Merge branch 'mv/commit-date'
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-commit.txt
1 git-commit(1)
2 =============
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-commit - Record changes to the repository
7
8 SYNOPSIS
9 --------
10 [verse]
11 'git commit' [-a | --interactive] [-s] [-v] [-u<mode>] [--amend] [--dry-run]
12 [(-c | -C) <commit>] [-F <file> | -m <msg>] [--reset-author]
13 [--allow-empty] [--no-verify] [-e] [--author=<author>]
14 [--date=<date>] [--cleanup=<mode>] [--] [[-i | -o ]<file>...]
15
16 DESCRIPTION
17 -----------
18 Stores the current contents of the index in a new commit along
19 with a log message from the user describing the changes.
20
21 The content to be added can be specified in several ways:
22
23 1. by using 'git-add' to incrementally "add" changes to the
24 index before using the 'commit' command (Note: even modified
25 files must be "added");
26
27 2. by using 'git-rm' to remove files from the working tree
28 and the index, again before using the 'commit' command;
29
30 3. by listing files as arguments to the 'commit' command, in which
31 case the commit will ignore changes staged in the index, and instead
32 record the current content of the listed files (which must already
33 be known to git);
34
35 4. by using the -a switch with the 'commit' command to automatically
36 "add" changes from all known files (i.e. all files that are already
37 listed in the index) and to automatically "rm" files in the index
38 that have been removed from the working tree, and then perform the
39 actual commit;
40
41 5. by using the --interactive switch with the 'commit' command to decide one
42 by one which files should be part of the commit, before finalizing the
43 operation. Currently, this is done by invoking 'git-add --interactive'.
44
45 The `--dry-run` option can be used to obtain a
46 summary of what is included by any of the above for the next
47 commit by giving the same set of parameters (options and paths).
48
49 If you make a commit and then find a mistake immediately after
50 that, you can recover from it with 'git-reset'.
51
52
53 OPTIONS
54 -------
55 -a::
56 --all::
57 Tell the command to automatically stage files that have
58 been modified and deleted, but new files you have not
59 told git about are not affected.
60
61 -C <commit>::
62 --reuse-message=<commit>::
63 Take an existing commit object, and reuse the log message
64 and the authorship information (including the timestamp)
65 when creating the commit.
66
67 -c <commit>::
68 --reedit-message=<commit>::
69 Like '-C', but with '-c' the editor is invoked, so that
70 the user can further edit the commit message.
71
72 --reset-author::
73 When used with -C/-c/--amend options, declare that the
74 authorship of the resulting commit now belongs of the committer.
75 This also renews the author timestamp.
76
77 --short::
78 When doing a dry-run, give the output in the short-format. See
79 linkgit:git-status[1] for details. Implies `--dry-run`.
80
81 --porcelain::
82 When doing a dry-run, give the output in a porcelain-ready
83 format. See linkgit:git-status[1] for details. Implies
84 `--dry-run`.
85
86 -z::
87 When showing `short` or `porcelain` status output, terminate
88 entries in the status output with NUL, instead of LF. If no
89 format is given, implies the `--porcelain` output format.
90
91 -F <file>::
92 --file=<file>::
93 Take the commit message from the given file. Use '-' to
94 read the message from the standard input.
95
96 --author=<author>::
97 Override the author name used in the commit. You can use the
98 standard `A U Thor <author@example.com>` format. Otherwise,
99 an existing commit that matches the given string and its author
100 name is used.
101
102 --date=<date>::
103 Override the author date used in the commit.
104
105 -m <msg>::
106 --message=<msg>::
107 Use the given <msg> as the commit message.
108
109 -t <file>::
110 --template=<file>::
111 Use the contents of the given file as the initial version
112 of the commit message. The editor is invoked and you can
113 make subsequent changes. If a message is specified using
114 the `-m` or `-F` options, this option has no effect. This
115 overrides the `commit.template` configuration variable.
116
117 -s::
118 --signoff::
119 Add Signed-off-by line by the committer at the end of the commit
120 log message.
121
122 -n::
123 --no-verify::
124 This option bypasses the pre-commit and commit-msg hooks.
125 See also linkgit:githooks[5].
126
127 --allow-empty::
128 Usually recording a commit that has the exact same tree as its
129 sole parent commit is a mistake, and the command prevents you
130 from making such a commit. This option bypasses the safety, and
131 is primarily for use by foreign scm interface scripts.
132
133 --cleanup=<mode>::
134 This option sets how the commit message is cleaned up.
135 The '<mode>' can be one of 'verbatim', 'whitespace', 'strip',
136 and 'default'. The 'default' mode will strip leading and
137 trailing empty lines and #commentary from the commit message
138 only if the message is to be edited. Otherwise only whitespace
139 removed. The 'verbatim' mode does not change message at all,
140 'whitespace' removes just leading/trailing whitespace lines
141 and 'strip' removes both whitespace and commentary.
142
143 -e::
144 --edit::
145 The message taken from file with `-F`, command line with
146 `-m`, and from file with `-C` are usually used as the
147 commit log message unmodified. This option lets you
148 further edit the message taken from these sources.
149
150 --amend::
151 Used to amend the tip of the current branch. Prepare the tree
152 object you would want to replace the latest commit as usual
153 (this includes the usual -i/-o and explicit paths), and the
154 commit log editor is seeded with the commit message from the
155 tip of the current branch. The commit you create replaces the
156 current tip -- if it was a merge, it will have the parents of
157 the current tip as parents -- so the current top commit is
158 discarded.
159 +
160 --
161 It is a rough equivalent for:
162 ------
163 $ git reset --soft HEAD^
164 $ ... do something else to come up with the right tree ...
165 $ git commit -c ORIG_HEAD
166
167 ------
168 but can be used to amend a merge commit.
169 --
170 +
171 You should understand the implications of rewriting history if you
172 amend a commit that has already been published. (See the "RECOVERING
173 FROM UPSTREAM REBASE" section in linkgit:git-rebase[1].)
174
175 -i::
176 --include::
177 Before making a commit out of staged contents so far,
178 stage the contents of paths given on the command line
179 as well. This is usually not what you want unless you
180 are concluding a conflicted merge.
181
182 -o::
183 --only::
184 Make a commit only from the paths specified on the
185 command line, disregarding any contents that have been
186 staged so far. This is the default mode of operation of
187 'git-commit' if any paths are given on the command line,
188 in which case this option can be omitted.
189 If this option is specified together with '--amend', then
190 no paths need to be specified, which can be used to amend
191 the last commit without committing changes that have
192 already been staged.
193
194 -u[<mode>]::
195 --untracked-files[=<mode>]::
196 Show untracked files (Default: 'all').
197 +
198 The mode parameter is optional, and is used to specify
199 the handling of untracked files. The possible options are:
200 +
201 --
202 - 'no' - Show no untracked files
203 - 'normal' - Shows untracked files and directories
204 - 'all' - Also shows individual files in untracked directories.
205 --
206 +
207 See linkgit:git-config[1] for configuration variable
208 used to change the default for when the option is not
209 specified.
210
211 -v::
212 --verbose::
213 Show unified diff between the HEAD commit and what
214 would be committed at the bottom of the commit message
215 template. Note that this diff output doesn't have its
216 lines prefixed with '#'.
217
218 -q::
219 --quiet::
220 Suppress commit summary message.
221
222 --dry-run::
223 Do not create a commit, but show a list of paths that are
224 to be committed, paths with local changes that will be left
225 uncommitted and paths that are untracked.
226
227 \--::
228 Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
229
230 <file>...::
231 When files are given on the command line, the command
232 commits the contents of the named files, without
233 recording the changes already staged. The contents of
234 these files are also staged for the next commit on top
235 of what have been staged before.
236
237 :git-commit: 1
238 include::date-formats.txt[]
239
240 EXAMPLES
241 --------
242 When recording your own work, the contents of modified files in
243 your working tree are temporarily stored to a staging area
244 called the "index" with 'git-add'. A file can be
245 reverted back, only in the index but not in the working tree,
246 to that of the last commit with `git reset HEAD -- <file>`,
247 which effectively reverts 'git-add' and prevents the changes to
248 this file from participating in the next commit. After building
249 the state to be committed incrementally with these commands,
250 `git commit` (without any pathname parameter) is used to record what
251 has been staged so far. This is the most basic form of the
252 command. An example:
253
254 ------------
255 $ edit hello.c
256 $ git rm goodbye.c
257 $ git add hello.c
258 $ git commit
259 ------------
260
261 Instead of staging files after each individual change, you can
262 tell `git commit` to notice the changes to the files whose
263 contents are tracked in
264 your working tree and do corresponding `git add` and `git rm`
265 for you. That is, this example does the same as the earlier
266 example if there is no other change in your working tree:
267
268 ------------
269 $ edit hello.c
270 $ rm goodbye.c
271 $ git commit -a
272 ------------
273
274 The command `git commit -a` first looks at your working tree,
275 notices that you have modified hello.c and removed goodbye.c,
276 and performs necessary `git add` and `git rm` for you.
277
278 After staging changes to many files, you can alter the order the
279 changes are recorded in, by giving pathnames to `git commit`.
280 When pathnames are given, the command makes a commit that
281 only records the changes made to the named paths:
282
283 ------------
284 $ edit hello.c hello.h
285 $ git add hello.c hello.h
286 $ edit Makefile
287 $ git commit Makefile
288 ------------
289
290 This makes a commit that records the modification to `Makefile`.
291 The changes staged for `hello.c` and `hello.h` are not included
292 in the resulting commit. However, their changes are not lost --
293 they are still staged and merely held back. After the above
294 sequence, if you do:
295
296 ------------
297 $ git commit
298 ------------
299
300 this second commit would record the changes to `hello.c` and
301 `hello.h` as expected.
302
303 After a merge (initiated by 'git-merge' or 'git-pull') stops
304 because of conflicts, cleanly merged
305 paths are already staged to be committed for you, and paths that
306 conflicted are left in unmerged state. You would have to first
307 check which paths are conflicting with 'git-status'
308 and after fixing them manually in your working tree, you would
309 stage the result as usual with 'git-add':
310
311 ------------
312 $ git status | grep unmerged
313 unmerged: hello.c
314 $ edit hello.c
315 $ git add hello.c
316 ------------
317
318 After resolving conflicts and staging the result, `git ls-files -u`
319 would stop mentioning the conflicted path. When you are done,
320 run `git commit` to finally record the merge:
321
322 ------------
323 $ git commit
324 ------------
325
326 As with the case to record your own changes, you can use `-a`
327 option to save typing. One difference is that during a merge
328 resolution, you cannot use `git commit` with pathnames to
329 alter the order the changes are committed, because the merge
330 should be recorded as a single commit. In fact, the command
331 refuses to run when given pathnames (but see `-i` option).
332
333
334 DISCUSSION
335 ----------
336
337 Though not required, it's a good idea to begin the commit message
338 with a single short (less than 50 character) line summarizing the
339 change, followed by a blank line and then a more thorough description.
340 Tools that turn commits into email, for example, use the first line
341 on the Subject: line and the rest of the commit in the body.
342
343 include::i18n.txt[]
344
345 ENVIRONMENT AND CONFIGURATION VARIABLES
346 ---------------------------------------
347 The editor used to edit the commit log message will be chosen from the
348 GIT_EDITOR environment variable, the core.editor configuration variable, the
349 VISUAL environment variable, or the EDITOR environment variable (in that
350 order). See linkgit:git-var[1] for details.
351
352 HOOKS
353 -----
354 This command can run `commit-msg`, `prepare-commit-msg`, `pre-commit`,
355 and `post-commit` hooks. See linkgit:githooks[5] for more
356 information.
357
358
359 SEE ALSO
360 --------
361 linkgit:git-add[1],
362 linkgit:git-rm[1],
363 linkgit:git-mv[1],
364 linkgit:git-merge[1],
365 linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
366
367 Author
368 ------
369 Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org> and
370 Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
371
372
373 GIT
374 ---
375 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite