Normally, the first commit in an SVN branch consists
962 of a copy operation. 'git svn' will read this commit to get the SVN
963 revision the branch was created from. It will then try to find the
964 Git commit that corresponds to this SVN revision, and use that as the
965 parent of the branch. However, it is possible that there is no suitable
966 Git commit to serve as parent. This will happen, among other reasons,
967 if the SVN branch is a copy of a revision that was not fetched by 'git
968 svn' (e.g. because it is an old revision that was skipped with
969 `--revision`), or if in SVN a directory was copied that is not tracked
970 by 'git svn' (such as a branch that is not tracked at all, or a
971 subdirectory of a tracked branch). In these cases, 'git svn' will still
972 create a Git branch, but instead of using an existing Git commit as the
973 parent of the branch, it will read the SVN history of the directory the
974 branch was copied from and create appropriate Git commits. This is
975 indicated by the message "Initializing parent: <branchname>".
976
977 Additionally, it will create a special branch named
978 '<branchname>@<SVN-Revision>', where <SVN-Revision> is the SVN revision
979 number the branch was copied from. This branch will point to the newly
980 created parent commit of the branch. If in SVN the branch was deleted
981 and later recreated from a different version, there will be multiple
982 such branches with an '@'.
983
984 Note that this may mean that multiple Git commits are created for a
985 single SVN revision.
986
987 An example: in an SVN repository with a standard
988 trunk/tags/branches layout, a directory trunk/sub is created in r.100.
989 In r.200, trunk/sub is branched by copying it to branches/. 'git svn
990 clone -s' will then create a branch 'sub'. It will also create new Git
991 commits for r.100 through r.199 and use these as the history of branch
992 'sub'. Thus there will be two Git commits for each revision from r.100
993 to r.199 (one containing trunk/, one containing trunk/sub/). Finally,
994 it will create a branch 'sub@200' pointing to the new parent commit of
995 branch 'sub' (i.e. the commit for r.200 and trunk/sub/).
996
997 CAVEATS
998 -------
999
1000 For the sake of simplicity and interoperating with Subversion,
1001 it is recommended that all 'git svn' users clone, fetch and dcommit
1002 directly from the SVN server, and avoid all 'git clone'/'pull'/'merge'/'push'
1003 operations between Git repositories and branches. The recommended
1004 method of exchanging code between Git branches and users is
1005 'git format-patch' and 'git am', or just 'dcommit'ing to the SVN repository.
1006
1007 Running 'git merge' or 'git pull' is NOT recommended on a branch you
1008 plan to 'dcommit' from because Subversion users cannot see any
1009 merges you've made. Furthermore, if you merge or pull from a Git branch
1010 that is a mirror of an SVN branch, 'dcommit' may commit to the wrong
1011 branch.
1012
1013 If you do merge, note the following rule: 'git svn dcommit' will
1014 attempt to commit on top of the SVN commit named in
1015 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
1016 git log --grep=^git-svn-id: --first-parent -1
1017 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
1018 You 'must' therefore ensure that the most recent commit of the branch
1019 you want to dcommit to is the 'first' parent of the merge. Chaos will
1020 ensue otherwise, especially if the first parent is an older commit on
1021 the same SVN branch.
1022
1023 'git clone' does not clone branches under the refs/remotes/ hierarchy or
1024 any 'git svn' metadata, or config. So repositories created and managed with
1025 using 'git svn' should use 'rsync' for cloning, if cloning is to be done
1026 at all.
1027
1028 Since 'dcommit' uses rebase internally, any Git branches you 'git push' to
1029 before 'dcommit' on will require forcing an overwrite of the existing ref
1030 on the remote repository. This is generally considered bad practice,
1031 see the linkgit:git-push[1] documentation for details.
1032
1033 Do not use the --amend option of linkgit:git-commit[1] on a change you've
1034 already dcommitted. It is considered bad practice to --amend commits
1035 you've already pushed to a remote repository for other users, and
1036 dcommit with SVN is analogous to that.
1037
1038 When cloning an SVN repository, if none of the options for describing
1039 the repository layout is used (--trunk, --tags, --branches,
1040 --stdlayout), 'git svn clone' will create a Git repository with
1041 completely linear history, where branches and tags appear as separate
1042 directories in the working copy. While this is the easiest way to get a
1043 copy of a complete repository, for projects with many branches it will
1044 lead to a working copy many times larger than just the trunk. Thus for
1045 projects using the standard directory structure (trunk/branches/tags),
1046 it is recommended to clone with option `--stdlayout`. If the project
1047 uses a non-standard structure, and/or if branches and tags are not
1048 required, it is easiest to only clone one directory (typically trunk),
1049 without giving any repository layout options. If the full history with
1050 branches and tags is required, the options `--trunk` / `--branches` /
1051 `--tags` must be used.
1052
1053 When using multiple --branches or --tags, 'git svn' does not automatically
1054 handle name collisions (for example, if two branches from different paths have
1055 the same name, or if a branch and a tag have the same name). In these cases,
1056 use 'init' to set up your Git repository then, before your first 'fetch', edit
1057 the $GIT_DIR/config file so that the branches and tags are associated
1058 with different name spaces. For example:
1059
1060 branches = stable/*:refs/remotes/svn/stable/*
1061 branches = debug/*:refs/remotes/svn/debug/*
1062
1063 BUGS
1064 ----
1065
1066 We ignore all SVN properties except svn:executable. Any unhandled
1067 properties are logged to $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>/unhandled.log
1068
1069 Renamed and copied directories are not detected by Git and hence not
1070 tracked when committing to SVN. I do not plan on adding support for
1071 this as it's quite difficult and time-consuming to get working for all
1072 the possible corner cases (Git doesn't do it, either). Committing
1073 renamed and copied files is fully supported if they're similar enough
1074 for Git to detect them.
1075
1076 In SVN, it is possible (though discouraged) to commit changes to a tag
1077 (because a tag is just a directory copy, thus technically the same as a
1078 branch). When cloning an SVN repository, 'git svn' cannot know if such a
1079 commit to a tag will happen in the future. Thus it acts conservatively
1080 and imports all SVN tags as branches, prefixing the tag name with 'tags/'.
1081
1082 CONFIGURATION
1083 -------------
1084
1085 'git svn' stores [svn-remote] configuration information in the
1086 repository $GIT_DIR/config file. It is similar the core Git
1087 [remote] sections except 'fetch' keys do not accept glob
1088 arguments; but they are instead handled by the 'branches'
1089 and 'tags' keys. Since some SVN repositories are oddly
1090 configured with multiple projects glob expansions such those
1091 listed below are allowed:
1092
1093 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
1094 [svn-remote "project-a"]
1095 url = http://server.org/svn
1096 fetch = trunk/project-a:refs/remotes/project-a/trunk
1097 branches = branches/*/project-a:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/*
1098 branches = branches/release_*:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/release_*
1099 branches = branches/re*se:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/*
1100 tags = tags/*/project-a:refs/remotes/project-a/tags/*
1101 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
1102
1103 Keep in mind that the '\*' (asterisk) wildcard of the local ref
1104 (right of the ':') *must* be the farthest right path component;
1105 however the remote wildcard may be anywhere as long as it's an
1106 independent path component (surrounded by '/' or EOL). This
1107 type of configuration is not automatically created by 'init' and
1108 should be manually entered with a text-editor or using 'git config'.
1109
1110 Also note that only one asterisk is allowed per word. For example:
1111
1112 branches = branches/re*se:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/*
1113
1114 will match branches 'release', 'rese', 're123se', however
1115
1116 branches = branches/re*s*e:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/*
1117
1118 will produce an error.
1119
1120 It is also possible to fetch a subset of branches or tags by using a
1121 comma-separated list of names within braces. For example:
1122
1123 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
1124 [svn-remote "huge-project"]
1125 url = http://server.org/svn
1126 fetch = trunk/src:refs/remotes/trunk
1127 branches = branches/{red,green}/src:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/*
1128 tags = tags/{1.0,2.0}/src:refs/remotes/project-a/tags/*
1129 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
1130
1131 Multiple fetch, branches, and tags keys are supported:
1132
1133 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
1134 [svn-remote "messy-repo"]
1135 url = http://server.org/svn
1136 fetch = trunk/project-a:refs/remotes/project-a/trunk
1137 fetch = branches/demos/june-project-a-demo:refs/remotes/project-a/demos/june-demo
1138 branches = branches/server/*:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/*
1139 branches = branches/demos/2011/*:refs/remotes/project-a/2011-demos/*
1140 tags = tags/server/*:refs/remotes/project-a/tags/*
1141 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
1142
1143 Creating a branch in such a configuration requires disambiguating which
1144 location to use using the -d or --destination flag:
1145
1146 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
1147 $ git svn branch -d branches/server release-2-3-0
1148 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
1149
1150 Note that git-svn keeps track of the highest revision in which a branch
1151 or tag has appeared. If the subset of branches or tags is changed after
1152 fetching, then $GIT_DIR/svn/.metadata must be manually edited to remove
1153 (or reset) branches-maxRev and/or tags-maxRev as appropriate.
1154
1155 FILES
1156 -----
1157 $GIT_DIR/svn/\*\*/.rev_map.*::
1158 Mapping between Subversion revision numbers and Git commit
1159 names. In a repository where the noMetadata option is not set,
1160 this can be rebuilt from the git-svn-id: lines that are at the
1161 end of every commit (see the 'svn.noMetadata' section above for
1162 details).
1163 +
1164 'git svn fetch' and 'git svn rebase' automatically update the rev_map
1165 if it is missing or not up to date. 'git svn reset' automatically
1166 rewinds it.
1167
1168 SEE ALSO
1169 --------
1170 linkgit:git-rebase[1]
1171
1172 GIT
1173 ---
1174 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite