contrib/subtree: ensure only one rev is provided
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-commit-tree.txt
1 git-commit-tree(1)
2 ==================
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-commit-tree - Create a new commit object
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git commit-tree' <tree> [(-p <parent>)...]
13 'git commit-tree' [(-p <parent>)...] [-S[<keyid>]] [(-m <message>)...]
14 [(-F <file>)...] <tree>
15
16
17 DESCRIPTION
18 -----------
19 This is usually not what an end user wants to run directly. See
20 linkgit:git-commit[1] instead.
21
22 Creates a new commit object based on the provided tree object and
23 emits the new commit object id on stdout. The log message is read
24 from the standard input, unless `-m` or `-F` options are given.
25
26 A commit object may have any number of parents. With exactly one
27 parent, it is an ordinary commit. Having more than one parent makes
28 the commit a merge between several lines of history. Initial (root)
29 commits have no parents.
30
31 While a tree represents a particular directory state of a working
32 directory, a commit represents that state in "time", and explains how
33 to get there.
34
35 Normally a commit would identify a new "HEAD" state, and while Git
36 doesn't care where you save the note about that state, in practice we
37 tend to just write the result to the file that is pointed at by
38 `.git/HEAD`, so that we can always see what the last committed
39 state was.
40
41 OPTIONS
42 -------
43 <tree>::
44 An existing tree object
45
46 -p <parent>::
47 Each `-p` indicates the id of a parent commit object.
48
49 -m <message>::
50 A paragraph in the commit log message. This can be given more than
51 once and each <message> becomes its own paragraph.
52
53 -F <file>::
54 Read the commit log message from the given file. Use `-` to read
55 from the standard input.
56
57 -S[<keyid>]::
58 --gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
59 GPG-sign commits. The `keyid` argument is optional and
60 defaults to the committer identity; if specified, it must be
61 stuck to the option without a space.
62
63 --no-gpg-sign::
64 Do not GPG-sign commit, to countermand a `--gpg-sign` option
65 given earlier on the command line.
66
67
68 Commit Information
69 ------------------
70
71 A commit encapsulates:
72
73 - all parent object ids
74 - author name, email and date
75 - committer name and email and the commit time.
76
77 While parent object ids are provided on the command line, author and
78 committer information is taken from the following environment variables,
79 if set:
80
81 GIT_AUTHOR_NAME
82 GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL
83 GIT_AUTHOR_DATE
84 GIT_COMMITTER_NAME
85 GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL
86 GIT_COMMITTER_DATE
87
88 (nb "<", ">" and "\n"s are stripped)
89
90 In case (some of) these environment variables are not set, the information
91 is taken from the configuration items user.name and user.email, or, if not
92 present, the environment variable EMAIL, or, if that is not set,
93 system user name and the hostname used for outgoing mail (taken
94 from `/etc/mailname` and falling back to the fully qualified hostname when
95 that file does not exist).
96
97 A commit comment is read from stdin. If a changelog
98 entry is not provided via "<" redirection, 'git commit-tree' will just wait
99 for one to be entered and terminated with ^D.
100
101 include::date-formats.txt[]
102
103 Discussion
104 ----------
105
106 include::i18n.txt[]
107
108 FILES
109 -----
110 /etc/mailname
111
112 SEE ALSO
113 --------
114 linkgit:git-write-tree[1]
115
116 GIT
117 ---
118 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite