Merge branch 'jc/em-dash-in-doc'
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-push.txt
1 git-push(1)
2 ===========
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git push' [--all | --mirror | --tags] [--follow-tags] [--atomic] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
13 [--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [--prune] [-v | --verbose]
14 [-u | --set-upstream]
15 [--[no-]signed|--sign=(true|false|if-asked)]
16 [--force-with-lease[=<refname>[:<expect>]]]
17 [--no-verify] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
18
19 DESCRIPTION
20 -----------
21
22 Updates remote refs using local refs, while sending objects
23 necessary to complete the given refs.
24
25 You can make interesting things happen to a repository
26 every time you push into it, by setting up 'hooks' there. See
27 documentation for linkgit:git-receive-pack[1].
28
29 When the command line does not specify where to push with the
30 `<repository>` argument, `branch.*.remote` configuration for the
31 current branch is consulted to determine where to push. If the
32 configuration is missing, it defaults to 'origin'.
33
34 When the command line does not specify what to push with `<refspec>...`
35 arguments or `--all`, `--mirror`, `--tags` options, the command finds
36 the default `<refspec>` by consulting `remote.*.push` configuration,
37 and if it is not found, honors `push.default` configuration to decide
38 what to push (See linkgit:git-config[1] for the meaning of `push.default`).
39
40
41 OPTIONS[[OPTIONS]]
42 ------------------
43 <repository>::
44 The "remote" repository that is destination of a push
45 operation. This parameter can be either a URL
46 (see the section <<URLS,GIT URLS>> below) or the name
47 of a remote (see the section <<REMOTES,REMOTES>> below).
48
49 <refspec>...::
50 Specify what destination ref to update with what source object.
51 The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus
52 `+`, followed by the source object <src>, followed
53 by a colon `:`, followed by the destination ref <dst>.
54 +
55 The <src> is often the name of the branch you would want to push, but
56 it can be any arbitrary "SHA-1 expression", such as `master~4` or
57 `HEAD` (see linkgit:gitrevisions[7]).
58 +
59 The <dst> tells which ref on the remote side is updated with this
60 push. Arbitrary expressions cannot be used here, an actual ref must
61 be named.
62 If `git push [<repository>]` without any `<refspec>` argument is set to
63 update some ref at the destination with `<src>` with
64 `remote.<repository>.push` configuration variable, `:<dst>` part can
65 be omitted--such a push will update a ref that `<src>` normally updates
66 without any `<refspec>` on the command line. Otherwise, missing
67 `:<dst>` means to update the same ref as the `<src>`.
68 +
69 The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst> reference
70 on the remote side. By default this is only allowed if <dst> is not
71 a tag (annotated or lightweight), and then only if it can fast-forward
72 <dst>. By having the optional leading `+`, you can tell Git to update
73 the <dst> ref even if it is not allowed by default (e.g., it is not a
74 fast-forward.) This does *not* attempt to merge <src> into <dst>. See
75 EXAMPLES below for details.
76 +
77 `tag <tag>` means the same as `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`.
78 +
79 Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from
80 the remote repository.
81 +
82 The special refspec `:` (or `+:` to allow non-fast-forward updates)
83 directs Git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that exists on
84 the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of the same name
85 already exists on the remote side.
86
87 --all::
88 Push all branches (i.e. refs under `refs/heads/`); cannot be
89 used with other <refspec>.
90
91 --prune::
92 Remove remote branches that don't have a local counterpart. For example
93 a remote branch `tmp` will be removed if a local branch with the same
94 name doesn't exist any more. This also respects refspecs, e.g.
95 `git push --prune remote refs/heads/*:refs/tmp/*` would
96 make sure that remote `refs/tmp/foo` will be removed if `refs/heads/foo`
97 doesn't exist.
98
99 --mirror::
100 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
101 refs under `refs/` (which includes but is not
102 limited to `refs/heads/`, `refs/remotes/`, and `refs/tags/`)
103 be mirrored to the remote repository. Newly created local
104 refs will be pushed to the remote end, locally updated refs
105 will be force updated on the remote end, and deleted refs
106 will be removed from the remote end. This is the default
107 if the configuration option `remote.<remote>.mirror` is
108 set.
109
110 -n::
111 --dry-run::
112 Do everything except actually send the updates.
113
114 --porcelain::
115 Produce machine-readable output. The output status line for each ref
116 will be tab-separated and sent to stdout instead of stderr. The full
117 symbolic names of the refs will be given.
118
119 --delete::
120 All listed refs are deleted from the remote repository. This is
121 the same as prefixing all refs with a colon.
122
123 --tags::
124 All refs under `refs/tags` are pushed, in
125 addition to refspecs explicitly listed on the command
126 line.
127
128 --follow-tags::
129 Push all the refs that would be pushed without this option,
130 and also push annotated tags in `refs/tags` that are missing
131 from the remote but are pointing at commit-ish that are
132 reachable from the refs being pushed. This can also be specified
133 with configuration variable 'push.followTags'. For more
134 information, see 'push.followTags' in linkgit:git-config[1].
135
136 --[no-]signed::
137 --sign=(true|false|if-asked)::
138 GPG-sign the push request to update refs on the receiving
139 side, to allow it to be checked by the hooks and/or be
140 logged. If `false` or `--no-signed`, no signing will be
141 attempted. If `true` or `--signed`, the push will fail if the
142 server does not support signed pushes. If set to `if-asked`,
143 sign if and only if the server supports signed pushes. The push
144 will also fail if the actual call to `gpg --sign` fails. See
145 linkgit:git-receive-pack[1] for the details on the receiving end.
146
147 --[no-]atomic::
148 Use an atomic transaction on the remote side if available.
149 Either all refs are updated, or on error, no refs are updated.
150 If the server does not support atomic pushes the push will fail.
151
152 --receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>::
153 --exec=<git-receive-pack>::
154 Path to the 'git-receive-pack' program on the remote
155 end. Sometimes useful when pushing to a remote
156 repository over ssh, and you do not have the program in
157 a directory on the default $PATH.
158
159 --[no-]force-with-lease::
160 --force-with-lease=<refname>::
161 --force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>::
162 Usually, "git push" refuses to update a remote ref that is
163 not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
164 +
165 This option overrides this restriction if the current value of the
166 remote ref is the expected value. "git push" fails otherwise.
167 +
168 Imagine that you have to rebase what you have already published.
169 You will have to bypass the "must fast-forward" rule in order to
170 replace the history you originally published with the rebased history.
171 If somebody else built on top of your original history while you are
172 rebasing, the tip of the branch at the remote may advance with her
173 commit, and blindly pushing with `--force` will lose her work.
174 +
175 This option allows you to say that you expect the history you are
176 updating is what you rebased and want to replace. If the remote ref
177 still points at the commit you specified, you can be sure that no
178 other people did anything to the ref. It is like taking a "lease" on
179 the ref without explicitly locking it, and the remote ref is updated
180 only if the "lease" is still valid.
181 +
182 `--force-with-lease` alone, without specifying the details, will protect
183 all remote refs that are going to be updated by requiring their
184 current value to be the same as the remote-tracking branch we have
185 for them.
186 +
187 `--force-with-lease=<refname>`, without specifying the expected value, will
188 protect the named ref (alone), if it is going to be updated, by
189 requiring its current value to be the same as the remote-tracking
190 branch we have for it.
191 +
192 `--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>` will protect the named ref (alone),
193 if it is going to be updated, by requiring its current value to be
194 the same as the specified value <expect> (which is allowed to be
195 different from the remote-tracking branch we have for the refname,
196 or we do not even have to have such a remote-tracking branch when
197 this form is used).
198 +
199 Note that all forms other than `--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>`
200 that specifies the expected current value of the ref explicitly are
201 still experimental and their semantics may change as we gain experience
202 with this feature.
203 +
204 "--no-force-with-lease" will cancel all the previous --force-with-lease on the
205 command line.
206
207 -f::
208 --force::
209 Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is
210 not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
211 Also, when `--force-with-lease` option is used, the command refuses
212 to update a remote ref whose current value does not match
213 what is expected.
214 +
215 This flag disables these checks, and can cause the remote repository
216 to lose commits; use it with care.
217 +
218 Note that `--force` applies to all the refs that are pushed, hence
219 using it with `push.default` set to `matching` or with multiple push
220 destinations configured with `remote.*.push` may overwrite refs
221 other than the current branch (including local refs that are
222 strictly behind their remote counterpart). To force a push to only
223 one branch, use a `+` in front of the refspec to push (e.g `git push
224 origin +master` to force a push to the `master` branch). See the
225 `<refspec>...` section above for details.
226
227 --repo=<repository>::
228 This option is equivalent to the <repository> argument. If both
229 are specified, the command-line argument takes precedence.
230
231 -u::
232 --set-upstream::
233 For every branch that is up to date or successfully pushed, add
234 upstream (tracking) reference, used by argument-less
235 linkgit:git-pull[1] and other commands. For more information,
236 see 'branch.<name>.merge' in linkgit:git-config[1].
237
238 --[no-]thin::
239 These options are passed to linkgit:git-send-pack[1]. A thin transfer
240 significantly reduces the amount of sent data when the sender and
241 receiver share many of the same objects in common. The default is
242 \--thin.
243
244 -q::
245 --quiet::
246 Suppress all output, including the listing of updated refs,
247 unless an error occurs. Progress is not reported to the standard
248 error stream.
249
250 -v::
251 --verbose::
252 Run verbosely.
253
254 --progress::
255 Progress status is reported on the standard error stream
256 by default when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q
257 is specified. This flag forces progress status even if the
258 standard error stream is not directed to a terminal.
259
260 --recurse-submodules=check|on-demand::
261 Make sure all submodule commits used by the revisions to be
262 pushed are available on a remote-tracking branch. If 'check' is
263 used Git will verify that all submodule commits that changed in
264 the revisions to be pushed are available on at least one remote
265 of the submodule. If any commits are missing the push will be
266 aborted and exit with non-zero status. If 'on-demand' is used
267 all submodules that changed in the revisions to be pushed will
268 be pushed. If on-demand was not able to push all necessary
269 revisions it will also be aborted and exit with non-zero status.
270
271 --[no-]verify::
272 Toggle the pre-push hook (see linkgit:githooks[5]). The
273 default is --verify, giving the hook a chance to prevent the
274 push. With --no-verify, the hook is bypassed completely.
275
276
277 include::urls-remotes.txt[]
278
279 OUTPUT
280 ------
281
282 The output of "git push" depends on the transport method used; this
283 section describes the output when pushing over the Git protocol (either
284 locally or via ssh).
285
286 The status of the push is output in tabular form, with each line
287 representing the status of a single ref. Each line is of the form:
288
289 -------------------------------
290 <flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> (<reason>)
291 -------------------------------
292
293 If --porcelain is used, then each line of the output is of the form:
294
295 -------------------------------
296 <flag> \t <from>:<to> \t <summary> (<reason>)
297 -------------------------------
298
299 The status of up-to-date refs is shown only if --porcelain or --verbose
300 option is used.
301
302 flag::
303 A single character indicating the status of the ref:
304 (space);; for a successfully pushed fast-forward;
305 `+`;; for a successful forced update;
306 `-`;; for a successfully deleted ref;
307 `*`;; for a successfully pushed new ref;
308 `!`;; for a ref that was rejected or failed to push; and
309 `=`;; for a ref that was up to date and did not need pushing.
310
311 summary::
312 For a successfully pushed ref, the summary shows the old and new
313 values of the ref in a form suitable for using as an argument to
314 `git log` (this is `<old>..<new>` in most cases, and
315 `<old>...<new>` for forced non-fast-forward updates).
316 +
317 For a failed update, more details are given:
318 +
319 --
320 rejected::
321 Git did not try to send the ref at all, typically because it
322 is not a fast-forward and you did not force the update.
323
324 remote rejected::
325 The remote end refused the update. Usually caused by a hook
326 on the remote side, or because the remote repository has one
327 of the following safety options in effect:
328 `receive.denyCurrentBranch` (for pushes to the checked out
329 branch), `receive.denyNonFastForwards` (for forced
330 non-fast-forward updates), `receive.denyDeletes` or
331 `receive.denyDeleteCurrent`. See linkgit:git-config[1].
332
333 remote failure::
334 The remote end did not report the successful update of the ref,
335 perhaps because of a temporary error on the remote side, a
336 break in the network connection, or other transient error.
337 --
338
339 from::
340 The name of the local ref being pushed, minus its
341 `refs/<type>/` prefix. In the case of deletion, the
342 name of the local ref is omitted.
343
344 to::
345 The name of the remote ref being updated, minus its
346 `refs/<type>/` prefix.
347
348 reason::
349 A human-readable explanation. In the case of successfully pushed
350 refs, no explanation is needed. For a failed ref, the reason for
351 failure is described.
352
353 Note about fast-forwards
354 ------------------------
355
356 When an update changes a branch (or more in general, a ref) that used to
357 point at commit A to point at another commit B, it is called a
358 fast-forward update if and only if B is a descendant of A.
359
360 In a fast-forward update from A to B, the set of commits that the original
361 commit A built on top of is a subset of the commits the new commit B
362 builds on top of. Hence, it does not lose any history.
363
364 In contrast, a non-fast-forward update will lose history. For example,
365 suppose you and somebody else started at the same commit X, and you built
366 a history leading to commit B while the other person built a history
367 leading to commit A. The history looks like this:
368
369 ----------------
370
371 B
372 /
373 ---X---A
374
375 ----------------
376
377 Further suppose that the other person already pushed changes leading to A
378 back to the original repository from which you two obtained the original
379 commit X.
380
381 The push done by the other person updated the branch that used to point at
382 commit X to point at commit A. It is a fast-forward.
383
384 But if you try to push, you will attempt to update the branch (that
385 now points at A) with commit B. This does _not_ fast-forward. If you did
386 so, the changes introduced by commit A will be lost, because everybody
387 will now start building on top of B.
388
389 The command by default does not allow an update that is not a fast-forward
390 to prevent such loss of history.
391
392 If you do not want to lose your work (history from X to B) or the work by
393 the other person (history from X to A), you would need to first fetch the
394 history from the repository, create a history that contains changes done
395 by both parties, and push the result back.
396
397 You can perform "git pull", resolve potential conflicts, and "git push"
398 the result. A "git pull" will create a merge commit C between commits A
399 and B.
400
401 ----------------
402
403 B---C
404 / /
405 ---X---A
406
407 ----------------
408
409 Updating A with the resulting merge commit will fast-forward and your
410 push will be accepted.
411
412 Alternatively, you can rebase your change between X and B on top of A,
413 with "git pull --rebase", and push the result back. The rebase will
414 create a new commit D that builds the change between X and B on top of
415 A.
416
417 ----------------
418
419 B D
420 / /
421 ---X---A
422
423 ----------------
424
425 Again, updating A with this commit will fast-forward and your push will be
426 accepted.
427
428 There is another common situation where you may encounter non-fast-forward
429 rejection when you try to push, and it is possible even when you are
430 pushing into a repository nobody else pushes into. After you push commit
431 A yourself (in the first picture in this section), replace it with "git
432 commit --amend" to produce commit B, and you try to push it out, because
433 forgot that you have pushed A out already. In such a case, and only if
434 you are certain that nobody in the meantime fetched your earlier commit A
435 (and started building on top of it), you can run "git push --force" to
436 overwrite it. In other words, "git push --force" is a method reserved for
437 a case where you do mean to lose history.
438
439
440 Examples
441 --------
442
443 `git push`::
444 Works like `git push <remote>`, where <remote> is the
445 current branch's remote (or `origin`, if no remote is
446 configured for the current branch).
447
448 `git push origin`::
449 Without additional configuration, pushes the current branch to
450 the configured upstream (`remote.origin.merge` configuration
451 variable) if it has the same name as the current branch, and
452 errors out without pushing otherwise.
453 +
454 The default behavior of this command when no <refspec> is given can be
455 configured by setting the `push` option of the remote, or the `push.default`
456 configuration variable.
457 +
458 For example, to default to pushing only the current branch to `origin`
459 use `git config remote.origin.push HEAD`. Any valid <refspec> (like
460 the ones in the examples below) can be configured as the default for
461 `git push origin`.
462
463 `git push origin :`::
464 Push "matching" branches to `origin`. See
465 <refspec> in the <<OPTIONS,OPTIONS>> section above for a
466 description of "matching" branches.
467
468 `git push origin master`::
469 Find a ref that matches `master` in the source repository
470 (most likely, it would find `refs/heads/master`), and update
471 the same ref (e.g. `refs/heads/master`) in `origin` repository
472 with it. If `master` did not exist remotely, it would be
473 created.
474
475 `git push origin HEAD`::
476 A handy way to push the current branch to the same name on the
477 remote.
478
479 `git push mothership master:satellite/master dev:satellite/dev`::
480 Use the source ref that matches `master` (e.g. `refs/heads/master`)
481 to update the ref that matches `satellite/master` (most probably
482 `refs/remotes/satellite/master`) in the `mothership` repository;
483 do the same for `dev` and `satellite/dev`.
484 +
485 This is to emulate `git fetch` run on the `mothership` using `git
486 push` that is run in the opposite direction in order to integrate
487 the work done on `satellite`, and is often necessary when you can
488 only make connection in one way (i.e. satellite can ssh into
489 mothership but mothership cannot initiate connection to satellite
490 because the latter is behind a firewall or does not run sshd).
491 +
492 After running this `git push` on the `satellite` machine, you would
493 ssh into the `mothership` and run `git merge` there to complete the
494 emulation of `git pull` that were run on `mothership` to pull changes
495 made on `satellite`.
496
497 `git push origin HEAD:master`::
498 Push the current branch to the remote ref matching `master` in the
499 `origin` repository. This form is convenient to push the current
500 branch without thinking about its local name.
501
502 `git push origin master:refs/heads/experimental`::
503 Create the branch `experimental` in the `origin` repository
504 by copying the current `master` branch. This form is only
505 needed to create a new branch or tag in the remote repository when
506 the local name and the remote name are different; otherwise,
507 the ref name on its own will work.
508
509 `git push origin :experimental`::
510 Find a ref that matches `experimental` in the `origin` repository
511 (e.g. `refs/heads/experimental`), and delete it.
512
513 `git push origin +dev:master`::
514 Update the origin repository's master branch with the dev branch,
515 allowing non-fast-forward updates. *This can leave unreferenced
516 commits dangling in the origin repository.* Consider the
517 following situation, where a fast-forward is not possible:
518 +
519 ----
520 o---o---o---A---B origin/master
521 \
522 X---Y---Z dev
523 ----
524 +
525 The above command would change the origin repository to
526 +
527 ----
528 A---B (unnamed branch)
529 /
530 o---o---o---X---Y---Z master
531 ----
532 +
533 Commits A and B would no longer belong to a branch with a symbolic name,
534 and so would be unreachable. As such, these commits would be removed by
535 a `git gc` command on the origin repository.
536
537 GIT
538 ---
539 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite