Merge branch 'mm/maint-config-explicit-bool-display' into maint
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-commit.txt
1 git-commit(1)
2 =============
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-commit - Record changes to the repository
7
8 SYNOPSIS
9 --------
10 [verse]
11 'git commit' [-a | --interactive | --patch] [-s] [-v] [-u<mode>] [--amend]
12 [--dry-run] [(-c | -C | --fixup | --squash) <commit>]
13 [-F <file> | -m <msg>] [--reset-author] [--allow-empty]
14 [--allow-empty-message] [--no-verify] [-e] [--author=<author>]
15 [--date=<date>] [--cleanup=<mode>] [--status | --no-status]
16 [-i | -o] [--] [<file>...]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Stores the current contents of the index in a new commit along
21 with a log message from the user describing the changes.
22
23 The content to be added can be specified in several ways:
24
25 1. by using 'git add' to incrementally "add" changes to the
26 index before using the 'commit' command (Note: even modified
27 files must be "added");
28
29 2. by using 'git rm' to remove files from the working tree
30 and the index, again before using the 'commit' command;
31
32 3. by listing files as arguments to the 'commit' command, in which
33 case the commit will ignore changes staged in the index, and instead
34 record the current content of the listed files (which must already
35 be known to git);
36
37 4. by using the -a switch with the 'commit' command to automatically
38 "add" changes from all known files (i.e. all files that are already
39 listed in the index) and to automatically "rm" files in the index
40 that have been removed from the working tree, and then perform the
41 actual commit;
42
43 5. by using the --interactive or --patch switches with the 'commit' command
44 to decide one by one which files or hunks should be part of the commit,
45 before finalizing the operation. See the ``Interactive Mode`` section of
46 linkgit:git-add[1] to learn how to operate these modes.
47
48 The `--dry-run` option can be used to obtain a
49 summary of what is included by any of the above for the next
50 commit by giving the same set of parameters (options and paths).
51
52 If you make a commit and then find a mistake immediately after
53 that, you can recover from it with 'git reset'.
54
55
56 OPTIONS
57 -------
58 -a::
59 --all::
60 Tell the command to automatically stage files that have
61 been modified and deleted, but new files you have not
62 told git about are not affected.
63
64 -p::
65 --patch::
66 Use the interactive patch selection interface to chose
67 which changes to commit. See linkgit:git-add[1] for
68 details.
69
70 -C <commit>::
71 --reuse-message=<commit>::
72 Take an existing commit object, and reuse the log message
73 and the authorship information (including the timestamp)
74 when creating the commit.
75
76 -c <commit>::
77 --reedit-message=<commit>::
78 Like '-C', but with '-c' the editor is invoked, so that
79 the user can further edit the commit message.
80
81 --fixup=<commit>::
82 Construct a commit message for use with `rebase --autosquash`.
83 The commit message will be the subject line from the specified
84 commit with a prefix of "fixup! ". See linkgit:git-rebase[1]
85 for details.
86
87 --squash=<commit>::
88 Construct a commit message for use with `rebase --autosquash`.
89 The commit message subject line is taken from the specified
90 commit with a prefix of "squash! ". Can be used with additional
91 commit message options (`-m`/`-c`/`-C`/`-F`). See
92 linkgit:git-rebase[1] for details.
93
94 --reset-author::
95 When used with -C/-c/--amend options, or when committing after a
96 a conflicting cherry-pick, declare that the authorship of the
97 resulting commit now belongs of the committer. This also renews
98 the author timestamp.
99
100 --short::
101 When doing a dry-run, give the output in the short-format. See
102 linkgit:git-status[1] for details. Implies `--dry-run`.
103
104 --porcelain::
105 When doing a dry-run, give the output in a porcelain-ready
106 format. See linkgit:git-status[1] for details. Implies
107 `--dry-run`.
108
109 -z::
110 When showing `short` or `porcelain` status output, terminate
111 entries in the status output with NUL, instead of LF. If no
112 format is given, implies the `--porcelain` output format.
113
114 -F <file>::
115 --file=<file>::
116 Take the commit message from the given file. Use '-' to
117 read the message from the standard input.
118
119 --author=<author>::
120 Override the commit author. Specify an explicit author using the
121 standard `A U Thor <author@example.com>` format. Otherwise <author>
122 is assumed to be a pattern and is used to search for an existing
123 commit by that author (i.e. rev-list --all -i --author=<author>);
124 the commit author is then copied from the first such commit found.
125
126 --date=<date>::
127 Override the author date used in the commit.
128
129 -m <msg>::
130 --message=<msg>::
131 Use the given <msg> as the commit message.
132
133 -t <file>::
134 --template=<file>::
135 Use the contents of the given file as the initial version
136 of the commit message. The editor is invoked and you can
137 make subsequent changes. If a message is specified using
138 the `-m` or `-F` options, this option has no effect. This
139 overrides the `commit.template` configuration variable.
140
141 -s::
142 --signoff::
143 Add Signed-off-by line by the committer at the end of the commit
144 log message.
145
146 -n::
147 --no-verify::
148 This option bypasses the pre-commit and commit-msg hooks.
149 See also linkgit:githooks[5].
150
151 --allow-empty::
152 Usually recording a commit that has the exact same tree as its
153 sole parent commit is a mistake, and the command prevents you
154 from making such a commit. This option bypasses the safety, and
155 is primarily for use by foreign SCM interface scripts.
156
157 --allow-empty-message::
158 Like --allow-empty this command is primarily for use by foreign
159 SCM interface scripts. It allows you to create a commit with an
160 empty commit message without using plumbing commands like
161 linkgit:git-commit-tree[1].
162
163 --cleanup=<mode>::
164 This option sets how the commit message is cleaned up.
165 The '<mode>' can be one of 'verbatim', 'whitespace', 'strip',
166 and 'default'. The 'default' mode will strip leading and
167 trailing empty lines and #commentary from the commit message
168 only if the message is to be edited. Otherwise only whitespace
169 removed. The 'verbatim' mode does not change message at all,
170 'whitespace' removes just leading/trailing whitespace lines
171 and 'strip' removes both whitespace and commentary.
172
173 -e::
174 --edit::
175 The message taken from file with `-F`, command line with
176 `-m`, and from file with `-C` are usually used as the
177 commit log message unmodified. This option lets you
178 further edit the message taken from these sources.
179
180 --amend::
181 Used to amend the tip of the current branch. Prepare the tree
182 object you would want to replace the latest commit as usual
183 (this includes the usual -i/-o and explicit paths), and the
184 commit log editor is seeded with the commit message from the
185 tip of the current branch. The commit you create replaces the
186 current tip -- if it was a merge, it will have the parents of
187 the current tip as parents -- so the current top commit is
188 discarded.
189 +
190 --
191 It is a rough equivalent for:
192 ------
193 $ git reset --soft HEAD^
194 $ ... do something else to come up with the right tree ...
195 $ git commit -c ORIG_HEAD
196
197 ------
198 but can be used to amend a merge commit.
199 --
200 +
201 You should understand the implications of rewriting history if you
202 amend a commit that has already been published. (See the "RECOVERING
203 FROM UPSTREAM REBASE" section in linkgit:git-rebase[1].)
204
205 -i::
206 --include::
207 Before making a commit out of staged contents so far,
208 stage the contents of paths given on the command line
209 as well. This is usually not what you want unless you
210 are concluding a conflicted merge.
211
212 -o::
213 --only::
214 Make a commit only from the paths specified on the
215 command line, disregarding any contents that have been
216 staged so far. This is the default mode of operation of
217 'git commit' if any paths are given on the command line,
218 in which case this option can be omitted.
219 If this option is specified together with '--amend', then
220 no paths need to be specified, which can be used to amend
221 the last commit without committing changes that have
222 already been staged.
223
224 -u[<mode>]::
225 --untracked-files[=<mode>]::
226 Show untracked files.
227 +
228 The mode parameter is optional (defaults to 'all'), and is used to
229 specify the handling of untracked files; when -u is not used, the
230 default is 'normal', i.e. show untracked files and directories.
231 +
232 The possible options are:
233 +
234 - 'no' - Show no untracked files
235 - 'normal' - Shows untracked files and directories
236 - 'all' - Also shows individual files in untracked directories.
237 +
238 The default can be changed using the status.showUntrackedFiles
239 configuration variable documented in linkgit:git-config[1].
240
241 -v::
242 --verbose::
243 Show unified diff between the HEAD commit and what
244 would be committed at the bottom of the commit message
245 template. Note that this diff output doesn't have its
246 lines prefixed with '#'.
247
248 -q::
249 --quiet::
250 Suppress commit summary message.
251
252 --dry-run::
253 Do not create a commit, but show a list of paths that are
254 to be committed, paths with local changes that will be left
255 uncommitted and paths that are untracked.
256
257 --status::
258 Include the output of linkgit:git-status[1] in the commit
259 message template when using an editor to prepare the commit
260 message. Defaults to on, but can be used to override
261 configuration variable commit.status.
262
263 --no-status::
264 Do not include the output of linkgit:git-status[1] in the
265 commit message template when using an editor to prepare the
266 default commit message.
267
268 \--::
269 Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
270
271 <file>...::
272 When files are given on the command line, the command
273 commits the contents of the named files, without
274 recording the changes already staged. The contents of
275 these files are also staged for the next commit on top
276 of what have been staged before.
277
278 :git-commit: 1
279 include::date-formats.txt[]
280
281 EXAMPLES
282 --------
283 When recording your own work, the contents of modified files in
284 your working tree are temporarily stored to a staging area
285 called the "index" with 'git add'. A file can be
286 reverted back, only in the index but not in the working tree,
287 to that of the last commit with `git reset HEAD \-- <file>`,
288 which effectively reverts 'git add' and prevents the changes to
289 this file from participating in the next commit. After building
290 the state to be committed incrementally with these commands,
291 `git commit` (without any pathname parameter) is used to record what
292 has been staged so far. This is the most basic form of the
293 command. An example:
294
295 ------------
296 $ edit hello.c
297 $ git rm goodbye.c
298 $ git add hello.c
299 $ git commit
300 ------------
301
302 Instead of staging files after each individual change, you can
303 tell `git commit` to notice the changes to the files whose
304 contents are tracked in
305 your working tree and do corresponding `git add` and `git rm`
306 for you. That is, this example does the same as the earlier
307 example if there is no other change in your working tree:
308
309 ------------
310 $ edit hello.c
311 $ rm goodbye.c
312 $ git commit -a
313 ------------
314
315 The command `git commit -a` first looks at your working tree,
316 notices that you have modified hello.c and removed goodbye.c,
317 and performs necessary `git add` and `git rm` for you.
318
319 After staging changes to many files, you can alter the order the
320 changes are recorded in, by giving pathnames to `git commit`.
321 When pathnames are given, the command makes a commit that
322 only records the changes made to the named paths:
323
324 ------------
325 $ edit hello.c hello.h
326 $ git add hello.c hello.h
327 $ edit Makefile
328 $ git commit Makefile
329 ------------
330
331 This makes a commit that records the modification to `Makefile`.
332 The changes staged for `hello.c` and `hello.h` are not included
333 in the resulting commit. However, their changes are not lost --
334 they are still staged and merely held back. After the above
335 sequence, if you do:
336
337 ------------
338 $ git commit
339 ------------
340
341 this second commit would record the changes to `hello.c` and
342 `hello.h` as expected.
343
344 After a merge (initiated by 'git merge' or 'git pull') stops
345 because of conflicts, cleanly merged
346 paths are already staged to be committed for you, and paths that
347 conflicted are left in unmerged state. You would have to first
348 check which paths are conflicting with 'git status'
349 and after fixing them manually in your working tree, you would
350 stage the result as usual with 'git add':
351
352 ------------
353 $ git status | grep unmerged
354 unmerged: hello.c
355 $ edit hello.c
356 $ git add hello.c
357 ------------
358
359 After resolving conflicts and staging the result, `git ls-files -u`
360 would stop mentioning the conflicted path. When you are done,
361 run `git commit` to finally record the merge:
362
363 ------------
364 $ git commit
365 ------------
366
367 As with the case to record your own changes, you can use `-a`
368 option to save typing. One difference is that during a merge
369 resolution, you cannot use `git commit` with pathnames to
370 alter the order the changes are committed, because the merge
371 should be recorded as a single commit. In fact, the command
372 refuses to run when given pathnames (but see `-i` option).
373
374
375 DISCUSSION
376 ----------
377
378 Though not required, it's a good idea to begin the commit message
379 with a single short (less than 50 character) line summarizing the
380 change, followed by a blank line and then a more thorough description.
381 Tools that turn commits into email, for example, use the first line
382 on the Subject: line and the rest of the commit in the body.
383
384 include::i18n.txt[]
385
386 ENVIRONMENT AND CONFIGURATION VARIABLES
387 ---------------------------------------
388 The editor used to edit the commit log message will be chosen from the
389 GIT_EDITOR environment variable, the core.editor configuration variable, the
390 VISUAL environment variable, or the EDITOR environment variable (in that
391 order). See linkgit:git-var[1] for details.
392
393 HOOKS
394 -----
395 This command can run `commit-msg`, `prepare-commit-msg`, `pre-commit`,
396 and `post-commit` hooks. See linkgit:githooks[5] for more
397 information.
398
399
400 SEE ALSO
401 --------
402 linkgit:git-add[1],
403 linkgit:git-rm[1],
404 linkgit:git-mv[1],
405 linkgit:git-merge[1],
406 linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
407
408 GIT
409 ---
410 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite