docs: say that `--rebase=preserve` is deprecated
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-pull.txt
1 git-pull(1)
2 ===========
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-pull - Fetch from and integrate with another repository or a local branch
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git pull' [<options>] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
13
14
15 DESCRIPTION
16 -----------
17
18 Incorporates changes from a remote repository into the current
19 branch. In its default mode, `git pull` is shorthand for
20 `git fetch` followed by `git merge FETCH_HEAD`.
21
22 More precisely, 'git pull' runs 'git fetch' with the given
23 parameters and calls 'git merge' to merge the retrieved branch
24 heads into the current branch.
25 With `--rebase`, it runs 'git rebase' instead of 'git merge'.
26
27 <repository> should be the name of a remote repository as
28 passed to linkgit:git-fetch[1]. <refspec> can name an
29 arbitrary remote ref (for example, the name of a tag) or even
30 a collection of refs with corresponding remote-tracking branches
31 (e.g., refs/heads/{asterisk}:refs/remotes/origin/{asterisk}),
32 but usually it is the name of a branch in the remote repository.
33
34 Default values for <repository> and <branch> are read from the
35 "remote" and "merge" configuration for the current branch
36 as set by linkgit:git-branch[1] `--track`.
37
38 Assume the following history exists and the current branch is
39 "`master`":
40
41 ------------
42 A---B---C master on origin
43 /
44 D---E---F---G master
45 ^
46 origin/master in your repository
47 ------------
48
49 Then "`git pull`" will fetch and replay the changes from the remote
50 `master` branch since it diverged from the local `master` (i.e., `E`)
51 until its current commit (`C`) on top of `master` and record the
52 result in a new commit along with the names of the two parent commits
53 and a log message from the user describing the changes.
54
55 ------------
56 A---B---C origin/master
57 / \
58 D---E---F---G---H master
59 ------------
60
61 See linkgit:git-merge[1] for details, including how conflicts
62 are presented and handled.
63
64 In Git 1.7.0 or later, to cancel a conflicting merge, use
65 `git reset --merge`. *Warning*: In older versions of Git, running 'git pull'
66 with uncommitted changes is discouraged: while possible, it leaves you
67 in a state that may be hard to back out of in the case of a conflict.
68
69 If any of the remote changes overlap with local uncommitted changes,
70 the merge will be automatically canceled and the work tree untouched.
71 It is generally best to get any local changes in working order before
72 pulling or stash them away with linkgit:git-stash[1].
73
74 OPTIONS
75 -------
76
77 -q::
78 --quiet::
79 This is passed to both underlying git-fetch to squelch reporting of
80 during transfer, and underlying git-merge to squelch output during
81 merging.
82
83 -v::
84 --verbose::
85 Pass --verbose to git-fetch and git-merge.
86
87 --[no-]recurse-submodules[=yes|on-demand|no]::
88 This option controls if new commits of all populated submodules should
89 be fetched and updated, too (see linkgit:git-config[1] and
90 linkgit:gitmodules[5]).
91 +
92 If the checkout is done via rebase, local submodule commits are rebased as well.
93 +
94 If the update is done via merge, the submodule conflicts are resolved and checked out.
95
96 Options related to merging
97 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
98
99 :git-pull: 1
100
101 include::merge-options.txt[]
102
103 -r::
104 --rebase[=false|true|merges|preserve|interactive]::
105 When true, rebase the current branch on top of the upstream
106 branch after fetching. If there is a remote-tracking branch
107 corresponding to the upstream branch and the upstream branch
108 was rebased since last fetched, the rebase uses that information
109 to avoid rebasing non-local changes.
110 +
111 When set to `merges`, rebase using `git rebase --rebase-merges` so that
112 the local merge commits are included in the rebase (see
113 linkgit:git-rebase[1] for details).
114 +
115 When set to `preserve` (deprecated in favor of `merges`), rebase with the
116 `--preserve-merges` option passed to `git rebase` so that locally created
117 merge commits will not be flattened.
118 +
119 When false, merge the current branch into the upstream branch.
120 +
121 When `interactive`, enable the interactive mode of rebase.
122 +
123 See `pull.rebase`, `branch.<name>.rebase` and `branch.autoSetupRebase` in
124 linkgit:git-config[1] if you want to make `git pull` always use
125 `--rebase` instead of merging.
126 +
127 [NOTE]
128 This is a potentially _dangerous_ mode of operation.
129 It rewrites history, which does not bode well when you
130 published that history already. Do *not* use this option
131 unless you have read linkgit:git-rebase[1] carefully.
132
133 --no-rebase::
134 Override earlier --rebase.
135
136 --autostash::
137 --no-autostash::
138 Before starting rebase, stash local modifications away (see
139 linkgit:git-stash[1]) if needed, and apply the stash entry when
140 done. `--no-autostash` is useful to override the `rebase.autoStash`
141 configuration variable (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
142 +
143 This option is only valid when "--rebase" is used.
144
145 Options related to fetching
146 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
147
148 include::fetch-options.txt[]
149
150 include::pull-fetch-param.txt[]
151
152 include::urls-remotes.txt[]
153
154 include::merge-strategies.txt[]
155
156 DEFAULT BEHAVIOUR
157 -----------------
158
159 Often people use `git pull` without giving any parameter.
160 Traditionally, this has been equivalent to saying `git pull
161 origin`. However, when configuration `branch.<name>.remote` is
162 present while on branch `<name>`, that value is used instead of
163 `origin`.
164
165 In order to determine what URL to use to fetch from, the value
166 of the configuration `remote.<origin>.url` is consulted
167 and if there is not any such variable, the value on the `URL:` line
168 in `$GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin>` is used.
169
170 In order to determine what remote branches to fetch (and
171 optionally store in the remote-tracking branches) when the command is
172 run without any refspec parameters on the command line, values
173 of the configuration variable `remote.<origin>.fetch` are
174 consulted, and if there aren't any, `$GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin>`
175 is consulted and its `Pull:` lines are used.
176 In addition to the refspec formats described in the OPTIONS
177 section, you can have a globbing refspec that looks like this:
178
179 ------------
180 refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*
181 ------------
182
183 A globbing refspec must have a non-empty RHS (i.e. must store
184 what were fetched in remote-tracking branches), and its LHS and RHS
185 must end with `/*`. The above specifies that all remote
186 branches are tracked using remote-tracking branches in
187 `refs/remotes/origin/` hierarchy under the same name.
188
189 The rule to determine which remote branch to merge after
190 fetching is a bit involved, in order not to break backward
191 compatibility.
192
193 If explicit refspecs were given on the command
194 line of `git pull`, they are all merged.
195
196 When no refspec was given on the command line, then `git pull`
197 uses the refspec from the configuration or
198 `$GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin>`. In such cases, the following
199 rules apply:
200
201 . If `branch.<name>.merge` configuration for the current
202 branch `<name>` exists, that is the name of the branch at the
203 remote site that is merged.
204
205 . If the refspec is a globbing one, nothing is merged.
206
207 . Otherwise the remote branch of the first refspec is merged.
208
209
210 EXAMPLES
211 --------
212
213 * Update the remote-tracking branches for the repository
214 you cloned from, then merge one of them into your
215 current branch:
216 +
217 ------------------------------------------------
218 $ git pull
219 $ git pull origin
220 ------------------------------------------------
221 +
222 Normally the branch merged in is the HEAD of the remote repository,
223 but the choice is determined by the branch.<name>.remote and
224 branch.<name>.merge options; see linkgit:git-config[1] for details.
225
226 * Merge into the current branch the remote branch `next`:
227 +
228 ------------------------------------------------
229 $ git pull origin next
230 ------------------------------------------------
231 +
232 This leaves a copy of `next` temporarily in FETCH_HEAD, but
233 does not update any remote-tracking branches. Using remote-tracking
234 branches, the same can be done by invoking fetch and merge:
235 +
236 ------------------------------------------------
237 $ git fetch origin
238 $ git merge origin/next
239 ------------------------------------------------
240
241
242 If you tried a pull which resulted in complex conflicts and
243 would want to start over, you can recover with 'git reset'.
244
245
246 include::transfer-data-leaks.txt[]
247
248 BUGS
249 ----
250 Using --recurse-submodules can only fetch new commits in already checked
251 out submodules right now. When e.g. upstream added a new submodule in the
252 just fetched commits of the superproject the submodule itself can not be
253 fetched, making it impossible to check out that submodule later without
254 having to do a fetch again. This is expected to be fixed in a future Git
255 version.
256
257 SEE ALSO
258 --------
259 linkgit:git-fetch[1], linkgit:git-merge[1], linkgit:git-config[1]
260
261 GIT
262 ---
263 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite