Merge branch 'tr/reset-checkout-patch'
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-checkout.txt
1 git-checkout(1)
2 ===============
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-checkout - Checkout a branch or paths to the working tree
7
8 SYNOPSIS
9 --------
10 [verse]
11 'git checkout' [-q] [-f] [-m] [<branch>]
12 'git checkout' [-q] [-f] [-m] [-b <new_branch>] [<start_point>]
13 'git checkout' [-f|--ours|--theirs|-m|--conflict=<style>] [<tree-ish>] [--] <paths>...
14 'git checkout' --patch [<tree-ish>] [--] [<paths>...]
15
16 DESCRIPTION
17 -----------
18
19 When <paths> are not given, this command switches branches by
20 updating the index, working tree, and HEAD to reflect the specified
21 branch.
22
23 If `-b` is given, a new branch is created and checked out, as if
24 linkgit:git-branch[1] were called; in this case you can
25 use the --track or --no-track options, which will be passed to `git
26 branch`. As a convenience, --track without `-b` implies branch
27 creation; see the description of --track below.
28
29 When <paths> or --patch are given, this command does *not* switch
30 branches. It updates the named paths in the working tree from
31 the index file, or from a named <tree-ish> (most often a commit). In
32 this case, the `-b` and `--track` options are meaningless and giving
33 either of them results in an error. The <tree-ish> argument can be
34 used to specify a specific tree-ish (i.e. commit, tag or tree)
35 to update the index for the given paths before updating the
36 working tree.
37
38 The index may contain unmerged entries after a failed merge. By
39 default, if you try to check out such an entry from the index, the
40 checkout operation will fail and nothing will be checked out.
41 Using -f will ignore these unmerged entries. The contents from a
42 specific side of the merge can be checked out of the index by
43 using --ours or --theirs. With -m, changes made to the working tree
44 file can be discarded to recreate the original conflicted merge result.
45
46 OPTIONS
47 -------
48 -q::
49 --quiet::
50 Quiet, suppress feedback messages.
51
52 -f::
53 --force::
54 When switching branches, proceed even if the index or the
55 working tree differs from HEAD. This is used to throw away
56 local changes.
57 +
58 When checking out paths from the index, do not fail upon unmerged
59 entries; instead, unmerged entries are ignored.
60
61 --ours::
62 --theirs::
63 When checking out paths from the index, check out stage #2
64 ('ours') or #3 ('theirs') for unmerged paths.
65
66 -b::
67 Create a new branch named <new_branch> and start it at
68 <start_point>; see linkgit:git-branch[1] for details.
69
70 -t::
71 --track::
72 When creating a new branch, set up "upstream" configuration. See
73 "--track" in linkgit:git-branch[1] for details.
74 +
75 If no '-b' option is given, the name of the new branch will be
76 derived from the remote branch. If "remotes/" or "refs/remotes/"
77 is prefixed it is stripped away, and then the part up to the
78 next slash (which would be the nickname of the remote) is removed.
79 This would tell us to use "hack" as the local branch when branching
80 off of "origin/hack" (or "remotes/origin/hack", or even
81 "refs/remotes/origin/hack"). If the given name has no slash, or the above
82 guessing results in an empty name, the guessing is aborted. You can
83 explicitly give a name with '-b' in such a case.
84
85 --no-track::
86 Do not set up "upstream" configuration, even if the
87 branch.autosetupmerge configuration variable is true.
88
89 -l::
90 Create the new branch's reflog; see linkgit:git-branch[1] for
91 details.
92
93 -m::
94 --merge::
95 When switching branches,
96 if you have local modifications to one or more files that
97 are different between the current branch and the branch to
98 which you are switching, the command refuses to switch
99 branches in order to preserve your modifications in context.
100 However, with this option, a three-way merge between the current
101 branch, your working tree contents, and the new branch
102 is done, and you will be on the new branch.
103 +
104 When a merge conflict happens, the index entries for conflicting
105 paths are left unmerged, and you need to resolve the conflicts
106 and mark the resolved paths with `git add` (or `git rm` if the merge
107 should result in deletion of the path).
108 +
109 When checking out paths from the index, this option lets you recreate
110 the conflicted merge in the specified paths.
111
112 --conflict=<style>::
113 The same as --merge option above, but changes the way the
114 conflicting hunks are presented, overriding the
115 merge.conflictstyle configuration variable. Possible values are
116 "merge" (default) and "diff3" (in addition to what is shown by
117 "merge" style, shows the original contents).
118
119 -p::
120 --patch::
121 Interactively select hunks in the difference between the
122 <tree-ish> (or the index, if unspecified) and the working
123 tree. The chosen hunks are then applied in reverse to the
124 working tree (and if a <tree-ish> was specified, the index).
125 +
126 This means that you can use `git checkout -p` to selectively discard
127 edits from your current working tree.
128
129 <branch>::
130 Branch to checkout; if it refers to a branch (i.e., a name that,
131 when prepended with "refs/heads/", is a valid ref), then that
132 branch is checked out. Otherwise, if it refers to a valid
133 commit, your HEAD becomes "detached" and you are no longer on
134 any branch (see below for details).
135 +
136 As a special case, the `"@\{-N\}"` syntax for the N-th last branch
137 checks out the branch (instead of detaching). You may also specify
138 `-` which is synonymous with `"@\{-1\}"`.
139
140 <new_branch>::
141 Name for the new branch.
142
143 <start_point>::
144 The name of a commit at which to start the new branch; see
145 linkgit:git-branch[1] for details. Defaults to HEAD.
146
147 <tree-ish>::
148 Tree to checkout from (when paths are given). If not specified,
149 the index will be used.
150
151
152
153 Detached HEAD
154 -------------
155
156 It is sometimes useful to be able to 'checkout' a commit that is
157 not at the tip of one of your branches. The most obvious
158 example is to check out the commit at a tagged official release
159 point, like this:
160
161 ------------
162 $ git checkout v2.6.18
163 ------------
164
165 Earlier versions of git did not allow this and asked you to
166 create a temporary branch using the `-b` option, but starting from
167 version 1.5.0, the above command 'detaches' your HEAD from the
168 current branch and directly points at the commit named by the tag
169 (`v2.6.18` in the example above).
170
171 You can use all git commands while in this state. You can use
172 `git reset --hard $othercommit` to further move around, for
173 example. You can make changes and create a new commit on top of
174 a detached HEAD. You can even create a merge by using `git
175 merge $othercommit`.
176
177 The state you are in while your HEAD is detached is not recorded
178 by any branch (which is natural --- you are not on any branch).
179 What this means is that you can discard your temporary commits
180 and merges by switching back to an existing branch (e.g. `git
181 checkout master`), and a later `git prune` or `git gc` would
182 garbage-collect them. If you did this by mistake, you can ask
183 the reflog for HEAD where you were, e.g.
184
185 ------------
186 $ git log -g -2 HEAD
187 ------------
188
189
190 EXAMPLES
191 --------
192
193 . The following sequence checks out the `master` branch, reverts
194 the `Makefile` to two revisions back, deletes hello.c by
195 mistake, and gets it back from the index.
196 +
197 ------------
198 $ git checkout master <1>
199 $ git checkout master~2 Makefile <2>
200 $ rm -f hello.c
201 $ git checkout hello.c <3>
202 ------------
203 +
204 <1> switch branch
205 <2> take a file out of another commit
206 <3> restore hello.c from the index
207 +
208 If you have an unfortunate branch that is named `hello.c`, this
209 step would be confused as an instruction to switch to that branch.
210 You should instead write:
211 +
212 ------------
213 $ git checkout -- hello.c
214 ------------
215
216 . After working in the wrong branch, switching to the correct
217 branch would be done using:
218 +
219 ------------
220 $ git checkout mytopic
221 ------------
222 +
223 However, your "wrong" branch and correct "mytopic" branch may
224 differ in files that you have modified locally, in which case
225 the above checkout would fail like this:
226 +
227 ------------
228 $ git checkout mytopic
229 fatal: Entry 'frotz' not uptodate. Cannot merge.
230 ------------
231 +
232 You can give the `-m` flag to the command, which would try a
233 three-way merge:
234 +
235 ------------
236 $ git checkout -m mytopic
237 Auto-merging frotz
238 ------------
239 +
240 After this three-way merge, the local modifications are _not_
241 registered in your index file, so `git diff` would show you what
242 changes you made since the tip of the new branch.
243
244 . When a merge conflict happens during switching branches with
245 the `-m` option, you would see something like this:
246 +
247 ------------
248 $ git checkout -m mytopic
249 Auto-merging frotz
250 ERROR: Merge conflict in frotz
251 fatal: merge program failed
252 ------------
253 +
254 At this point, `git diff` shows the changes cleanly merged as in
255 the previous example, as well as the changes in the conflicted
256 files. Edit and resolve the conflict and mark it resolved with
257 `git add` as usual:
258 +
259 ------------
260 $ edit frotz
261 $ git add frotz
262 ------------
263
264
265 Author
266 ------
267 Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
268
269 Documentation
270 --------------
271 Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
272
273 GIT
274 ---
275 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite