Git 2.4.9
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
26 commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27 in-depth introduction.
28
29 After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
30 page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31 individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
32 manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
33
34 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
35 can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
36
37 ifdef::stalenotes[]
38 [NOTE]
39 ============
40
41 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42 unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
43 branch of the `git.git` repository.
44 Documentation for older releases are available here:
45
46 * link:v2.4.9/git.html[documentation for release 2.4.9]
47
48 * release notes for
49 link:RelNotes/2.4.9.txt[2.4.9],
50 link:RelNotes/2.4.8.txt[2.4.8],
51 link:RelNotes/2.4.7.txt[2.4.7],
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55 link:RelNotes/2.4.3.txt[2.4.3],
56 link:RelNotes/2.4.2.txt[2.4.2],
57 link:RelNotes/2.4.1.txt[2.4.1],
58 link:RelNotes/2.4.0.txt[2.4].
59
60 * link:v2.3.9/git.html[documentation for release 2.3.9]
61
62 * release notes for
63 link:RelNotes/2.3.9.txt[2.3.9],
64 link:RelNotes/2.3.8.txt[2.3.8],
65 link:RelNotes/2.3.7.txt[2.3.7],
66 link:RelNotes/2.3.6.txt[2.3.6],
67 link:RelNotes/2.3.5.txt[2.3.5],
68 link:RelNotes/2.3.4.txt[2.3.4],
69 link:RelNotes/2.3.3.txt[2.3.3],
70 link:RelNotes/2.3.2.txt[2.3.2],
71 link:RelNotes/2.3.1.txt[2.3.1],
72 link:RelNotes/2.3.0.txt[2.3].
73
74 * link:v2.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 2.2.3]
75
76 * release notes for
77 link:RelNotes/2.2.3.txt[2.2.3],
78 link:RelNotes/2.2.2.txt[2.2.2],
79 link:RelNotes/2.2.1.txt[2.2.1],
80 link:RelNotes/2.2.0.txt[2.2].
81
82 * link:v2.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.1.4]
83
84 * release notes for
85 link:RelNotes/2.1.4.txt[2.1.4],
86 link:RelNotes/2.1.3.txt[2.1.3],
87 link:RelNotes/2.1.2.txt[2.1.2],
88 link:RelNotes/2.1.1.txt[2.1.1],
89 link:RelNotes/2.1.0.txt[2.1].
90
91 * link:v2.0.5/git.html[documentation for release 2.0.5]
92
93 * release notes for
94 link:RelNotes/2.0.5.txt[2.0.5],
95 link:RelNotes/2.0.4.txt[2.0.4],
96 link:RelNotes/2.0.3.txt[2.0.3],
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98 link:RelNotes/2.0.1.txt[2.0.1],
99 link:RelNotes/2.0.0.txt[2.0.0].
100
101 * link:v1.9.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.9.5]
102
103 * release notes for
104 link:RelNotes/1.9.5.txt[1.9.5],
105 link:RelNotes/1.9.4.txt[1.9.4],
106 link:RelNotes/1.9.3.txt[1.9.3],
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108 link:RelNotes/1.9.1.txt[1.9.1],
109 link:RelNotes/1.9.0.txt[1.9.0].
110
111 * link:v1.8.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.5.6]
112
113 * release notes for
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115 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.5.txt[1.8.5.5],
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120 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.txt[1.8.5].
121
122 * link:v1.8.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.4.5]
123
124 * release notes for
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126 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt[1.8.4.4],
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129 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt[1.8.4.1],
130 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.txt[1.8.4].
131
132 * link:v1.8.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.3.4]
133
134 * release notes for
135 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.4.txt[1.8.3.4],
136 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.3.txt[1.8.3.3],
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139 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.txt[1.8.3].
140
141 * link:v1.8.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.2.3]
142
143 * release notes for
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145 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt[1.8.2.2],
146 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt[1.8.2.1],
147 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.txt[1.8.2].
148
149 * link:v1.8.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.1.6]
150
151 * release notes for
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153 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.5.txt[1.8.1.5],
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157 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.1.txt[1.8.1.1],
158 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.txt[1.8.1].
159
160 * link:v1.8.0.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.0.3]
161
162 * release notes for
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166 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.txt[1.8.0].
167
168 * link:v1.7.12.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.12.4]
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170 * release notes for
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172 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt[1.7.12.3],
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175 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.txt[1.7.12].
176
177 * link:v1.7.11.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.7]
178
179 * release notes for
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187 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.txt[1.7.11].
188
189 * link:v1.7.10.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.10.5]
190
191 * release notes for
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193 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt[1.7.10.4],
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197 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.txt[1.7.10].
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199 * link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
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201 * release notes for
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209 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
210
211 * link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
212
213 * release notes for
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222 * link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
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234 * link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
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236 * release notes for
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245 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
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254 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
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264 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
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274 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
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284 * link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
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293 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
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307 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
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315 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
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329 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
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356 * link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
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364 * link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
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375 * link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
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386 * link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
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438 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
439 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
440 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
441 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
442
443 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
444
445 * release notes for
446 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
447 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
448 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
449 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
450 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
451 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
452 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
453
454 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
455 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
456 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
457 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
458
459 ============
460
461 endif::stalenotes[]
462
463 OPTIONS
464 -------
465 --version::
466 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
467
468 --help::
469 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
470 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
471 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
472 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
473 +
474 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
475 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
476 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
477 help ...`.
478
479 -C <path>::
480 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
481 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
482 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
483 <path>`.
484 +
485 This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
486 `--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
487 made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
488 example the following invocations are equivalent:
489
490 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
491 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
492
493 -c <name>=<value>::
494 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
495 given will override values from configuration files.
496 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
497 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
498 +
499 Note that omitting the `=` in `git -c foo.bar ...` is allowed and sets
500 `foo.bar` to the boolean true value (just like `[foo]bar` would in a
501 config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like `git -c
502 foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string.
503
504 --exec-path[=<path>]::
505 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
506 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
507 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
508 the current setting and then exit.
509
510 --html-path::
511 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
512 documentation is installed and exit.
513
514 --man-path::
515 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
516 this version of Git and exit.
517
518 --info-path::
519 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
520 version of Git are installed and exit.
521
522 -p::
523 --paginate::
524 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
525 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
526 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
527 below).
528
529 --no-pager::
530 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
531
532 --git-dir=<path>::
533 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
534 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
535 path or relative path to current working directory.
536
537 --work-tree=<path>::
538 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
539 or a path relative to the current working directory.
540 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
541 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
542 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
543 more detailed discussion).
544
545 --namespace=<path>::
546 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
547 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
548 variable.
549
550 --bare::
551 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
552 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
553 directory.
554
555 --no-replace-objects::
556 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
557 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
558
559 --literal-pathspecs::
560 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
561 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
562 variable to `1`.
563
564 --glob-pathspecs::
565 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
566 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
567 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
568 magic ":(literal)"
569
570 --noglob-pathspecs::
571 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
572 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
573 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
574 magic ":(glob)"
575
576 --icase-pathspecs::
577 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
578 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
579
580 GIT COMMANDS
581 ------------
582
583 We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
584 ("plumbing") commands.
585
586 High-level commands (porcelain)
587 -------------------------------
588
589 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
590 ancillary user utilities.
591
592 Main porcelain commands
593 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
594
595 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
596
597 Ancillary Commands
598 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
599 Manipulators:
600
601 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
602
603 Interrogators:
604
605 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
606
607
608 Interacting with Others
609 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
610
611 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
612 people via patch over e-mail.
613
614 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
615
616
617 Low-level commands (plumbing)
618 -----------------------------
619
620 Although Git includes its
621 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
622 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
623 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
624 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
625
626 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
627 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
628 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
629 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
630 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
631 end user experience.
632
633 The following description divides
634 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
635 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
636 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
637 repositories.
638
639
640 Manipulation commands
641 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
642
643 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
644
645
646 Interrogation commands
647 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
648
649 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
650
651 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
652 the working tree.
653
654
655 Synching repositories
656 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
657
658 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
659
660 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
661 typically do not use them directly.
662
663 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
664
665
666 Internal helper commands
667 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
668
669 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
670 users typically do not use them directly.
671
672 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
673
674
675 Configuration Mechanism
676 -----------------------
677
678 Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
679 repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
680 like this:
681
682 ------------
683 #
684 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
685 #
686
687 ; core variables
688 [core]
689 ; Don't trust file modes
690 filemode = false
691
692 ; user identity
693 [user]
694 name = "Junio C Hamano"
695 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
696
697 ------------
698
699 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
700 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
701 list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
702
703
704 Identifier Terminology
705 ----------------------
706 <object>::
707 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
708
709 <blob>::
710 Indicates a blob object name.
711
712 <tree>::
713 Indicates a tree object name.
714
715 <commit>::
716 Indicates a commit object name.
717
718 <tree-ish>::
719 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
720 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
721 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
722 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
723
724 <commit-ish>::
725 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
726 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
727 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
728 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
729
730 <type>::
731 Indicates that an object type is required.
732 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
733
734 <file>::
735 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
736 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
737
738 Symbolic Identifiers
739 --------------------
740 Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
741 symbolic notation:
742
743 HEAD::
744 indicates the head of the current branch.
745
746 <tag>::
747 a valid tag 'name'
748 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
749
750 <head>::
751 a valid head 'name'
752 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
753
754 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
755 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
756
757
758 File/Directory Structure
759 ------------------------
760
761 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
762
763 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
764
765 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
766 `$GIT_DIR`.
767
768
769 Terminology
770 -----------
771 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
772
773
774 Environment Variables
775 ---------------------
776 Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
777
778 The Git Repository
779 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
780 These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
781 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
782 Git so take care if using Cogito etc.
783
784 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
785 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
786 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
787 is used.
788
789 'GIT_INDEX_VERSION'::
790 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
791 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
792 files. By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See
793 linkgit:git-update-index[1] for more information.
794
795 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
796 If the object storage directory is specified via this
797 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
798 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
799 directory is used.
800
801 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
802 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
803 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
804 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
805 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
806 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
807
808 'GIT_DIR'::
809 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
810 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
811 for the base of the repository.
812 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
813
814 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
815 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
816 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command-line
817 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
818
819 'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
820 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
821 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
822
823 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
824 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
825 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
826 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
827 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
828 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
829 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
830 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
831 might be present in order to compare them with the current
832 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
833 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
834 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
835 e.g.,
836 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
837
838 'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
839 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
840 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
841 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
842 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
843 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
844 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
845 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
846 command line.
847
848 Git Commits
849 ~~~~~~~~~~~
850 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
851 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
852 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
853 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
854 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
855 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
856 'EMAIL'::
857 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
858
859 Git Diffs
860 ~~~~~~~~~
861 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
862 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
863 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
864 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
865 value passed on the Git diff command line.
866
867 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
868 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
869 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
870 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
871 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
872
873 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
874 +
875 where:
876
877 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
878 contents of <old|new>,
879 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
880 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
881 +
882 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
883 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
884 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
885 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
886 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
887 +
888 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
889 parameter, <path>.
890 +
891 For each path 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called, two environment variables,
892 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER' and 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL' are set.
893
894 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER'::
895 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
896
897 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL'::
898 The total number of paths.
899
900 other
901 ~~~~~
902 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
903 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
904 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
905 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
906
907 'GIT_PAGER'::
908 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
909 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
910 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
911 linkgit:git-config[1].
912
913 'GIT_EDITOR'::
914 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
915 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
916 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
917 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
918
919 'GIT_SSH'::
920 'GIT_SSH_COMMAND'::
921 If either of these environment variables is set then 'git fetch'
922 and 'git push' will use the specified command instead of 'ssh'
923 when they need to connect to a remote system.
924 The command will be given exactly two or four arguments: the
925 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the shell
926 command to execute on that remote system, optionally preceded by
927 '-p' (literally) and the 'port' from the URL when it specifies
928 something other than the default SSH port.
929 +
930 `$GIT_SSH_COMMAND` takes precedence over `$GIT_SSH`, and is interpreted
931 by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
932 `$GIT_SSH` on the other hand must be just the path to a program
933 (which can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are
934 needed).
935 +
936 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
937 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
938 for further details.
939
940 'GIT_ASKPASS'::
941 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
942 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
943 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument
944 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askPass'
945 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
946
947 'GIT_TERMINAL_PROMPT'::
948 If this environment variable is set to `0`, git will not prompt
949 on the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).
950
951 'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
952 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
953 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
954 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
955 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
956 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
957 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
958
959 'GIT_FLUSH'::
960 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
961 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
962 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
963 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
964 flushed. If this
965 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
966 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
967 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
968 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
969
970 'GIT_TRACE'::
971 Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
972 command execution and external command execution.
973 +
974 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
975 is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to
976 stderr.
977 +
978 If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2
979 and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
980 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
981 trace messages into this file descriptor.
982 +
983 Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path
984 (starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
985 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
986 into it.
987 +
988 Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
989 "false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
990
991 'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
992 Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
993 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
994 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
995 pack-related performance problems.
996 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
997
998 'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
999 Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
1000 given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
1001 or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet
1002 starting with "PACK".
1003 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1004
1005 'GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE'::
1006 Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
1007 time of each Git command.
1008 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1009
1010 'GIT_TRACE_SETUP'::
1011 Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
1012 working directory after Git has completed its setup phase.
1013 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1014
1015 'GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW'::
1016 Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching /
1017 cloning of shallow repositories.
1018 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1019
1020 GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
1021 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1022 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
1023 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
1024 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
1025 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
1026 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
1027 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
1028
1029 GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS::
1030 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1031 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
1032
1033 GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS::
1034 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1035 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
1036
1037 GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS::
1038 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1039 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
1040
1041 'GIT_REFLOG_ACTION'::
1042 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
1043 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
1044 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
1045 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
1046 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
1047 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
1048 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
1049 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
1050
1051 `GIT_REF_PARANOIA`::
1052 If set to `1`, include broken or badly named refs when iterating
1053 over lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this
1054 does nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and
1055 abort some operations in the presence of broken refs. Git sets
1056 this variable automatically when performing destructive
1057 operations like linkgit:git-prune[1]. You should not need to set
1058 it yourself unless you want to be paranoid about making sure
1059 an operation has touched every ref (e.g., because you are
1060 cloning a repository to make a backup).
1061
1062
1063 Discussion[[Discussion]]
1064 ------------------------
1065
1066 More detail on the following is available from the
1067 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1068 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
1069
1070 A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
1071 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
1072 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
1073 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
1074 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
1075 as tags and branch heads.
1076
1077 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
1078 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
1079 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
1080 and some number of parent commits.
1081
1082 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
1083 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
1084 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
1085 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
1086
1087 All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
1088 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
1089 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
1090 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
1091 purpose.
1092
1093 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
1094 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
1095
1096 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
1097 may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
1098 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
1099 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
1100 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
1101 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
1102
1103 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
1104 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1105 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1106 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1107 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1108 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1109 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1110 content stored in the index.
1111
1112 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1113 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1114 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
1115
1116 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1117 ---------------------
1118
1119 See the references in the "description" section to get started
1120 using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
1121 for a first-time user.
1122
1123 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1124 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
1125 introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
1126
1127 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1128
1129 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1130 examples.
1131
1132 The internals are documented in the
1133 link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
1134
1135 Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1136 read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1137
1138
1139 Authors
1140 -------
1141 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
1142 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
1143 <git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary
1144 gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1145
1146 If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
1147 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1148 the authors for specific parts of the project.
1149
1150 Reporting Bugs
1151 --------------
1152
1153 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1154 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1155 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1156
1157 SEE ALSO
1158 --------
1159 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
1160 linkgit:giteveryday[7], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
1161 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
1162 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1163 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
1164
1165 GIT
1166 ---
1167 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite