Merge branch 'tr/reset-checkout-patch'
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-stash.txt
1 git-stash(1)
2 ============
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-stash - Stash the changes in a dirty working directory away
7
8 SYNOPSIS
9 --------
10 [verse]
11 'git stash' list [<options>]
12 'git stash' show [<stash>]
13 'git stash' drop [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]
14 'git stash' ( pop | apply ) [--index] [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]
15 'git stash' branch <branchname> [<stash>]
16 'git stash' [save [--patch] [-k|--[no-]keep-index] [-q|--quiet] [<message>]]
17 'git stash' clear
18 'git stash' create
19
20 DESCRIPTION
21 -----------
22
23 Use 'git stash' when you want to record the current state of the
24 working directory and the index, but want to go back to a clean
25 working directory. The command saves your local modifications away
26 and reverts the working directory to match the `HEAD` commit.
27
28 The modifications stashed away by this command can be listed with
29 `git stash list`, inspected with `git stash show`, and restored
30 (potentially on top of a different commit) with `git stash apply`.
31 Calling `git stash` without any arguments is equivalent to `git stash save`.
32 A stash is by default listed as "WIP on 'branchname' ...", but
33 you can give a more descriptive message on the command line when
34 you create one.
35
36 The latest stash you created is stored in `$GIT_DIR/refs/stash`; older
37 stashes are found in the reflog of this reference and can be named using
38 the usual reflog syntax (e.g. `stash@\{0}` is the most recently
39 created stash, `stash@\{1}` is the one before it, `stash@\{2.hours.ago}`
40 is also possible).
41
42 OPTIONS
43 -------
44
45 save [--patch] [--[no-]keep-index] [-q|--quiet] [<message>]::
46
47 Save your local modifications to a new 'stash', and run `git reset
48 --hard` to revert them. The <message> part is optional and gives
49 the description along with the stashed state. For quickly making
50 a snapshot, you can omit _both_ "save" and <message>, but giving
51 only <message> does not trigger this action to prevent a misspelled
52 subcommand from making an unwanted stash.
53 +
54 If the `--keep-index` option is used, all changes already added to the
55 index are left intact.
56 +
57 With `--patch`, you can interactively select hunks from in the diff
58 between HEAD and the working tree to be stashed. The stash entry is
59 constructed such that its index state is the same as the index state
60 of your repository, and its worktree contains only the changes you
61 selected interactively. The selected changes are then rolled back
62 from your worktree.
63 +
64 The `--patch` option implies `--keep-index`. You can use
65 `--no-keep-index` to override this.
66
67 list [<options>]::
68
69 List the stashes that you currently have. Each 'stash' is listed
70 with its name (e.g. `stash@\{0}` is the latest stash, `stash@\{1}` is
71 the one before, etc.), the name of the branch that was current when the
72 stash was made, and a short description of the commit the stash was
73 based on.
74 +
75 ----------------------------------------------------------------
76 stash@{0}: WIP on submit: 6ebd0e2... Update git-stash documentation
77 stash@{1}: On master: 9cc0589... Add git-stash
78 ----------------------------------------------------------------
79 +
80 The command takes options applicable to the 'git-log'
81 command to control what is shown and how. See linkgit:git-log[1].
82
83 show [<stash>]::
84
85 Show the changes recorded in the stash as a diff between the
86 stashed state and its original parent. When no `<stash>` is given,
87 shows the latest one. By default, the command shows the diffstat, but
88 it will accept any format known to 'git-diff' (e.g., `git stash show
89 -p stash@\{1}` to view the second most recent stash in patch form).
90
91 pop [--index] [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]::
92
93 Remove a single stashed state from the stash list and apply it
94 on top of the current working tree state, i.e., do the inverse
95 operation of `git stash save`. The working directory must
96 match the index.
97 +
98 Applying the state can fail with conflicts; in this case, it is not
99 removed from the stash list. You need to resolve the conflicts by hand
100 and call `git stash drop` manually afterwards.
101 +
102 If the `--index` option is used, then tries to reinstate not only the working
103 tree's changes, but also the index's ones. However, this can fail, when you
104 have conflicts (which are stored in the index, where you therefore can no
105 longer apply the changes as they were originally).
106 +
107 When no `<stash>` is given, `stash@\{0}` is assumed.
108
109 apply [--index] [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]::
110
111 Like `pop`, but do not remove the state from the stash list.
112
113 branch <branchname> [<stash>]::
114
115 Creates and checks out a new branch named `<branchname>` starting from
116 the commit at which the `<stash>` was originally created, applies the
117 changes recorded in `<stash>` to the new working tree and index, then
118 drops the `<stash>` if that completes successfully. When no `<stash>`
119 is given, applies the latest one.
120 +
121 This is useful if the branch on which you ran `git stash save` has
122 changed enough that `git stash apply` fails due to conflicts. Since
123 the stash is applied on top of the commit that was HEAD at the time
124 `git stash` was run, it restores the originally stashed state with
125 no conflicts.
126
127 clear::
128 Remove all the stashed states. Note that those states will then
129 be subject to pruning, and may be impossible to recover (see
130 'Examples' below for a possible strategy).
131
132 drop [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]::
133
134 Remove a single stashed state from the stash list. When no `<stash>`
135 is given, it removes the latest one. i.e. `stash@\{0}`
136
137 create::
138
139 Create a stash (which is a regular commit object) and return its
140 object name, without storing it anywhere in the ref namespace.
141
142
143 DISCUSSION
144 ----------
145
146 A stash is represented as a commit whose tree records the state of the
147 working directory, and its first parent is the commit at `HEAD` when
148 the stash was created. The tree of the second parent records the
149 state of the index when the stash is made, and it is made a child of
150 the `HEAD` commit. The ancestry graph looks like this:
151
152 .----W
153 / /
154 -----H----I
155
156 where `H` is the `HEAD` commit, `I` is a commit that records the state
157 of the index, and `W` is a commit that records the state of the working
158 tree.
159
160
161 EXAMPLES
162 --------
163
164 Pulling into a dirty tree::
165
166 When you are in the middle of something, you learn that there are
167 upstream changes that are possibly relevant to what you are
168 doing. When your local changes do not conflict with the changes in
169 the upstream, a simple `git pull` will let you move forward.
170 +
171 However, there are cases in which your local changes do conflict with
172 the upstream changes, and `git pull` refuses to overwrite your
173 changes. In such a case, you can stash your changes away,
174 perform a pull, and then unstash, like this:
175 +
176 ----------------------------------------------------------------
177 $ git pull
178 ...
179 file foobar not up to date, cannot merge.
180 $ git stash
181 $ git pull
182 $ git stash pop
183 ----------------------------------------------------------------
184
185 Interrupted workflow::
186
187 When you are in the middle of something, your boss comes in and
188 demands that you fix something immediately. Traditionally, you would
189 make a commit to a temporary branch to store your changes away, and
190 return to your original branch to make the emergency fix, like this:
191 +
192 ----------------------------------------------------------------
193 # ... hack hack hack ...
194 $ git checkout -b my_wip
195 $ git commit -a -m "WIP"
196 $ git checkout master
197 $ edit emergency fix
198 $ git commit -a -m "Fix in a hurry"
199 $ git checkout my_wip
200 $ git reset --soft HEAD^
201 # ... continue hacking ...
202 ----------------------------------------------------------------
203 +
204 You can use 'git-stash' to simplify the above, like this:
205 +
206 ----------------------------------------------------------------
207 # ... hack hack hack ...
208 $ git stash
209 $ edit emergency fix
210 $ git commit -a -m "Fix in a hurry"
211 $ git stash pop
212 # ... continue hacking ...
213 ----------------------------------------------------------------
214
215 Testing partial commits::
216
217 You can use `git stash save --keep-index` when you want to make two or
218 more commits out of the changes in the work tree, and you want to test
219 each change before committing:
220 +
221 ----------------------------------------------------------------
222 # ... hack hack hack ...
223 $ git add --patch foo # add just first part to the index
224 $ git stash save --keep-index # save all other changes to the stash
225 $ edit/build/test first part
226 $ git commit -m 'First part' # commit fully tested change
227 $ git stash pop # prepare to work on all other changes
228 # ... repeat above five steps until one commit remains ...
229 $ edit/build/test remaining parts
230 $ git commit foo -m 'Remaining parts'
231 ----------------------------------------------------------------
232
233 Recovering stashes that were cleared/dropped erroneously::
234
235 If you mistakenly drop or clear stashes, they cannot be recovered
236 through the normal safety mechanisms. However, you can try the
237 following incantation to get a list of stashes that are still in your
238 repository, but not reachable any more:
239 +
240 ----------------------------------------------------------------
241 git fsck --unreachable |
242 grep commit | cut -d\ -f3 |
243 xargs git log --merges --no-walk --grep=WIP
244 ----------------------------------------------------------------
245
246
247 SEE ALSO
248 --------
249 linkgit:git-checkout[1],
250 linkgit:git-commit[1],
251 linkgit:git-reflog[1],
252 linkgit:git-reset[1]
253
254 AUTHOR
255 ------
256 Written by Nanako Shiraishi <nanako3@bluebottle.com>
257
258 GIT
259 ---
260 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite