54aaaeb41b969be4c79a2a8072bc6daca469ca8d
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-add.txt
1 git-add(1)
2 ==========
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-add - Add file contents to the index
7
8 SYNOPSIS
9 --------
10 [verse]
11 'git add' [-n] [-v] [--force | -f] [--interactive | -i] [--patch | -p]
12 [--edit | -e] [--all | [--update | -u]] [--intent-to-add | -N]
13 [--refresh] [--ignore-errors] [--ignore-missing] [--]
14 [<filepattern>...]
15
16 DESCRIPTION
17 -----------
18 This command updates the index using the current content found in
19 the working tree, to prepare the content staged for the next commit.
20 It typically adds the current content of existing paths as a whole,
21 but with some options it can also be used to add content with
22 only part of the changes made to the working tree files applied, or
23 remove paths that do not exist in the working tree anymore.
24
25 The "index" holds a snapshot of the content of the working tree, and it
26 is this snapshot that is taken as the contents of the next commit. Thus
27 after making any changes to the working directory, and before running
28 the commit command, you must use the `add` command to add any new or
29 modified files to the index.
30
31 This command can be performed multiple times before a commit. It only
32 adds the content of the specified file(s) at the time the add command is
33 run; if you want subsequent changes included in the next commit, then
34 you must run `git add` again to add the new content to the index.
35
36 The `git status` command can be used to obtain a summary of which
37 files have changes that are staged for the next commit.
38
39 The `git add` command will not add ignored files by default. If any
40 ignored files were explicitly specified on the command line, `git add`
41 will fail with a list of ignored files. Ignored files reached by
42 directory recursion or filename globbing performed by Git (quote your
43 globs before the shell) will be silently ignored. The 'git add' command can
44 be used to add ignored files with the `-f` (force) option.
45
46 Please see linkgit:git-commit[1] for alternative ways to add content to a
47 commit.
48
49
50 OPTIONS
51 -------
52 <filepattern>...::
53 Files to add content from. Fileglobs (e.g. `*.c`) can
54 be given to add all matching files. Also a
55 leading directory name (e.g. `dir` to add `dir/file1`
56 and `dir/file2`) can be given to add all files in the
57 directory, recursively.
58
59 -n::
60 --dry-run::
61 Don't actually add the file(s), just show if they exist and/or will
62 be ignored.
63
64 -v::
65 --verbose::
66 Be verbose.
67
68 -f::
69 --force::
70 Allow adding otherwise ignored files.
71
72 -i::
73 --interactive::
74 Add modified contents in the working tree interactively to
75 the index. Optional path arguments may be supplied to limit
76 operation to a subset of the working tree. See ``Interactive
77 mode'' for details.
78
79 -p::
80 --patch::
81 Interactively choose hunks of patch between the index and the
82 work tree and add them to the index. This gives the user a chance
83 to review the difference before adding modified contents to the
84 index.
85 +
86 This effectively runs `add --interactive`, but bypasses the
87 initial command menu and directly jumps to the `patch` subcommand.
88 See ``Interactive mode'' for details.
89
90 -e, \--edit::
91 Open the diff vs. the index in an editor and let the user
92 edit it. After the editor was closed, adjust the hunk headers
93 and apply the patch to the index.
94 +
95 The intent of this option is to pick and choose lines of the patch to
96 apply, or even to modify the contents of lines to be staged. This can be
97 quicker and more flexible than using the interactive hunk selector.
98 However, it is easy to confuse oneself and create a patch that does not
99 apply to the index. See EDITING PATCHES below.
100
101 -u::
102 --update::
103 Only match <filepattern> against already tracked files in
104 the index rather than the working tree. That means that it
105 will never stage new files, but that it will stage modified
106 new contents of tracked files and that it will remove files
107 from the index if the corresponding files in the working tree
108 have been removed.
109 +
110 If no <filepattern> is given, default to "."; in other words,
111 update all tracked files in the current directory and its
112 subdirectories.
113
114 -A::
115 --all::
116 Like `-u`, but match <filepattern> against files in the
117 working tree in addition to the index. That means that it
118 will find new files as well as staging modified content and
119 removing files that are no longer in the working tree.
120
121 -N::
122 --intent-to-add::
123 Record only the fact that the path will be added later. An entry
124 for the path is placed in the index with no content. This is
125 useful for, among other things, showing the unstaged content of
126 such files with `git diff` and committing them with `git commit
127 -a`.
128
129 --refresh::
130 Don't add the file(s), but only refresh their stat()
131 information in the index.
132
133 --ignore-errors::
134 If some files could not be added because of errors indexing
135 them, do not abort the operation, but continue adding the
136 others. The command shall still exit with non-zero status.
137
138 --ignore-missing::
139 This option can only be used together with --dry-run. By using
140 this option the user can check if any of the given files would
141 be ignored, no matter if they are already present in the work
142 tree or not.
143
144 \--::
145 This option can be used to separate command-line options from
146 the list of files, (useful when filenames might be mistaken
147 for command-line options).
148
149
150 Configuration
151 -------------
152
153 The optional configuration variable `core.excludesfile` indicates a path to a
154 file containing patterns of file names to exclude from git-add, similar to
155 $GIT_DIR/info/exclude. Patterns in the exclude file are used in addition to
156 those in info/exclude. See linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5].
157
158
159 EXAMPLES
160 --------
161
162 * Adds content from all `*.txt` files under `Documentation` directory
163 and its subdirectories:
164 +
165 ------------
166 $ git add Documentation/\*.txt
167 ------------
168 +
169 Note that the asterisk `*` is quoted from the shell in this
170 example; this lets the command include the files from
171 subdirectories of `Documentation/` directory.
172
173 * Considers adding content from all git-*.sh scripts:
174 +
175 ------------
176 $ git add git-*.sh
177 ------------
178 +
179 Because this example lets the shell expand the asterisk (i.e. you are
180 listing the files explicitly), it does not consider
181 `subdir/git-foo.sh`.
182
183 Interactive mode
184 ----------------
185 When the command enters the interactive mode, it shows the
186 output of the 'status' subcommand, and then goes into its
187 interactive command loop.
188
189 The command loop shows the list of subcommands available, and
190 gives a prompt "What now> ". In general, when the prompt ends
191 with a single '>', you can pick only one of the choices given
192 and type return, like this:
193
194 ------------
195 *** Commands ***
196 1: status 2: update 3: revert 4: add untracked
197 5: patch 6: diff 7: quit 8: help
198 What now> 1
199 ------------
200
201 You also could say `s` or `sta` or `status` above as long as the
202 choice is unique.
203
204 The main command loop has 6 subcommands (plus help and quit).
205
206 status::
207
208 This shows the change between HEAD and index (i.e. what will be
209 committed if you say `git commit`), and between index and
210 working tree files (i.e. what you could stage further before
211 `git commit` using `git add`) for each path. A sample output
212 looks like this:
213 +
214 ------------
215 staged unstaged path
216 1: binary nothing foo.png
217 2: +403/-35 +1/-1 git-add--interactive.perl
218 ------------
219 +
220 It shows that foo.png has differences from HEAD (but that is
221 binary so line count cannot be shown) and there is no
222 difference between indexed copy and the working tree
223 version (if the working tree version were also different,
224 'binary' would have been shown in place of 'nothing'). The
225 other file, git-add{litdd}interactive.perl, has 403 lines added
226 and 35 lines deleted if you commit what is in the index, but
227 working tree file has further modifications (one addition and
228 one deletion).
229
230 update::
231
232 This shows the status information and issues an "Update>>"
233 prompt. When the prompt ends with double '>>', you can
234 make more than one selection, concatenated with whitespace or
235 comma. Also you can say ranges. E.g. "2-5 7,9" to choose
236 2,3,4,5,7,9 from the list. If the second number in a range is
237 omitted, all remaining patches are taken. E.g. "7-" to choose
238 7,8,9 from the list. You can say '*' to choose everything.
239 +
240 What you chose are then highlighted with '*',
241 like this:
242 +
243 ------------
244 staged unstaged path
245 1: binary nothing foo.png
246 * 2: +403/-35 +1/-1 git-add--interactive.perl
247 ------------
248 +
249 To remove selection, prefix the input with `-`
250 like this:
251 +
252 ------------
253 Update>> -2
254 ------------
255 +
256 After making the selection, answer with an empty line to stage the
257 contents of working tree files for selected paths in the index.
258
259 revert::
260
261 This has a very similar UI to 'update', and the staged
262 information for selected paths are reverted to that of the
263 HEAD version. Reverting new paths makes them untracked.
264
265 add untracked::
266
267 This has a very similar UI to 'update' and
268 'revert', and lets you add untracked paths to the index.
269
270 patch::
271
272 This lets you choose one path out of a 'status' like selection.
273 After choosing the path, it presents the diff between the index
274 and the working tree file and asks you if you want to stage
275 the change of each hunk. You can say:
276
277 y - stage this hunk
278 n - do not stage this hunk
279 q - quit; do not stage this hunk nor any of the remaining ones
280 a - stage this hunk and all later hunks in the file
281 d - do not stage this hunk nor any of the later hunks in the file
282 g - select a hunk to go to
283 / - search for a hunk matching the given regex
284 j - leave this hunk undecided, see next undecided hunk
285 J - leave this hunk undecided, see next hunk
286 k - leave this hunk undecided, see previous undecided hunk
287 K - leave this hunk undecided, see previous hunk
288 s - split the current hunk into smaller hunks
289 e - manually edit the current hunk
290 ? - print help
291 +
292 After deciding the fate for all hunks, if there is any hunk
293 that was chosen, the index is updated with the selected hunks.
294
295 diff::
296
297 This lets you review what will be committed (i.e. between
298 HEAD and index).
299
300
301 EDITING PATCHES
302 ---------------
303
304 Invoking `git add -e` or selecting `e` from the interactive hunk
305 selector will open a patch in your editor; after the editor exits, the
306 result is applied to the index. You are free to make arbitrary changes
307 to the patch, but note that some changes may have confusing results, or
308 even result in a patch that cannot be applied. If you want to abort the
309 operation entirely (i.e., stage nothing new in the index), simply delete
310 all lines of the patch. The list below describes some common things you
311 may see in a patch, and which editing operations make sense on them.
312
313 --
314 added content::
315
316 Added content is represented by lines beginning with "{plus}". You can
317 prevent staging any addition lines by deleting them.
318
319 removed content::
320
321 Removed content is represented by lines beginning with "-". You can
322 prevent staging their removal by converting the "-" to a " " (space).
323
324 modified content::
325
326 Modified content is represented by "-" lines (removing the old content)
327 followed by "{plus}" lines (adding the replacement content). You can
328 prevent staging the modification by converting "-" lines to " ", and
329 removing "{plus}" lines. Beware that modifying only half of the pair is
330 likely to introduce confusing changes to the index.
331 --
332
333 There are also more complex operations that can be performed. But beware
334 that because the patch is applied only to the index and not the working
335 tree, the working tree will appear to "undo" the change in the index.
336 For example, introducing a a new line into the index that is in neither
337 the HEAD nor the working tree will stage the new line for commit, but
338 the line will appear to be reverted in the working tree.
339
340 Avoid using these constructs, or do so with extreme caution.
341
342 --
343 removing untouched content::
344
345 Content which does not differ between the index and working tree may be
346 shown on context lines, beginning with a " " (space). You can stage
347 context lines for removal by converting the space to a "-". The
348 resulting working tree file will appear to re-add the content.
349
350 modifying existing content::
351
352 One can also modify context lines by staging them for removal (by
353 converting " " to "-") and adding a "{plus}" line with the new content.
354 Similarly, one can modify "{plus}" lines for existing additions or
355 modifications. In all cases, the new modification will appear reverted
356 in the working tree.
357
358 new content::
359
360 You may also add new content that does not exist in the patch; simply
361 add new lines, each starting with "{plus}". The addition will appear
362 reverted in the working tree.
363 --
364
365 There are also several operations which should be avoided entirely, as
366 they will make the patch impossible to apply:
367
368 * adding context (" ") or removal ("-") lines
369 * deleting context or removal lines
370 * modifying the contents of context or removal lines
371
372 SEE ALSO
373 --------
374 linkgit:git-status[1]
375 linkgit:git-rm[1]
376 linkgit:git-reset[1]
377 linkgit:git-mv[1]
378 linkgit:git-commit[1]
379 linkgit:git-update-index[1]
380
381 Author
382 ------
383 Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
384
385 Documentation
386 --------------
387 Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
388
389 GIT
390 ---
391 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite