55470aa880dc8d7acab2152acde31ec339132f24
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
26 commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27 in-depth introduction.
28
29 After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
30 page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31 individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
32 manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
33
34 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
35 can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
36
37 ifdef::stalenotes[]
38 [NOTE]
39 ============
40
41 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42 unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
43 branch of the `git.git` repository.
44 Documentation for older releases are available here:
45
46 * link:v2.4.0/git.html[documentation for release 2.4]
47
48 * release notes for
49 link:RelNotes/2.4.0.txt[2.4].
50
51 * link:v2.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 2.3.8]
52
53 * release notes for
54 link:RelNotes/2.3.8.txt[2.3.8],
55 link:RelNotes/2.3.7.txt[2.3.7],
56 link:RelNotes/2.3.6.txt[2.3.6],
57 link:RelNotes/2.3.5.txt[2.3.5],
58 link:RelNotes/2.3.4.txt[2.3.4],
59 link:RelNotes/2.3.3.txt[2.3.3],
60 link:RelNotes/2.3.2.txt[2.3.2],
61 link:RelNotes/2.3.1.txt[2.3.1],
62 link:RelNotes/2.3.0.txt[2.3].
63
64 * link:v2.2.2/git.html[documentation for release 2.2.2]
65
66 * release notes for
67 link:RelNotes/2.2.2.txt[2.2.2],
68 link:RelNotes/2.2.1.txt[2.2.1],
69 link:RelNotes/2.2.0.txt[2.2].
70
71 * link:v2.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.1.4]
72
73 * release notes for
74 link:RelNotes/2.1.4.txt[2.1.4],
75 link:RelNotes/2.1.3.txt[2.1.3],
76 link:RelNotes/2.1.2.txt[2.1.2],
77 link:RelNotes/2.1.1.txt[2.1.1],
78 link:RelNotes/2.1.0.txt[2.1].
79
80 * link:v2.0.5/git.html[documentation for release 2.0.5]
81
82 * release notes for
83 link:RelNotes/2.0.5.txt[2.0.5],
84 link:RelNotes/2.0.4.txt[2.0.4],
85 link:RelNotes/2.0.3.txt[2.0.3],
86 link:RelNotes/2.0.2.txt[2.0.2],
87 link:RelNotes/2.0.1.txt[2.0.1],
88 link:RelNotes/2.0.0.txt[2.0.0].
89
90 * link:v1.9.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.9.5]
91
92 * release notes for
93 link:RelNotes/1.9.5.txt[1.9.5],
94 link:RelNotes/1.9.4.txt[1.9.4],
95 link:RelNotes/1.9.3.txt[1.9.3],
96 link:RelNotes/1.9.2.txt[1.9.2],
97 link:RelNotes/1.9.1.txt[1.9.1],
98 link:RelNotes/1.9.0.txt[1.9.0].
99
100 * link:v1.8.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.5.6]
101
102 * release notes for
103 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.6.txt[1.8.5.6],
104 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.5.txt[1.8.5.5],
105 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.4.txt[1.8.5.4],
106 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.3.txt[1.8.5.3],
107 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.2.txt[1.8.5.2],
108 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.1.txt[1.8.5.1],
109 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.txt[1.8.5].
110
111 * link:v1.8.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.4.5]
112
113 * release notes for
114 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.5.txt[1.8.4.5],
115 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt[1.8.4.4],
116 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.3.txt[1.8.4.3],
117 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.2.txt[1.8.4.2],
118 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt[1.8.4.1],
119 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.txt[1.8.4].
120
121 * link:v1.8.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.3.4]
122
123 * release notes for
124 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.4.txt[1.8.3.4],
125 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.3.txt[1.8.3.3],
126 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.2.txt[1.8.3.2],
127 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt[1.8.3.1],
128 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.txt[1.8.3].
129
130 * link:v1.8.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.2.3]
131
132 * release notes for
133 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.3.txt[1.8.2.3],
134 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt[1.8.2.2],
135 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt[1.8.2.1],
136 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.txt[1.8.2].
137
138 * link:v1.8.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.1.6]
139
140 * release notes for
141 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.6.txt[1.8.1.6],
142 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.5.txt[1.8.1.5],
143 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.4.txt[1.8.1.4],
144 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.3.txt[1.8.1.3],
145 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.2.txt[1.8.1.2],
146 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.1.txt[1.8.1.1],
147 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.txt[1.8.1].
148
149 * link:v1.8.0.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.0.3]
150
151 * release notes for
152 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.3.txt[1.8.0.3],
153 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.2.txt[1.8.0.2],
154 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.1.txt[1.8.0.1],
155 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.txt[1.8.0].
156
157 * link:v1.7.12.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.12.4]
158
159 * release notes for
160 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.4.txt[1.7.12.4],
161 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt[1.7.12.3],
162 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.2.txt[1.7.12.2],
163 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.1.txt[1.7.12.1],
164 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.txt[1.7.12].
165
166 * link:v1.7.11.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.7]
167
168 * release notes for
169 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.7.txt[1.7.11.7],
170 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.6.txt[1.7.11.6],
171 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.5.txt[1.7.11.5],
172 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.4.txt[1.7.11.4],
173 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.3.txt[1.7.11.3],
174 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.2.txt[1.7.11.2],
175 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.1.txt[1.7.11.1],
176 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.txt[1.7.11].
177
178 * link:v1.7.10.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.10.5]
179
180 * release notes for
181 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.5.txt[1.7.10.5],
182 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt[1.7.10.4],
183 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.3.txt[1.7.10.3],
184 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.2.txt[1.7.10.2],
185 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt[1.7.10.1],
186 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.txt[1.7.10].
187
188 * link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
189
190 * release notes for
191 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.7.txt[1.7.9.7],
192 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.6.txt[1.7.9.6],
193 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.5.txt[1.7.9.5],
194 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.4.txt[1.7.9.4],
195 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.3.txt[1.7.9.3],
196 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.2.txt[1.7.9.2],
197 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.1.txt[1.7.9.1],
198 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
199
200 * link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
201
202 * release notes for
203 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.6.txt[1.7.8.6],
204 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.5.txt[1.7.8.5],
205 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.4.txt[1.7.8.4],
206 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.3.txt[1.7.8.3],
207 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt[1.7.8.2],
208 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.1.txt[1.7.8.1],
209 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
210
211 * link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
212
213 * release notes for
214 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.7.txt[1.7.7.7],
215 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.6.txt[1.7.7.6],
216 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.5.txt[1.7.7.5],
217 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.4.txt[1.7.7.4],
218 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.3.txt[1.7.7.3],
219 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.2.txt[1.7.7.2],
220 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.1.txt[1.7.7.1],
221 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.txt[1.7.7].
222
223 * link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
224
225 * release notes for
226 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.6.txt[1.7.6.6],
227 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.5.txt[1.7.6.5],
228 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.4.txt[1.7.6.4],
229 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.3.txt[1.7.6.3],
230 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.2.txt[1.7.6.2],
231 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.1.txt[1.7.6.1],
232 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
233
234 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
235
236 * release notes for
237 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt[1.7.5.4],
238 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt[1.7.5.3],
239 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.2.txt[1.7.5.2],
240 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.1.txt[1.7.5.1],
241 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.txt[1.7.5].
242
243 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
244
245 * release notes for
246 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.5.txt[1.7.4.5],
247 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.4.txt[1.7.4.4],
248 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.3.txt[1.7.4.3],
249 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.2.txt[1.7.4.2],
250 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.1.txt[1.7.4.1],
251 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.txt[1.7.4].
252
253 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
254
255 * release notes for
256 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.5.txt[1.7.3.5],
257 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.4.txt[1.7.3.4],
258 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.3.txt[1.7.3.3],
259 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.2.txt[1.7.3.2],
260 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.1.txt[1.7.3.1],
261 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.txt[1.7.3].
262
263 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
264
265 * release notes for
266 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.5.txt[1.7.2.5],
267 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.4.txt[1.7.2.4],
268 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.3.txt[1.7.2.3],
269 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.2.txt[1.7.2.2],
270 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.1.txt[1.7.2.1],
271 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.txt[1.7.2].
272
273 * link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
274
275 * release notes for
276 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.4.txt[1.7.1.4],
277 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.3.txt[1.7.1.3],
278 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.2.txt[1.7.1.2],
279 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.1.txt[1.7.1.1],
280 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.txt[1.7.1].
281
282 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
283
284 * release notes for
285 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.9.txt[1.7.0.9],
286 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.8.txt[1.7.0.8],
287 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.7.txt[1.7.0.7],
288 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.6.txt[1.7.0.6],
289 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.5.txt[1.7.0.5],
290 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.4.txt[1.7.0.4],
291 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.3.txt[1.7.0.3],
292 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt[1.7.0.2],
293 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.1.txt[1.7.0.1],
294 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.txt[1.7.0].
295
296 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
297
298 * release notes for
299 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt[1.6.6.3],
300 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
301 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
302 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
303
304 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
305
306 * release notes for
307 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.9.txt[1.6.5.9],
308 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.8.txt[1.6.5.8],
309 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.7.txt[1.6.5.7],
310 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.6.txt[1.6.5.6],
311 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.5.txt[1.6.5.5],
312 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt[1.6.5.4],
313 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.3.txt[1.6.5.3],
314 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.2.txt[1.6.5.2],
315 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.1.txt[1.6.5.1],
316 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
317
318 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
319
320 * release notes for
321 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.5.txt[1.6.4.5],
322 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
323 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
324 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.2.txt[1.6.4.2],
325 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
326 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
327
328 * link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
329
330 * release notes for
331 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
332 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
333 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
334 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
335 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
336
337 * release notes for
338 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
339 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
340 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
341 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
342 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
343 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
344
345 * link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
346
347 * release notes for
348 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
349 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
350 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
351 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
352
353 * link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
354
355 * release notes for
356 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
357 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
358 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
359 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
360 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
361 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
362 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
363
364 * link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
365
366 * release notes for
367 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
368 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
369 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
370 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
371 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
372 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
373 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
374
375 * link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
376
377 * release notes for
378 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
379 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
380 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
381 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
382 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
383 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
384 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
385
386 * link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
387
388 * release notes for
389 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
390 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
391 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
392 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
393 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
394 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
395 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
396 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
397
398 * link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
399
400 * release notes for
401 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
402 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
403 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
404 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
405 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
406 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
407 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
408 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
409 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
410
411 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
412
413 * release notes for
414 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
415 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
416 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
417 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
418 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
419 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
420
421 * link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
422
423 * release notes for
424 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
425 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
426 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
427 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
428 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
429 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
430 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
431
432 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
433
434 * release notes for
435 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
436 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
437 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
438 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
439 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
440 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
441 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
442
443 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
444 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
445 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
446 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
447
448 ============
449
450 endif::stalenotes[]
451
452 OPTIONS
453 -------
454 --version::
455 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
456
457 --help::
458 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
459 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
460 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
461 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
462 +
463 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
464 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
465 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
466 help ...`.
467
468 -C <path>::
469 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
470 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
471 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
472 <path>`.
473 +
474 This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
475 `--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
476 made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
477 example the following invocations are equivalent:
478
479 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
480 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
481
482 -c <name>=<value>::
483 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
484 given will override values from configuration files.
485 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
486 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
487 +
488 Note that omitting the `=` in `git -c foo.bar ...` is allowed and sets
489 `foo.bar` to the boolean true value (just like `[foo]bar` would in a
490 config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like `git -c
491 foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string.
492
493 --exec-path[=<path>]::
494 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
495 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
496 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
497 the current setting and then exit.
498
499 --html-path::
500 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
501 documentation is installed and exit.
502
503 --man-path::
504 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
505 this version of Git and exit.
506
507 --info-path::
508 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
509 version of Git are installed and exit.
510
511 -p::
512 --paginate::
513 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
514 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
515 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
516 below).
517
518 --no-pager::
519 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
520
521 --git-dir=<path>::
522 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
523 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
524 path or relative path to current working directory.
525
526 --work-tree=<path>::
527 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
528 or a path relative to the current working directory.
529 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
530 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
531 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
532 more detailed discussion).
533
534 --namespace=<path>::
535 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
536 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
537 variable.
538
539 --bare::
540 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
541 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
542 directory.
543
544 --no-replace-objects::
545 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
546 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
547
548 --literal-pathspecs::
549 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
550 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
551 variable to `1`.
552
553 --glob-pathspecs::
554 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
555 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
556 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
557 magic ":(literal)"
558
559 --noglob-pathspecs::
560 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
561 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
562 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
563 magic ":(glob)"
564
565 --icase-pathspecs::
566 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
567 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
568
569 GIT COMMANDS
570 ------------
571
572 We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
573 ("plumbing") commands.
574
575 High-level commands (porcelain)
576 -------------------------------
577
578 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
579 ancillary user utilities.
580
581 Main porcelain commands
582 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
583
584 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
585
586 Ancillary Commands
587 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
588 Manipulators:
589
590 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
591
592 Interrogators:
593
594 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
595
596
597 Interacting with Others
598 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
599
600 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
601 people via patch over e-mail.
602
603 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
604
605
606 Low-level commands (plumbing)
607 -----------------------------
608
609 Although Git includes its
610 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
611 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
612 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
613 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
614
615 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
616 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
617 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
618 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
619 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
620 end user experience.
621
622 The following description divides
623 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
624 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
625 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
626 repositories.
627
628
629 Manipulation commands
630 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
631
632 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
633
634
635 Interrogation commands
636 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
637
638 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
639
640 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
641 the working tree.
642
643
644 Synching repositories
645 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
646
647 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
648
649 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
650 typically do not use them directly.
651
652 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
653
654
655 Internal helper commands
656 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
657
658 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
659 users typically do not use them directly.
660
661 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
662
663
664 Configuration Mechanism
665 -----------------------
666
667 Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
668 repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
669 like this:
670
671 ------------
672 #
673 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
674 #
675
676 ; core variables
677 [core]
678 ; Don't trust file modes
679 filemode = false
680
681 ; user identity
682 [user]
683 name = "Junio C Hamano"
684 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
685
686 ------------
687
688 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
689 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
690 list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
691
692
693 Identifier Terminology
694 ----------------------
695 <object>::
696 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
697
698 <blob>::
699 Indicates a blob object name.
700
701 <tree>::
702 Indicates a tree object name.
703
704 <commit>::
705 Indicates a commit object name.
706
707 <tree-ish>::
708 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
709 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
710 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
711 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
712
713 <commit-ish>::
714 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
715 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
716 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
717 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
718
719 <type>::
720 Indicates that an object type is required.
721 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
722
723 <file>::
724 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
725 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
726
727 Symbolic Identifiers
728 --------------------
729 Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
730 symbolic notation:
731
732 HEAD::
733 indicates the head of the current branch.
734
735 <tag>::
736 a valid tag 'name'
737 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
738
739 <head>::
740 a valid head 'name'
741 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
742
743 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
744 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
745
746
747 File/Directory Structure
748 ------------------------
749
750 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
751
752 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
753
754 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
755 `$GIT_DIR`.
756
757
758 Terminology
759 -----------
760 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
761
762
763 Environment Variables
764 ---------------------
765 Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
766
767 The Git Repository
768 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
769 These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
770 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
771 Git so take care if using Cogito etc.
772
773 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
774 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
775 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
776 is used.
777
778 'GIT_INDEX_VERSION'::
779 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
780 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
781 files. By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See
782 linkgit:git-update-index[1] for more information.
783
784 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
785 If the object storage directory is specified via this
786 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
787 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
788 directory is used.
789
790 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
791 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
792 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
793 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
794 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
795 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
796
797 'GIT_DIR'::
798 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
799 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
800 for the base of the repository.
801 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
802
803 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
804 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
805 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command-line
806 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
807
808 'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
809 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
810 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
811
812 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
813 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
814 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
815 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
816 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
817 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
818 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
819 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
820 might be present in order to compare them with the current
821 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
822 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
823 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
824 e.g.,
825 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
826
827 'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
828 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
829 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
830 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
831 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
832 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
833 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
834 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
835 command line.
836
837 Git Commits
838 ~~~~~~~~~~~
839 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
840 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
841 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
842 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
843 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
844 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
845 'EMAIL'::
846 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
847
848 Git Diffs
849 ~~~~~~~~~
850 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
851 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
852 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
853 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
854 value passed on the Git diff command line.
855
856 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
857 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
858 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
859 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
860 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
861
862 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
863 +
864 where:
865
866 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
867 contents of <old|new>,
868 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
869 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
870 +
871 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
872 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
873 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
874 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
875 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
876 +
877 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
878 parameter, <path>.
879 +
880 For each path 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called, two environment variables,
881 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER' and 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL' are set.
882
883 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER'::
884 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
885
886 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL'::
887 The total number of paths.
888
889 other
890 ~~~~~
891 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
892 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
893 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
894 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
895
896 'GIT_PAGER'::
897 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
898 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
899 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
900 linkgit:git-config[1].
901
902 'GIT_EDITOR'::
903 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
904 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
905 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
906 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
907
908 'GIT_SSH'::
909 'GIT_SSH_COMMAND'::
910 If either of these environment variables is set then 'git fetch'
911 and 'git push' will use the specified command instead of 'ssh'
912 when they need to connect to a remote system.
913 The command will be given exactly two or four arguments: the
914 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the shell
915 command to execute on that remote system, optionally preceded by
916 '-p' (literally) and the 'port' from the URL when it specifies
917 something other than the default SSH port.
918 +
919 `$GIT_SSH_COMMAND` takes precedence over `$GIT_SSH`, and is interpreted
920 by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
921 `$GIT_SSH` on the other hand must be just the path to a program
922 (which can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are
923 needed).
924 +
925 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
926 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
927 for further details.
928
929 'GIT_ASKPASS'::
930 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
931 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
932 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument
933 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askPass'
934 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
935
936 'GIT_TERMINAL_PROMPT'::
937 If this environment variable is set to `0`, git will not prompt
938 on the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).
939
940 'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
941 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
942 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
943 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
944 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
945 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
946 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
947
948 'GIT_FLUSH'::
949 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
950 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
951 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
952 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
953 flushed. If this
954 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
955 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
956 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
957 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
958
959 'GIT_TRACE'::
960 Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
961 command execution and external command execution.
962 +
963 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
964 is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to
965 stderr.
966 +
967 If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2
968 and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
969 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
970 trace messages into this file descriptor.
971 +
972 Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path
973 (starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
974 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
975 into it.
976 +
977 Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
978 "false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
979
980 'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
981 Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
982 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
983 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
984 pack-related performance problems.
985 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
986
987 'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
988 Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
989 given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
990 or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet
991 starting with "PACK".
992 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
993
994 'GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE'::
995 Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
996 time of each Git command.
997 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
998
999 'GIT_TRACE_SETUP'::
1000 Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
1001 working directory after Git has completed its setup phase.
1002 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1003
1004 'GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW'::
1005 Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching /
1006 cloning of shallow repositories.
1007 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1008
1009 GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
1010 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1011 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
1012 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
1013 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
1014 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
1015 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
1016 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
1017
1018 GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS::
1019 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1020 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
1021
1022 GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS::
1023 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1024 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
1025
1026 GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS::
1027 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1028 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
1029
1030 'GIT_REFLOG_ACTION'::
1031 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
1032 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
1033 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
1034 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
1035 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
1036 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
1037 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
1038 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
1039
1040 `GIT_REF_PARANOIA`::
1041 If set to `1`, include broken or badly named refs when iterating
1042 over lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this
1043 does nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and
1044 abort some operations in the presence of broken refs. Git sets
1045 this variable automatically when performing destructive
1046 operations like linkgit:git-prune[1]. You should not need to set
1047 it yourself unless you want to be paranoid about making sure
1048 an operation has touched every ref (e.g., because you are
1049 cloning a repository to make a backup).
1050
1051
1052 Discussion[[Discussion]]
1053 ------------------------
1054
1055 More detail on the following is available from the
1056 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1057 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
1058
1059 A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
1060 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
1061 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
1062 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
1063 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
1064 as tags and branch heads.
1065
1066 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
1067 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
1068 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
1069 and some number of parent commits.
1070
1071 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
1072 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
1073 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
1074 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
1075
1076 All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
1077 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
1078 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
1079 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
1080 purpose.
1081
1082 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
1083 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
1084
1085 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
1086 may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
1087 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
1088 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
1089 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
1090 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
1091
1092 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
1093 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1094 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1095 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1096 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1097 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1098 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1099 content stored in the index.
1100
1101 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1102 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1103 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
1104
1105 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1106 ---------------------
1107
1108 See the references in the "description" section to get started
1109 using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
1110 for a first-time user.
1111
1112 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1113 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
1114 introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
1115
1116 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1117
1118 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1119 examples.
1120
1121 The internals are documented in the
1122 link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
1123
1124 Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1125 read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1126
1127
1128 Authors
1129 -------
1130 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
1131 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
1132 <git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary
1133 gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1134
1135 If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
1136 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1137 the authors for specific parts of the project.
1138
1139 Reporting Bugs
1140 --------------
1141
1142 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1143 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1144 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1145
1146 SEE ALSO
1147 --------
1148 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
1149 linkgit:giteveryday[7], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
1150 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
1151 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1152 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
1153
1154 GIT
1155 ---
1156 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite