Sync with 2.3.10
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
26 commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27 in-depth introduction.
28
29 After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
30 page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31 individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
32 manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
33
34 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
35 can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
36
37 ifdef::stalenotes[]
38 [NOTE]
39 ============
40
41 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42 unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
43 branch of the `git.git` repository.
44 Documentation for older releases are available here:
45
46 * link:v2.4.9/git.html[documentation for release 2.4.9]
47
48 * release notes for
49 link:RelNotes/2.4.9.txt[2.4.9],
50 link:RelNotes/2.4.8.txt[2.4.8],
51 link:RelNotes/2.4.7.txt[2.4.7],
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55 link:RelNotes/2.4.3.txt[2.4.3],
56 link:RelNotes/2.4.2.txt[2.4.2],
57 link:RelNotes/2.4.1.txt[2.4.1],
58 link:RelNotes/2.4.0.txt[2.4].
59
60 * link:v2.3.10/git.html[documentation for release 2.3.10]
61
62 * release notes for
63 link:RelNotes/2.3.10.txt[2.3.10],
64 link:RelNotes/2.3.9.txt[2.3.9],
65 link:RelNotes/2.3.8.txt[2.3.8],
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69 link:RelNotes/2.3.4.txt[2.3.4],
70 link:RelNotes/2.3.3.txt[2.3.3],
71 link:RelNotes/2.3.2.txt[2.3.2],
72 link:RelNotes/2.3.1.txt[2.3.1],
73 link:RelNotes/2.3.0.txt[2.3].
74
75 * link:v2.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 2.2.3]
76
77 * release notes for
78 link:RelNotes/2.2.3.txt[2.2.3],
79 link:RelNotes/2.2.2.txt[2.2.2],
80 link:RelNotes/2.2.1.txt[2.2.1],
81 link:RelNotes/2.2.0.txt[2.2].
82
83 * link:v2.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.1.4]
84
85 * release notes for
86 link:RelNotes/2.1.4.txt[2.1.4],
87 link:RelNotes/2.1.3.txt[2.1.3],
88 link:RelNotes/2.1.2.txt[2.1.2],
89 link:RelNotes/2.1.1.txt[2.1.1],
90 link:RelNotes/2.1.0.txt[2.1].
91
92 * link:v2.0.5/git.html[documentation for release 2.0.5]
93
94 * release notes for
95 link:RelNotes/2.0.5.txt[2.0.5],
96 link:RelNotes/2.0.4.txt[2.0.4],
97 link:RelNotes/2.0.3.txt[2.0.3],
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99 link:RelNotes/2.0.1.txt[2.0.1],
100 link:RelNotes/2.0.0.txt[2.0.0].
101
102 * link:v1.9.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.9.5]
103
104 * release notes for
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106 link:RelNotes/1.9.4.txt[1.9.4],
107 link:RelNotes/1.9.3.txt[1.9.3],
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110 link:RelNotes/1.9.0.txt[1.9.0].
111
112 * link:v1.8.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.5.6]
113
114 * release notes for
115 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.6.txt[1.8.5.6],
116 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.5.txt[1.8.5.5],
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121 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.txt[1.8.5].
122
123 * link:v1.8.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.4.5]
124
125 * release notes for
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127 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt[1.8.4.4],
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130 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt[1.8.4.1],
131 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.txt[1.8.4].
132
133 * link:v1.8.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.3.4]
134
135 * release notes for
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137 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.3.txt[1.8.3.3],
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139 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt[1.8.3.1],
140 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.txt[1.8.3].
141
142 * link:v1.8.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.2.3]
143
144 * release notes for
145 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.3.txt[1.8.2.3],
146 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt[1.8.2.2],
147 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt[1.8.2.1],
148 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.txt[1.8.2].
149
150 * link:v1.8.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.1.6]
151
152 * release notes for
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154 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.5.txt[1.8.1.5],
155 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.4.txt[1.8.1.4],
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159 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.txt[1.8.1].
160
161 * link:v1.8.0.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.0.3]
162
163 * release notes for
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165 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.2.txt[1.8.0.2],
166 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.1.txt[1.8.0.1],
167 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.txt[1.8.0].
168
169 * link:v1.7.12.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.12.4]
170
171 * release notes for
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173 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt[1.7.12.3],
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175 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.1.txt[1.7.12.1],
176 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.txt[1.7.12].
177
178 * link:v1.7.11.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.7]
179
180 * release notes for
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188 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.txt[1.7.11].
189
190 * link:v1.7.10.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.10.5]
191
192 * release notes for
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194 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt[1.7.10.4],
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198 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.txt[1.7.10].
199
200 * link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
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202 * release notes for
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210 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
211
212 * link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
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214 * release notes for
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221 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
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223 * link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
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233 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.txt[1.7.7].
234
235 * link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
236
237 * release notes for
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246 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
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255 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
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265 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
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275 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
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285 * link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
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294 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
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308 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
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310 * release notes for
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316 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
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330 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
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357 * link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
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365 * link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
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376 * link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
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387 * link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
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410 * link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
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423 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
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438 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
439 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
440 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
441 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
442 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
443
444 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
445
446 * release notes for
447 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
448 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
449 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
450 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
451 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
452 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
453 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
454
455 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
456 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
457 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
458 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
459
460 ============
461
462 endif::stalenotes[]
463
464 OPTIONS
465 -------
466 --version::
467 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
468
469 --help::
470 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
471 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
472 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
473 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
474 +
475 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
476 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
477 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
478 help ...`.
479
480 -C <path>::
481 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
482 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
483 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
484 <path>`.
485 +
486 This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
487 `--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
488 made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
489 example the following invocations are equivalent:
490
491 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
492 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
493
494 -c <name>=<value>::
495 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
496 given will override values from configuration files.
497 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
498 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
499 +
500 Note that omitting the `=` in `git -c foo.bar ...` is allowed and sets
501 `foo.bar` to the boolean true value (just like `[foo]bar` would in a
502 config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like `git -c
503 foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string.
504
505 --exec-path[=<path>]::
506 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
507 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
508 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
509 the current setting and then exit.
510
511 --html-path::
512 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
513 documentation is installed and exit.
514
515 --man-path::
516 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
517 this version of Git and exit.
518
519 --info-path::
520 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
521 version of Git are installed and exit.
522
523 -p::
524 --paginate::
525 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
526 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
527 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
528 below).
529
530 --no-pager::
531 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
532
533 --git-dir=<path>::
534 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
535 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
536 path or relative path to current working directory.
537
538 --work-tree=<path>::
539 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
540 or a path relative to the current working directory.
541 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
542 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
543 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
544 more detailed discussion).
545
546 --namespace=<path>::
547 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
548 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
549 variable.
550
551 --bare::
552 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
553 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
554 directory.
555
556 --no-replace-objects::
557 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
558 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
559
560 --literal-pathspecs::
561 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
562 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
563 variable to `1`.
564
565 --glob-pathspecs::
566 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
567 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
568 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
569 magic ":(literal)"
570
571 --noglob-pathspecs::
572 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
573 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
574 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
575 magic ":(glob)"
576
577 --icase-pathspecs::
578 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
579 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
580
581 GIT COMMANDS
582 ------------
583
584 We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
585 ("plumbing") commands.
586
587 High-level commands (porcelain)
588 -------------------------------
589
590 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
591 ancillary user utilities.
592
593 Main porcelain commands
594 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
595
596 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
597
598 Ancillary Commands
599 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
600 Manipulators:
601
602 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
603
604 Interrogators:
605
606 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
607
608
609 Interacting with Others
610 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
611
612 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
613 people via patch over e-mail.
614
615 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
616
617
618 Low-level commands (plumbing)
619 -----------------------------
620
621 Although Git includes its
622 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
623 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
624 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
625 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
626
627 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
628 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
629 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
630 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
631 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
632 end user experience.
633
634 The following description divides
635 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
636 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
637 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
638 repositories.
639
640
641 Manipulation commands
642 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
643
644 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
645
646
647 Interrogation commands
648 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
649
650 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
651
652 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
653 the working tree.
654
655
656 Synching repositories
657 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
658
659 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
660
661 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
662 typically do not use them directly.
663
664 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
665
666
667 Internal helper commands
668 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
669
670 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
671 users typically do not use them directly.
672
673 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
674
675
676 Configuration Mechanism
677 -----------------------
678
679 Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
680 repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
681 like this:
682
683 ------------
684 #
685 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
686 #
687
688 ; core variables
689 [core]
690 ; Don't trust file modes
691 filemode = false
692
693 ; user identity
694 [user]
695 name = "Junio C Hamano"
696 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
697
698 ------------
699
700 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
701 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
702 list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
703
704
705 Identifier Terminology
706 ----------------------
707 <object>::
708 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
709
710 <blob>::
711 Indicates a blob object name.
712
713 <tree>::
714 Indicates a tree object name.
715
716 <commit>::
717 Indicates a commit object name.
718
719 <tree-ish>::
720 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
721 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
722 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
723 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
724
725 <commit-ish>::
726 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
727 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
728 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
729 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
730
731 <type>::
732 Indicates that an object type is required.
733 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
734
735 <file>::
736 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
737 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
738
739 Symbolic Identifiers
740 --------------------
741 Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
742 symbolic notation:
743
744 HEAD::
745 indicates the head of the current branch.
746
747 <tag>::
748 a valid tag 'name'
749 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
750
751 <head>::
752 a valid head 'name'
753 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
754
755 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
756 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
757
758
759 File/Directory Structure
760 ------------------------
761
762 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
763
764 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
765
766 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
767 `$GIT_DIR`.
768
769
770 Terminology
771 -----------
772 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
773
774
775 Environment Variables
776 ---------------------
777 Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
778
779 The Git Repository
780 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
781 These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
782 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
783 Git so take care if using Cogito etc.
784
785 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
786 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
787 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
788 is used.
789
790 'GIT_INDEX_VERSION'::
791 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
792 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
793 files. By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See
794 linkgit:git-update-index[1] for more information.
795
796 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
797 If the object storage directory is specified via this
798 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
799 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
800 directory is used.
801
802 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
803 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
804 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
805 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
806 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
807 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
808
809 'GIT_DIR'::
810 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
811 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
812 for the base of the repository.
813 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
814
815 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
816 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
817 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command-line
818 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
819
820 'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
821 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
822 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
823
824 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
825 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
826 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
827 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
828 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
829 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
830 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
831 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
832 might be present in order to compare them with the current
833 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
834 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
835 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
836 e.g.,
837 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
838
839 'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
840 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
841 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
842 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
843 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
844 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
845 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
846 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
847 command line.
848
849 Git Commits
850 ~~~~~~~~~~~
851 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
852 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
853 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
854 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
855 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
856 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
857 'EMAIL'::
858 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
859
860 Git Diffs
861 ~~~~~~~~~
862 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
863 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
864 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
865 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
866 value passed on the Git diff command line.
867
868 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
869 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
870 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
871 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
872 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
873
874 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
875 +
876 where:
877
878 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
879 contents of <old|new>,
880 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
881 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
882 +
883 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
884 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
885 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
886 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
887 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
888 +
889 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
890 parameter, <path>.
891 +
892 For each path 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called, two environment variables,
893 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER' and 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL' are set.
894
895 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER'::
896 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
897
898 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL'::
899 The total number of paths.
900
901 other
902 ~~~~~
903 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
904 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
905 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
906 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
907
908 'GIT_PAGER'::
909 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
910 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
911 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
912 linkgit:git-config[1].
913
914 'GIT_EDITOR'::
915 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
916 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
917 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
918 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
919
920 'GIT_SSH'::
921 'GIT_SSH_COMMAND'::
922 If either of these environment variables is set then 'git fetch'
923 and 'git push' will use the specified command instead of 'ssh'
924 when they need to connect to a remote system.
925 The command will be given exactly two or four arguments: the
926 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the shell
927 command to execute on that remote system, optionally preceded by
928 '-p' (literally) and the 'port' from the URL when it specifies
929 something other than the default SSH port.
930 +
931 `$GIT_SSH_COMMAND` takes precedence over `$GIT_SSH`, and is interpreted
932 by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
933 `$GIT_SSH` on the other hand must be just the path to a program
934 (which can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are
935 needed).
936 +
937 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
938 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
939 for further details.
940
941 'GIT_ASKPASS'::
942 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
943 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
944 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument
945 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askPass'
946 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
947
948 'GIT_TERMINAL_PROMPT'::
949 If this environment variable is set to `0`, git will not prompt
950 on the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).
951
952 'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
953 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
954 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
955 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
956 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
957 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
958 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
959
960 'GIT_FLUSH'::
961 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
962 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
963 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
964 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
965 flushed. If this
966 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
967 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
968 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
969 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
970
971 'GIT_TRACE'::
972 Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
973 command execution and external command execution.
974 +
975 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
976 is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to
977 stderr.
978 +
979 If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2
980 and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
981 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
982 trace messages into this file descriptor.
983 +
984 Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path
985 (starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
986 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
987 into it.
988 +
989 Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
990 "false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
991
992 'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
993 Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
994 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
995 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
996 pack-related performance problems.
997 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
998
999 'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
1000 Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
1001 given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
1002 or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet
1003 starting with "PACK".
1004 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1005
1006 'GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE'::
1007 Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
1008 time of each Git command.
1009 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1010
1011 'GIT_TRACE_SETUP'::
1012 Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
1013 working directory after Git has completed its setup phase.
1014 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1015
1016 'GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW'::
1017 Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching /
1018 cloning of shallow repositories.
1019 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1020
1021 GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
1022 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1023 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
1024 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
1025 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
1026 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
1027 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
1028 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
1029
1030 GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS::
1031 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1032 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
1033
1034 GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS::
1035 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1036 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
1037
1038 GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS::
1039 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1040 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
1041
1042 'GIT_REFLOG_ACTION'::
1043 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
1044 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
1045 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
1046 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
1047 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
1048 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
1049 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
1050 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
1051
1052 `GIT_REF_PARANOIA`::
1053 If set to `1`, include broken or badly named refs when iterating
1054 over lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this
1055 does nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and
1056 abort some operations in the presence of broken refs. Git sets
1057 this variable automatically when performing destructive
1058 operations like linkgit:git-prune[1]. You should not need to set
1059 it yourself unless you want to be paranoid about making sure
1060 an operation has touched every ref (e.g., because you are
1061 cloning a repository to make a backup).
1062
1063 `GIT_ALLOW_PROTOCOL`::
1064 If set, provide a colon-separated list of protocols which are
1065 allowed to be used with fetch/push/clone. This is useful to
1066 restrict recursive submodule initialization from an untrusted
1067 repository. Any protocol not mentioned will be disallowed (i.e.,
1068 this is a whitelist, not a blacklist). If the variable is not
1069 set at all, all protocols are enabled. The protocol names
1070 currently used by git are:
1071
1072 - `file`: any local file-based path (including `file://` URLs,
1073 or local paths)
1074
1075 - `git`: the anonymous git protocol over a direct TCP
1076 connection (or proxy, if configured)
1077
1078 - `ssh`: git over ssh (including `host:path` syntax,
1079 `git+ssh://`, etc).
1080
1081 - `rsync`: git over rsync
1082
1083 - `http`: git over http, both "smart http" and "dumb http".
1084 Note that this does _not_ include `https`; if you want both,
1085 you should specify both as `http:https`.
1086
1087 - any external helpers are named by their protocol (e.g., use
1088 `hg` to allow the `git-remote-hg` helper)
1089
1090
1091 Discussion[[Discussion]]
1092 ------------------------
1093
1094 More detail on the following is available from the
1095 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1096 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
1097
1098 A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
1099 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
1100 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
1101 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
1102 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
1103 as tags and branch heads.
1104
1105 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
1106 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
1107 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
1108 and some number of parent commits.
1109
1110 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
1111 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
1112 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
1113 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
1114
1115 All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
1116 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
1117 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
1118 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
1119 purpose.
1120
1121 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
1122 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
1123
1124 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
1125 may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
1126 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
1127 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
1128 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
1129 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
1130
1131 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
1132 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1133 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1134 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1135 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1136 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1137 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1138 content stored in the index.
1139
1140 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1141 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1142 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
1143
1144 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1145 ---------------------
1146
1147 See the references in the "description" section to get started
1148 using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
1149 for a first-time user.
1150
1151 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1152 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
1153 introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
1154
1155 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1156
1157 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1158 examples.
1159
1160 The internals are documented in the
1161 link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
1162
1163 Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1164 read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1165
1166
1167 Authors
1168 -------
1169 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
1170 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
1171 <git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary
1172 gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1173
1174 If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
1175 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1176 the authors for specific parts of the project.
1177
1178 Reporting Bugs
1179 --------------
1180
1181 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1182 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1183 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1184
1185 SEE ALSO
1186 --------
1187 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
1188 linkgit:giteveryday[7], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
1189 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
1190 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1191 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
1192
1193 GIT
1194 ---
1195 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite