push: add '--prune' option
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-push.txt
1 git-push(1)
2 ===========
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git push' [--all | --mirror | --tags] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
13 [--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [--prune] [-v | --verbose] [-u | --set-upstream]
14 [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
15
16 DESCRIPTION
17 -----------
18
19 Updates remote refs using local refs, while sending objects
20 necessary to complete the given refs.
21
22 You can make interesting things happen to a repository
23 every time you push into it, by setting up 'hooks' there. See
24 documentation for linkgit:git-receive-pack[1].
25
26
27 OPTIONS[[OPTIONS]]
28 ------------------
29 <repository>::
30 The "remote" repository that is destination of a push
31 operation. This parameter can be either a URL
32 (see the section <<URLS,GIT URLS>> below) or the name
33 of a remote (see the section <<REMOTES,REMOTES>> below).
34
35 <refspec>...::
36 The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus
37 `{plus}`, followed by the source ref <src>, followed
38 by a colon `:`, followed by the destination ref <dst>.
39 It is used to specify with what <src> object the <dst> ref
40 in the remote repository is to be updated.
41 +
42 The <src> is often the name of the branch you would want to push, but
43 it can be any arbitrary "SHA-1 expression", such as `master~4` or
44 `HEAD` (see linkgit:gitrevisions[7]).
45 +
46 The <dst> tells which ref on the remote side is updated with this
47 push. Arbitrary expressions cannot be used here, an actual ref must
48 be named. If `:`<dst> is omitted, the same ref as <src> will be
49 updated.
50 +
51 The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst> reference
52 on the remote side, but by default this is only allowed if the
53 update can fast-forward <dst>. By having the optional leading `{plus}`,
54 you can tell git to update the <dst> ref even when the update is not a
55 fast-forward. This does *not* attempt to merge <src> into <dst>. See
56 EXAMPLES below for details.
57 +
58 `tag <tag>` means the same as `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`.
59 +
60 Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from
61 the remote repository.
62 +
63 The special refspec `:` (or `{plus}:` to allow non-fast-forward updates)
64 directs git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that exists on
65 the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of the same name
66 already exists on the remote side. This is the default operation mode
67 if no explicit refspec is found (that is neither on the command line
68 nor in any Push line of the corresponding remotes file---see below).
69
70 --all::
71 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
72 refs under `refs/heads/` be pushed.
73
74 --prune::
75 Remove remote branches that don't have a local counterpart. For example
76 a remote branch `tmp` will be removed if a local branch with the same
77 name doesn't exist any more. This also respects refspecs, e.g.
78 `git push --prune remote refs/heads/{asterisk}:refs/tmp/{asterisk}` would
79 make sure that remote `refs/tmp/foo` will be removed if `refs/heads/foo`
80 doesn't exist.
81
82 --mirror::
83 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
84 refs under `refs/` (which includes but is not
85 limited to `refs/heads/`, `refs/remotes/`, and `refs/tags/`)
86 be mirrored to the remote repository. Newly created local
87 refs will be pushed to the remote end, locally updated refs
88 will be force updated on the remote end, and deleted refs
89 will be removed from the remote end. This is the default
90 if the configuration option `remote.<remote>.mirror` is
91 set.
92
93 -n::
94 --dry-run::
95 Do everything except actually send the updates.
96
97 --porcelain::
98 Produce machine-readable output. The output status line for each ref
99 will be tab-separated and sent to stdout instead of stderr. The full
100 symbolic names of the refs will be given.
101
102 --delete::
103 All listed refs are deleted from the remote repository. This is
104 the same as prefixing all refs with a colon.
105
106 --tags::
107 All refs under `refs/tags` are pushed, in
108 addition to refspecs explicitly listed on the command
109 line.
110
111 --receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>::
112 --exec=<git-receive-pack>::
113 Path to the 'git-receive-pack' program on the remote
114 end. Sometimes useful when pushing to a remote
115 repository over ssh, and you do not have the program in
116 a directory on the default $PATH.
117
118 -f::
119 --force::
120 Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is
121 not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
122 This flag disables the check. This can cause the
123 remote repository to lose commits; use it with care.
124
125 --repo=<repository>::
126 This option is only relevant if no <repository> argument is
127 passed in the invocation. In this case, 'git push' derives the
128 remote name from the current branch: If it tracks a remote
129 branch, then that remote repository is pushed to. Otherwise,
130 the name "origin" is used. For this latter case, this option
131 can be used to override the name "origin". In other words,
132 the difference between these two commands
133 +
134 --------------------------
135 git push public #1
136 git push --repo=public #2
137 --------------------------
138 +
139 is that #1 always pushes to "public" whereas #2 pushes to "public"
140 only if the current branch does not track a remote branch. This is
141 useful if you write an alias or script around 'git push'.
142
143 -u::
144 --set-upstream::
145 For every branch that is up to date or successfully pushed, add
146 upstream (tracking) reference, used by argument-less
147 linkgit:git-pull[1] and other commands. For more information,
148 see 'branch.<name>.merge' in linkgit:git-config[1].
149
150 --thin::
151 --no-thin::
152 These options are passed to linkgit:git-send-pack[1]. A thin transfer
153 significantly reduces the amount of sent data when the sender and
154 receiver share many of the same objects in common. The default is
155 \--thin.
156
157 -q::
158 --quiet::
159 Suppress all output, including the listing of updated refs,
160 unless an error occurs. Progress is not reported to the standard
161 error stream.
162
163 -v::
164 --verbose::
165 Run verbosely.
166
167 --progress::
168 Progress status is reported on the standard error stream
169 by default when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q
170 is specified. This flag forces progress status even if the
171 standard error stream is not directed to a terminal.
172
173 --recurse-submodules=check::
174 Check whether all submodule commits used by the revisions to be
175 pushed are available on a remote tracking branch. Otherwise the
176 push will be aborted and the command will exit with non-zero status.
177
178
179 include::urls-remotes.txt[]
180
181 OUTPUT
182 ------
183
184 The output of "git push" depends on the transport method used; this
185 section describes the output when pushing over the git protocol (either
186 locally or via ssh).
187
188 The status of the push is output in tabular form, with each line
189 representing the status of a single ref. Each line is of the form:
190
191 -------------------------------
192 <flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> (<reason>)
193 -------------------------------
194
195 If --porcelain is used, then each line of the output is of the form:
196
197 -------------------------------
198 <flag> \t <from>:<to> \t <summary> (<reason>)
199 -------------------------------
200
201 The status of up-to-date refs is shown only if --porcelain or --verbose
202 option is used.
203
204 flag::
205 A single character indicating the status of the ref:
206 (space);; for a successfully pushed fast-forward;
207 `{plus}`;; for a successful forced update;
208 `-`;; for a successfully deleted ref;
209 `*`;; for a successfully pushed new ref;
210 `!`;; for a ref that was rejected or failed to push; and
211 `=`;; for a ref that was up to date and did not need pushing.
212
213 summary::
214 For a successfully pushed ref, the summary shows the old and new
215 values of the ref in a form suitable for using as an argument to
216 `git log` (this is `<old>..<new>` in most cases, and
217 `<old>\...<new>` for forced non-fast-forward updates).
218 +
219 For a failed update, more details are given:
220 +
221 --
222 rejected::
223 Git did not try to send the ref at all, typically because it
224 is not a fast-forward and you did not force the update.
225
226 remote rejected::
227 The remote end refused the update. Usually caused by a hook
228 on the remote side, or because the remote repository has one
229 of the following safety options in effect:
230 `receive.denyCurrentBranch` (for pushes to the checked out
231 branch), `receive.denyNonFastForwards` (for forced
232 non-fast-forward updates), `receive.denyDeletes` or
233 `receive.denyDeleteCurrent`. See linkgit:git-config[1].
234
235 remote failure::
236 The remote end did not report the successful update of the ref,
237 perhaps because of a temporary error on the remote side, a
238 break in the network connection, or other transient error.
239 --
240
241 from::
242 The name of the local ref being pushed, minus its
243 `refs/<type>/` prefix. In the case of deletion, the
244 name of the local ref is omitted.
245
246 to::
247 The name of the remote ref being updated, minus its
248 `refs/<type>/` prefix.
249
250 reason::
251 A human-readable explanation. In the case of successfully pushed
252 refs, no explanation is needed. For a failed ref, the reason for
253 failure is described.
254
255 Note about fast-forwards
256 ------------------------
257
258 When an update changes a branch (or more in general, a ref) that used to
259 point at commit A to point at another commit B, it is called a
260 fast-forward update if and only if B is a descendant of A.
261
262 In a fast-forward update from A to B, the set of commits that the original
263 commit A built on top of is a subset of the commits the new commit B
264 builds on top of. Hence, it does not lose any history.
265
266 In contrast, a non-fast-forward update will lose history. For example,
267 suppose you and somebody else started at the same commit X, and you built
268 a history leading to commit B while the other person built a history
269 leading to commit A. The history looks like this:
270
271 ----------------
272
273 B
274 /
275 ---X---A
276
277 ----------------
278
279 Further suppose that the other person already pushed changes leading to A
280 back to the original repository you two obtained the original commit X.
281
282 The push done by the other person updated the branch that used to point at
283 commit X to point at commit A. It is a fast-forward.
284
285 But if you try to push, you will attempt to update the branch (that
286 now points at A) with commit B. This does _not_ fast-forward. If you did
287 so, the changes introduced by commit A will be lost, because everybody
288 will now start building on top of B.
289
290 The command by default does not allow an update that is not a fast-forward
291 to prevent such loss of history.
292
293 If you do not want to lose your work (history from X to B) nor the work by
294 the other person (history from X to A), you would need to first fetch the
295 history from the repository, create a history that contains changes done
296 by both parties, and push the result back.
297
298 You can perform "git pull", resolve potential conflicts, and "git push"
299 the result. A "git pull" will create a merge commit C between commits A
300 and B.
301
302 ----------------
303
304 B---C
305 / /
306 ---X---A
307
308 ----------------
309
310 Updating A with the resulting merge commit will fast-forward and your
311 push will be accepted.
312
313 Alternatively, you can rebase your change between X and B on top of A,
314 with "git pull --rebase", and push the result back. The rebase will
315 create a new commit D that builds the change between X and B on top of
316 A.
317
318 ----------------
319
320 B D
321 / /
322 ---X---A
323
324 ----------------
325
326 Again, updating A with this commit will fast-forward and your push will be
327 accepted.
328
329 There is another common situation where you may encounter non-fast-forward
330 rejection when you try to push, and it is possible even when you are
331 pushing into a repository nobody else pushes into. After you push commit
332 A yourself (in the first picture in this section), replace it with "git
333 commit --amend" to produce commit B, and you try to push it out, because
334 forgot that you have pushed A out already. In such a case, and only if
335 you are certain that nobody in the meantime fetched your earlier commit A
336 (and started building on top of it), you can run "git push --force" to
337 overwrite it. In other words, "git push --force" is a method reserved for
338 a case where you do mean to lose history.
339
340
341 Examples
342 --------
343
344 `git push`::
345 Works like `git push <remote>`, where <remote> is the
346 current branch's remote (or `origin`, if no remote is
347 configured for the current branch).
348
349 `git push origin`::
350 Without additional configuration, works like
351 `git push origin :`.
352 +
353 The default behavior of this command when no <refspec> is given can be
354 configured by setting the `push` option of the remote.
355 +
356 For example, to default to pushing only the current branch to `origin`
357 use `git config remote.origin.push HEAD`. Any valid <refspec> (like
358 the ones in the examples below) can be configured as the default for
359 `git push origin`.
360
361 `git push origin :`::
362 Push "matching" branches to `origin`. See
363 <refspec> in the <<OPTIONS,OPTIONS>> section above for a
364 description of "matching" branches.
365
366 `git push origin master`::
367 Find a ref that matches `master` in the source repository
368 (most likely, it would find `refs/heads/master`), and update
369 the same ref (e.g. `refs/heads/master`) in `origin` repository
370 with it. If `master` did not exist remotely, it would be
371 created.
372
373 `git push origin HEAD`::
374 A handy way to push the current branch to the same name on the
375 remote.
376
377 `git push origin master:satellite/master dev:satellite/dev`::
378 Use the source ref that matches `master` (e.g. `refs/heads/master`)
379 to update the ref that matches `satellite/master` (most probably
380 `refs/remotes/satellite/master`) in the `origin` repository, then
381 do the same for `dev` and `satellite/dev`.
382
383 `git push origin HEAD:master`::
384 Push the current branch to the remote ref matching `master` in the
385 `origin` repository. This form is convenient to push the current
386 branch without thinking about its local name.
387
388 `git push origin master:refs/heads/experimental`::
389 Create the branch `experimental` in the `origin` repository
390 by copying the current `master` branch. This form is only
391 needed to create a new branch or tag in the remote repository when
392 the local name and the remote name are different; otherwise,
393 the ref name on its own will work.
394
395 `git push origin :experimental`::
396 Find a ref that matches `experimental` in the `origin` repository
397 (e.g. `refs/heads/experimental`), and delete it.
398
399 `git push origin {plus}dev:master`::
400 Update the origin repository's master branch with the dev branch,
401 allowing non-fast-forward updates. *This can leave unreferenced
402 commits dangling in the origin repository.* Consider the
403 following situation, where a fast-forward is not possible:
404 +
405 ----
406 o---o---o---A---B origin/master
407 \
408 X---Y---Z dev
409 ----
410 +
411 The above command would change the origin repository to
412 +
413 ----
414 A---B (unnamed branch)
415 /
416 o---o---o---X---Y---Z master
417 ----
418 +
419 Commits A and B would no longer belong to a branch with a symbolic name,
420 and so would be unreachable. As such, these commits would be removed by
421 a `git gc` command on the origin repository.
422
423 GIT
424 ---
425 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite