remote: refactor code into alloc_delete_ref()
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-push.txt
1 git-push(1)
2 ===========
5 ----
6 git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git push' [--all | --mirror | --tags] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
13 [--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [-v | --verbose] [-u | --set-upstream]
14 [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
17 -----------
19 Updates remote refs using local refs, while sending objects
20 necessary to complete the given refs.
22 You can make interesting things happen to a repository
23 every time you push into it, by setting up 'hooks' there. See
24 documentation for linkgit:git-receive-pack[1].
28 ------------------
29 <repository>::
30 The "remote" repository that is destination of a push
31 operation. This parameter can be either a URL
32 (see the section <<URLS,GIT URLS>> below) or the name
33 of a remote (see the section <<REMOTES,REMOTES>> below).
35 <refspec>...::
36 The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus
37 `{plus}`, followed by the source ref <src>, followed
38 by a colon `:`, followed by the destination ref <dst>.
39 It is used to specify with what <src> object the <dst> ref
40 in the remote repository is to be updated.
41 +
42 The <src> is often the name of the branch you would want to push, but
43 it can be any arbitrary "SHA-1 expression", such as `master~4` or
44 `HEAD` (see linkgit:gitrevisions[7]).
45 +
46 The <dst> tells which ref on the remote side is updated with this
47 push. Arbitrary expressions cannot be used here, an actual ref must
48 be named. If `:`<dst> is omitted, the same ref as <src> will be
49 updated.
50 +
51 The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst> reference
52 on the remote side, but by default this is only allowed if the
53 update can fast-forward <dst>. By having the optional leading `{plus}`,
54 you can tell git to update the <dst> ref even when the update is not a
55 fast-forward. This does *not* attempt to merge <src> into <dst>. See
56 EXAMPLES below for details.
57 +
58 `tag <tag>` means the same as `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`.
59 +
60 Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from
61 the remote repository.
62 +
63 The special refspec `:` (or `{plus}:` to allow non-fast-forward updates)
64 directs git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that exists on
65 the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of the same name
66 already exists on the remote side. This is the default operation mode
67 if no explicit refspec is found (that is neither on the command line
68 nor in any Push line of the corresponding remotes file---see below).
70 --all::
71 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
72 refs under `refs/heads/` be pushed.
74 --mirror::
75 Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
76 refs under `refs/` (which includes but is not
77 limited to `refs/heads/`, `refs/remotes/`, and `refs/tags/`)
78 be mirrored to the remote repository. Newly created local
79 refs will be pushed to the remote end, locally updated refs
80 will be force updated on the remote end, and deleted refs
81 will be removed from the remote end. This is the default
82 if the configuration option `remote.<remote>.mirror` is
83 set.
85 -n::
86 --dry-run::
87 Do everything except actually send the updates.
89 --porcelain::
90 Produce machine-readable output. The output status line for each ref
91 will be tab-separated and sent to stdout instead of stderr. The full
92 symbolic names of the refs will be given.
94 --delete::
95 All listed refs are deleted from the remote repository. This is
96 the same as prefixing all refs with a colon.
98 --tags::
99 All refs under `refs/tags` are pushed, in
100 addition to refspecs explicitly listed on the command
101 line.
103 --receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>::
104 --exec=<git-receive-pack>::
105 Path to the 'git-receive-pack' program on the remote
106 end. Sometimes useful when pushing to a remote
107 repository over ssh, and you do not have the program in
108 a directory on the default $PATH.
110 -f::
111 --force::
112 Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is
113 not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
114 This flag disables the check. This can cause the
115 remote repository to lose commits; use it with care.
117 --repo=<repository>::
118 This option is only relevant if no <repository> argument is
119 passed in the invocation. In this case, 'git push' derives the
120 remote name from the current branch: If it tracks a remote
121 branch, then that remote repository is pushed to. Otherwise,
122 the name "origin" is used. For this latter case, this option
123 can be used to override the name "origin". In other words,
124 the difference between these two commands
125 +
126 --------------------------
127 git push public #1
128 git push --repo=public #2
129 --------------------------
130 +
131 is that #1 always pushes to "public" whereas #2 pushes to "public"
132 only if the current branch does not track a remote branch. This is
133 useful if you write an alias or script around 'git push'.
135 -u::
136 --set-upstream::
137 For every branch that is up to date or successfully pushed, add
138 upstream (tracking) reference, used by argument-less
139 linkgit:git-pull[1] and other commands. For more information,
140 see 'branch.<name>.merge' in linkgit:git-config[1].
142 --thin::
143 --no-thin::
144 These options are passed to linkgit:git-send-pack[1]. A thin transfer
145 significantly reduces the amount of sent data when the sender and
146 receiver share many of the same objects in common. The default is
147 \--thin.
149 -q::
150 --quiet::
151 Suppress all output, including the listing of updated refs,
152 unless an error occurs. Progress is not reported to the standard
153 error stream.
155 -v::
156 --verbose::
157 Run verbosely.
159 --progress::
160 Progress status is reported on the standard error stream
161 by default when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q
162 is specified. This flag forces progress status even if the
163 standard error stream is not directed to a terminal.
165 --recurse-submodules=check::
166 Check whether all submodule commits used by the revisions to be
167 pushed are available on a remote tracking branch. Otherwise the
168 push will be aborted and the command will exit with non-zero status.
171 include::urls-remotes.txt[]
174 ------
176 The output of "git push" depends on the transport method used; this
177 section describes the output when pushing over the git protocol (either
178 locally or via ssh).
180 The status of the push is output in tabular form, with each line
181 representing the status of a single ref. Each line is of the form:
183 -------------------------------
184 <flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> (<reason>)
185 -------------------------------
187 If --porcelain is used, then each line of the output is of the form:
189 -------------------------------
190 <flag> \t <from>:<to> \t <summary> (<reason>)
191 -------------------------------
193 The status of up-to-date refs is shown only if --porcelain or --verbose
194 option is used.
196 flag::
197 A single character indicating the status of the ref:
198 (space);; for a successfully pushed fast-forward;
199 `{plus}`;; for a successful forced update;
200 `-`;; for a successfully deleted ref;
201 `*`;; for a successfully pushed new ref;
202 `!`;; for a ref that was rejected or failed to push; and
203 `=`;; for a ref that was up to date and did not need pushing.
205 summary::
206 For a successfully pushed ref, the summary shows the old and new
207 values of the ref in a form suitable for using as an argument to
208 `git log` (this is `<old>..<new>` in most cases, and
209 `<old>\...<new>` for forced non-fast-forward updates).
210 +
211 For a failed update, more details are given:
212 +
213 --
214 rejected::
215 Git did not try to send the ref at all, typically because it
216 is not a fast-forward and you did not force the update.
218 remote rejected::
219 The remote end refused the update. Usually caused by a hook
220 on the remote side, or because the remote repository has one
221 of the following safety options in effect:
222 `receive.denyCurrentBranch` (for pushes to the checked out
223 branch), `receive.denyNonFastForwards` (for forced
224 non-fast-forward updates), `receive.denyDeletes` or
225 `receive.denyDeleteCurrent`. See linkgit:git-config[1].
227 remote failure::
228 The remote end did not report the successful update of the ref,
229 perhaps because of a temporary error on the remote side, a
230 break in the network connection, or other transient error.
231 --
233 from::
234 The name of the local ref being pushed, minus its
235 `refs/<type>/` prefix. In the case of deletion, the
236 name of the local ref is omitted.
238 to::
239 The name of the remote ref being updated, minus its
240 `refs/<type>/` prefix.
242 reason::
243 A human-readable explanation. In the case of successfully pushed
244 refs, no explanation is needed. For a failed ref, the reason for
245 failure is described.
247 Note about fast-forwards
248 ------------------------
250 When an update changes a branch (or more in general, a ref) that used to
251 point at commit A to point at another commit B, it is called a
252 fast-forward update if and only if B is a descendant of A.
254 In a fast-forward update from A to B, the set of commits that the original
255 commit A built on top of is a subset of the commits the new commit B
256 builds on top of. Hence, it does not lose any history.
258 In contrast, a non-fast-forward update will lose history. For example,
259 suppose you and somebody else started at the same commit X, and you built
260 a history leading to commit B while the other person built a history
261 leading to commit A. The history looks like this:
263 ----------------
265 B
266 /
267 ---X---A
269 ----------------
271 Further suppose that the other person already pushed changes leading to A
272 back to the original repository you two obtained the original commit X.
274 The push done by the other person updated the branch that used to point at
275 commit X to point at commit A. It is a fast-forward.
277 But if you try to push, you will attempt to update the branch (that
278 now points at A) with commit B. This does _not_ fast-forward. If you did
279 so, the changes introduced by commit A will be lost, because everybody
280 will now start building on top of B.
282 The command by default does not allow an update that is not a fast-forward
283 to prevent such loss of history.
285 If you do not want to lose your work (history from X to B) nor the work by
286 the other person (history from X to A), you would need to first fetch the
287 history from the repository, create a history that contains changes done
288 by both parties, and push the result back.
290 You can perform "git pull", resolve potential conflicts, and "git push"
291 the result. A "git pull" will create a merge commit C between commits A
292 and B.
294 ----------------
296 B---C
297 / /
298 ---X---A
300 ----------------
302 Updating A with the resulting merge commit will fast-forward and your
303 push will be accepted.
305 Alternatively, you can rebase your change between X and B on top of A,
306 with "git pull --rebase", and push the result back. The rebase will
307 create a new commit D that builds the change between X and B on top of
308 A.
310 ----------------
312 B D
313 / /
314 ---X---A
316 ----------------
318 Again, updating A with this commit will fast-forward and your push will be
319 accepted.
321 There is another common situation where you may encounter non-fast-forward
322 rejection when you try to push, and it is possible even when you are
323 pushing into a repository nobody else pushes into. After you push commit
324 A yourself (in the first picture in this section), replace it with "git
325 commit --amend" to produce commit B, and you try to push it out, because
326 forgot that you have pushed A out already. In such a case, and only if
327 you are certain that nobody in the meantime fetched your earlier commit A
328 (and started building on top of it), you can run "git push --force" to
329 overwrite it. In other words, "git push --force" is a method reserved for
330 a case where you do mean to lose history.
333 Examples
334 --------
336 `git push`::
337 Works like `git push <remote>`, where <remote> is the
338 current branch's remote (or `origin`, if no remote is
339 configured for the current branch).
341 `git push origin`::
342 Without additional configuration, works like
343 `git push origin :`.
344 +
345 The default behavior of this command when no <refspec> is given can be
346 configured by setting the `push` option of the remote.
347 +
348 For example, to default to pushing only the current branch to `origin`
349 use `git config remote.origin.push HEAD`. Any valid <refspec> (like
350 the ones in the examples below) can be configured as the default for
351 `git push origin`.
353 `git push origin :`::
354 Push "matching" branches to `origin`. See
355 <refspec> in the <<OPTIONS,OPTIONS>> section above for a
356 description of "matching" branches.
358 `git push origin master`::
359 Find a ref that matches `master` in the source repository
360 (most likely, it would find `refs/heads/master`), and update
361 the same ref (e.g. `refs/heads/master`) in `origin` repository
362 with it. If `master` did not exist remotely, it would be
363 created.
365 `git push origin HEAD`::
366 A handy way to push the current branch to the same name on the
367 remote.
369 `git push origin master:satellite/master dev:satellite/dev`::
370 Use the source ref that matches `master` (e.g. `refs/heads/master`)
371 to update the ref that matches `satellite/master` (most probably
372 `refs/remotes/satellite/master`) in the `origin` repository, then
373 do the same for `dev` and `satellite/dev`.
375 `git push origin HEAD:master`::
376 Push the current branch to the remote ref matching `master` in the
377 `origin` repository. This form is convenient to push the current
378 branch without thinking about its local name.
380 `git push origin master:refs/heads/experimental`::
381 Create the branch `experimental` in the `origin` repository
382 by copying the current `master` branch. This form is only
383 needed to create a new branch or tag in the remote repository when
384 the local name and the remote name are different; otherwise,
385 the ref name on its own will work.
387 `git push origin :experimental`::
388 Find a ref that matches `experimental` in the `origin` repository
389 (e.g. `refs/heads/experimental`), and delete it.
391 `git push origin {plus}dev:master`::
392 Update the origin repository's master branch with the dev branch,
393 allowing non-fast-forward updates. *This can leave unreferenced
394 commits dangling in the origin repository.* Consider the
395 following situation, where a fast-forward is not possible:
396 +
397 ----
398 o---o---o---A---B origin/master
399 \
400 X---Y---Z dev
401 ----
402 +
403 The above command would change the origin repository to
404 +
405 ----
406 A---B (unnamed branch)
407 /
408 o---o---o---X---Y---Z master
409 ----
410 +
411 Commits A and B would no longer belong to a branch with a symbolic name,
412 and so would be unreachable. As such, these commits would be removed by
413 a `git gc` command on the origin repository.
415 GIT
416 ---
417 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite