Merge branch 'na/no-http-test-in-the-middle' into maint
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-commit.txt
1 git-commit(1)
2 =============
5 ----
6 git-commit - Record changes to the repository
9 --------
10 [verse]
11 'git commit' [-a | --interactive | --patch] [-s] [-v] [-u<mode>] [--amend]
12 [--dry-run] [(-c | -C | --fixup | --squash) <commit>]
13 [-F <file> | -m <msg>] [--reset-author] [--allow-empty]
14 [--allow-empty-message] [--no-verify] [-e] [--author=<author>]
15 [--date=<date>] [--cleanup=<mode>] [--[no-]status]
16 [-i | -o] [-S[<key-id>]] [--] [<file>...]
19 -----------
20 Stores the current contents of the index in a new commit along
21 with a log message from the user describing the changes.
23 The content to be added can be specified in several ways:
25 1. by using 'git add' to incrementally "add" changes to the
26 index before using the 'commit' command (Note: even modified
27 files must be "added");
29 2. by using 'git rm' to remove files from the working tree
30 and the index, again before using the 'commit' command;
32 3. by listing files as arguments to the 'commit' command, in which
33 case the commit will ignore changes staged in the index, and instead
34 record the current content of the listed files (which must already
35 be known to Git);
37 4. by using the -a switch with the 'commit' command to automatically
38 "add" changes from all known files (i.e. all files that are already
39 listed in the index) and to automatically "rm" files in the index
40 that have been removed from the working tree, and then perform the
41 actual commit;
43 5. by using the --interactive or --patch switches with the 'commit' command
44 to decide one by one which files or hunks should be part of the commit,
45 before finalizing the operation. See the ``Interactive Mode'' section of
46 linkgit:git-add[1] to learn how to operate these modes.
48 The `--dry-run` option can be used to obtain a
49 summary of what is included by any of the above for the next
50 commit by giving the same set of parameters (options and paths).
52 If you make a commit and then find a mistake immediately after
53 that, you can recover from it with 'git reset'.
57 -------
58 -a::
59 --all::
60 Tell the command to automatically stage files that have
61 been modified and deleted, but new files you have not
62 told Git about are not affected.
64 -p::
65 --patch::
66 Use the interactive patch selection interface to chose
67 which changes to commit. See linkgit:git-add[1] for
68 details.
70 -C <commit>::
71 --reuse-message=<commit>::
72 Take an existing commit object, and reuse the log message
73 and the authorship information (including the timestamp)
74 when creating the commit.
76 -c <commit>::
77 --reedit-message=<commit>::
78 Like '-C', but with '-c' the editor is invoked, so that
79 the user can further edit the commit message.
81 --fixup=<commit>::
82 Construct a commit message for use with `rebase --autosquash`.
83 The commit message will be the subject line from the specified
84 commit with a prefix of "fixup! ". See linkgit:git-rebase[1]
85 for details.
87 --squash=<commit>::
88 Construct a commit message for use with `rebase --autosquash`.
89 The commit message subject line is taken from the specified
90 commit with a prefix of "squash! ". Can be used with additional
91 commit message options (`-m`/`-c`/`-C`/`-F`). See
92 linkgit:git-rebase[1] for details.
94 --reset-author::
95 When used with -C/-c/--amend options, or when committing after a
96 a conflicting cherry-pick, declare that the authorship of the
97 resulting commit now belongs of the committer. This also renews
98 the author timestamp.
100 --short::
101 When doing a dry-run, give the output in the short-format. See
102 linkgit:git-status[1] for details. Implies `--dry-run`.
104 --branch::
105 Show the branch and tracking info even in short-format.
107 --porcelain::
108 When doing a dry-run, give the output in a porcelain-ready
109 format. See linkgit:git-status[1] for details. Implies
110 `--dry-run`.
112 --long::
113 When doing a dry-run, give the output in a the long-format.
114 Implies `--dry-run`.
116 -z::
117 --null::
118 When showing `short` or `porcelain` status output, terminate
119 entries in the status output with NUL, instead of LF. If no
120 format is given, implies the `--porcelain` output format.
122 -F <file>::
123 --file=<file>::
124 Take the commit message from the given file. Use '-' to
125 read the message from the standard input.
127 --author=<author>::
128 Override the commit author. Specify an explicit author using the
129 standard `A U Thor <>` format. Otherwise <author>
130 is assumed to be a pattern and is used to search for an existing
131 commit by that author (i.e. rev-list --all -i --author=<author>);
132 the commit author is then copied from the first such commit found.
134 --date=<date>::
135 Override the author date used in the commit.
137 -m <msg>::
138 --message=<msg>::
139 Use the given <msg> as the commit message.
140 If multiple `-m` options are given, their values are
141 concatenated as separate paragraphs.
143 -t <file>::
144 --template=<file>::
145 When editing the commit message, start the editor with the
146 contents in the given file. The `commit.template` configuration
147 variable is often used to give this option implicitly to the
148 command. This mechanism can be used by projects that want to
149 guide participants with some hints on what to write in the message
150 in what order. If the user exits the editor without editing the
151 message, the commit is aborted. This has no effect when a message
152 is given by other means, e.g. with the `-m` or `-F` options.
154 -s::
155 --signoff::
156 Add Signed-off-by line by the committer at the end of the commit
157 log message.
159 -n::
160 --no-verify::
161 This option bypasses the pre-commit and commit-msg hooks.
162 See also linkgit:githooks[5].
164 --allow-empty::
165 Usually recording a commit that has the exact same tree as its
166 sole parent commit is a mistake, and the command prevents you
167 from making such a commit. This option bypasses the safety, and
168 is primarily for use by foreign SCM interface scripts.
170 --allow-empty-message::
171 Like --allow-empty this command is primarily for use by foreign
172 SCM interface scripts. It allows you to create a commit with an
173 empty commit message without using plumbing commands like
174 linkgit:git-commit-tree[1].
176 --cleanup=<mode>::
177 This option determines how the supplied commit message should be
178 cleaned up before committing. The '<mode>' can be `strip`,
179 `whitespace`, `verbatim`, `scissors` or `default`.
180 +
181 --
182 strip::
183 Strip leading and trailing empty lines, trailing whitespace, and
184 #commentary and collapse consecutive empty lines.
185 whitespace::
186 Same as `strip` except #commentary is not removed.
187 verbatim::
188 Do not change the message at all.
189 scissors::
190 Same as `whitespace`, except that everything from (and
191 including) the line
192 "`# ------------------------ >8 ------------------------`"
193 is truncated if the message is to be edited. "`#`" can be
194 customized with core.commentChar.
195 default::
196 Same as `strip` if the message is to be edited.
197 Otherwise `whitespace`.
198 --
199 +
200 The default can be changed by the 'commit.cleanup' configuration
201 variable (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
203 -e::
204 --edit::
205 The message taken from file with `-F`, command line with
206 `-m`, and from commit object with `-C` are usually used as
207 the commit log message unmodified. This option lets you
208 further edit the message taken from these sources.
210 --no-edit::
211 Use the selected commit message without launching an editor.
212 For example, `git commit --amend --no-edit` amends a commit
213 without changing its commit message.
215 --amend::
216 Replace the tip of the current branch by creating a new
217 commit. The recorded tree is prepared as usual (including
218 the effect of the `-i` and `-o` options and explicit
219 pathspec), and the message from the original commit is used
220 as the starting point, instead of an empty message, when no
221 other message is specified from the command line via options
222 such as `-m`, `-F`, `-c`, etc. The new commit has the same
223 parents and author as the current one (the `--reset-author`
224 option can countermand this).
225 +
226 --
227 It is a rough equivalent for:
228 ------
229 $ git reset --soft HEAD^
230 $ ... do something else to come up with the right tree ...
231 $ git commit -c ORIG_HEAD
233 ------
234 but can be used to amend a merge commit.
235 --
236 +
237 You should understand the implications of rewriting history if you
238 amend a commit that has already been published. (See the "RECOVERING
239 FROM UPSTREAM REBASE" section in linkgit:git-rebase[1].)
241 --no-post-rewrite::
242 Bypass the post-rewrite hook.
244 -i::
245 --include::
246 Before making a commit out of staged contents so far,
247 stage the contents of paths given on the command line
248 as well. This is usually not what you want unless you
249 are concluding a conflicted merge.
251 -o::
252 --only::
253 Make a commit only from the paths specified on the
254 command line, disregarding any contents that have been
255 staged so far. This is the default mode of operation of
256 'git commit' if any paths are given on the command line,
257 in which case this option can be omitted.
258 If this option is specified together with '--amend', then
259 no paths need to be specified, which can be used to amend
260 the last commit without committing changes that have
261 already been staged.
263 -u[<mode>]::
264 --untracked-files[=<mode>]::
265 Show untracked files.
266 +
267 The mode parameter is optional (defaults to 'all'), and is used to
268 specify the handling of untracked files; when -u is not used, the
269 default is 'normal', i.e. show untracked files and directories.
270 +
271 The possible options are:
272 +
273 - 'no' - Show no untracked files
274 - 'normal' - Shows untracked files and directories
275 - 'all' - Also shows individual files in untracked directories.
276 +
277 The default can be changed using the status.showUntrackedFiles
278 configuration variable documented in linkgit:git-config[1].
280 -v::
281 --verbose::
282 Show unified diff between the HEAD commit and what
283 would be committed at the bottom of the commit message
284 template. Note that this diff output doesn't have its
285 lines prefixed with '#'.
287 -q::
288 --quiet::
289 Suppress commit summary message.
291 --dry-run::
292 Do not create a commit, but show a list of paths that are
293 to be committed, paths with local changes that will be left
294 uncommitted and paths that are untracked.
296 --status::
297 Include the output of linkgit:git-status[1] in the commit
298 message template when using an editor to prepare the commit
299 message. Defaults to on, but can be used to override
300 configuration variable commit.status.
302 --no-status::
303 Do not include the output of linkgit:git-status[1] in the
304 commit message template when using an editor to prepare the
305 default commit message.
307 -S[<keyid>]::
308 --gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
309 GPG-sign commit.
311 --no-gpg-sign::
312 Countermand `commit.gpgsign` configuration variable that is
313 set to force each and every commit to be signed.
315 \--::
316 Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
318 <file>...::
319 When files are given on the command line, the command
320 commits the contents of the named files, without
321 recording the changes already staged. The contents of
322 these files are also staged for the next commit on top
323 of what have been staged before.
325 :git-commit: 1
326 include::date-formats.txt[]
329 --------
330 When recording your own work, the contents of modified files in
331 your working tree are temporarily stored to a staging area
332 called the "index" with 'git add'. A file can be
333 reverted back, only in the index but not in the working tree,
334 to that of the last commit with `git reset HEAD -- <file>`,
335 which effectively reverts 'git add' and prevents the changes to
336 this file from participating in the next commit. After building
337 the state to be committed incrementally with these commands,
338 `git commit` (without any pathname parameter) is used to record what
339 has been staged so far. This is the most basic form of the
340 command. An example:
342 ------------
343 $ edit hello.c
344 $ git rm goodbye.c
345 $ git add hello.c
346 $ git commit
347 ------------
349 Instead of staging files after each individual change, you can
350 tell `git commit` to notice the changes to the files whose
351 contents are tracked in
352 your working tree and do corresponding `git add` and `git rm`
353 for you. That is, this example does the same as the earlier
354 example if there is no other change in your working tree:
356 ------------
357 $ edit hello.c
358 $ rm goodbye.c
359 $ git commit -a
360 ------------
362 The command `git commit -a` first looks at your working tree,
363 notices that you have modified hello.c and removed goodbye.c,
364 and performs necessary `git add` and `git rm` for you.
366 After staging changes to many files, you can alter the order the
367 changes are recorded in, by giving pathnames to `git commit`.
368 When pathnames are given, the command makes a commit that
369 only records the changes made to the named paths:
371 ------------
372 $ edit hello.c hello.h
373 $ git add hello.c hello.h
374 $ edit Makefile
375 $ git commit Makefile
376 ------------
378 This makes a commit that records the modification to `Makefile`.
379 The changes staged for `hello.c` and `hello.h` are not included
380 in the resulting commit. However, their changes are not lost --
381 they are still staged and merely held back. After the above
382 sequence, if you do:
384 ------------
385 $ git commit
386 ------------
388 this second commit would record the changes to `hello.c` and
389 `hello.h` as expected.
391 After a merge (initiated by 'git merge' or 'git pull') stops
392 because of conflicts, cleanly merged
393 paths are already staged to be committed for you, and paths that
394 conflicted are left in unmerged state. You would have to first
395 check which paths are conflicting with 'git status'
396 and after fixing them manually in your working tree, you would
397 stage the result as usual with 'git add':
399 ------------
400 $ git status | grep unmerged
401 unmerged: hello.c
402 $ edit hello.c
403 $ git add hello.c
404 ------------
406 After resolving conflicts and staging the result, `git ls-files -u`
407 would stop mentioning the conflicted path. When you are done,
408 run `git commit` to finally record the merge:
410 ------------
411 $ git commit
412 ------------
414 As with the case to record your own changes, you can use `-a`
415 option to save typing. One difference is that during a merge
416 resolution, you cannot use `git commit` with pathnames to
417 alter the order the changes are committed, because the merge
418 should be recorded as a single commit. In fact, the command
419 refuses to run when given pathnames (but see `-i` option).
423 ----------
425 Though not required, it's a good idea to begin the commit message
426 with a single short (less than 50 character) line summarizing the
427 change, followed by a blank line and then a more thorough description.
428 The text up to the first blank line in a commit message is treated
429 as the commit title, and that title is used throughout Git.
430 For example, linkgit:git-format-patch[1] turns a commit into email, and it uses
431 the title on the Subject line and the rest of the commit in the body.
433 include::i18n.txt[]
436 ---------------------------------------
437 The editor used to edit the commit log message will be chosen from the
438 GIT_EDITOR environment variable, the core.editor configuration variable, the
439 VISUAL environment variable, or the EDITOR environment variable (in that
440 order). See linkgit:git-var[1] for details.
443 -----
444 This command can run `commit-msg`, `prepare-commit-msg`, `pre-commit`,
445 and `post-commit` hooks. See linkgit:githooks[5] for more
446 information.
449 -----
452 This file contains the commit message of a commit in progress.
453 If `git commit` exits due to an error before creating a commit,
454 any commit message that has been provided by the user (e.g., in
455 an editor session) will be available in this file, but will be
456 overwritten by the next invocation of `git commit`.
459 --------
460 linkgit:git-add[1],
461 linkgit:git-rm[1],
462 linkgit:git-mv[1],
463 linkgit:git-merge[1],
464 linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
466 GIT
467 ---
468 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite