Merge branch 'ma/double-dashes-in-docs'
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-worktree.txt
1 git-worktree(1)
2 ===============
5 ----
6 git-worktree - Manage multiple working trees
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git worktree add' [-f] [--detach] [--checkout] [--lock] [-b <new-branch>] <path> [<commit-ish>]
13 'git worktree list' [--porcelain]
14 'git worktree lock' [--reason <string>] <worktree>
15 'git worktree move' <worktree> <new-path>
16 'git worktree prune' [-n] [-v] [--expire <expire>]
17 'git worktree remove' [--force] <worktree>
18 'git worktree unlock' <worktree>
21 -----------
23 Manage multiple working trees attached to the same repository.
25 A git repository can support multiple working trees, allowing you to check
26 out more than one branch at a time. With `git worktree add` a new working
27 tree is associated with the repository. This new working tree is called a
28 "linked working tree" as opposed to the "main working tree" prepared by "git
29 init" or "git clone". A repository has one main working tree (if it's not a
30 bare repository) and zero or more linked working trees. When you are done
31 with a linked working tree, remove it with `git worktree remove`.
33 If a working tree is deleted without using `git worktree remove`, then
34 its associated administrative files, which reside in the repository
35 (see "DETAILS" below), will eventually be removed automatically (see
36 `gc.worktreePruneExpire` in linkgit:git-config[1]), or you can run
37 `git worktree prune` in the main or any linked working tree to
38 clean up any stale administrative files.
40 If a linked working tree is stored on a portable device or network share
41 which is not always mounted, you can prevent its administrative files from
42 being pruned by issuing the `git worktree lock` command, optionally
43 specifying `--reason` to explain why the working tree is locked.
46 --------
47 add <path> [<commit-ish>]::
49 Create `<path>` and checkout `<commit-ish>` into it. The new working directory
50 is linked to the current repository, sharing everything except working
51 directory specific files such as HEAD, index, etc. `-` may also be
52 specified as `<commit-ish>`; it is synonymous with `@{-1}`.
53 +
54 If <commit-ish> is a branch name (call it `<branch>`) and is not found,
55 and neither `-b` nor `-B` nor `--detach` are used, but there does
56 exist a tracking branch in exactly one remote (call it `<remote>`)
57 with a matching name, treat as equivalent to:
58 +
59 ------------
60 $ git worktree add --track -b <branch> <path> <remote>/<branch>
61 ------------
62 +
63 If `<commit-ish>` is omitted and neither `-b` nor `-B` nor `--detach` used,
64 then, as a convenience, a new branch based at HEAD is created automatically,
65 as if `-b $(basename <path>)` was specified.
67 list::
69 List details of each worktree. The main worktree is listed first, followed by
70 each of the linked worktrees. The output details include if the worktree is
71 bare, the revision currently checked out, and the branch currently checked out
72 (or 'detached HEAD' if none).
74 lock::
76 If a working tree is on a portable device or network share which
77 is not always mounted, lock it to prevent its administrative
78 files from being pruned automatically. This also prevents it from
79 being moved or deleted. Optionally, specify a reason for the lock
80 with `--reason`.
82 move::
84 Move a working tree to a new location. Note that the main working tree
85 or linked working trees containing submodules cannot be moved.
87 prune::
89 Prune working tree information in $GIT_DIR/worktrees.
91 remove::
93 Remove a working tree. Only clean working trees (no untracked files
94 and no modification in tracked files) can be removed. Unclean working
95 trees or ones with submodules can be removed with `--force`. The main
96 working tree cannot be removed.
98 unlock::
100 Unlock a working tree, allowing it to be pruned, moved or deleted.
103 -------
105 -f::
106 --force::
107 By default, `add` refuses to create a new working tree when
108 `<commit-ish>` is a branch name and is already checked out by
109 another working tree and `remove` refuses to remove an unclean
110 working tree. This option overrides these safeguards.
112 -b <new-branch>::
113 -B <new-branch>::
114 With `add`, create a new branch named `<new-branch>` starting at
115 `<commit-ish>`, and check out `<new-branch>` into the new working tree.
116 If `<commit-ish>` is omitted, it defaults to HEAD.
117 By default, `-b` refuses to create a new branch if it already
118 exists. `-B` overrides this safeguard, resetting `<new-branch>` to
119 `<commit-ish>`.
121 --detach::
122 With `add`, detach HEAD in the new working tree. See "DETACHED HEAD"
123 in linkgit:git-checkout[1].
125 --[no-]checkout::
126 By default, `add` checks out `<commit-ish>`, however, `--no-checkout` can
127 be used to suppress checkout in order to make customizations,
128 such as configuring sparse-checkout. See "Sparse checkout"
129 in linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
131 --[no-]guess-remote::
132 With `worktree add <path>`, without `<commit-ish>`, instead
133 of creating a new branch from HEAD, if there exists a tracking
134 branch in exactly one remote matching the basename of `<path>`,
135 base the new branch on the remote-tracking branch, and mark
136 the remote-tracking branch as "upstream" from the new branch.
137 +
138 This can also be set up as the default behaviour by using the
139 `worktree.guessRemote` config option.
141 --[no-]track::
142 When creating a new branch, if `<commit-ish>` is a branch,
143 mark it as "upstream" from the new branch. This is the
144 default if `<commit-ish>` is a remote-tracking branch. See
145 "--track" in linkgit:git-branch[1] for details.
147 --lock::
148 Keep the working tree locked after creation. This is the
149 equivalent of `git worktree lock` after `git worktree add`,
150 but without race condition.
152 -n::
153 --dry-run::
154 With `prune`, do not remove anything; just report what it would
155 remove.
157 --porcelain::
158 With `list`, output in an easy-to-parse format for scripts.
159 This format will remain stable across Git versions and regardless of user
160 configuration. See below for details.
162 -v::
163 --verbose::
164 With `prune`, report all removals.
166 --expire <time>::
167 With `prune`, only expire unused working trees older than <time>.
169 --reason <string>::
170 With `lock`, an explanation why the working tree is locked.
172 <worktree>::
173 Working trees can be identified by path, either relative or
174 absolute.
175 +
176 If the last path components in the working tree's path is unique among
177 working trees, it can be used to identify worktrees. For example if
178 you only have two working trees, at "/abc/def/ghi" and "/abc/def/ggg",
179 then "ghi" or "def/ghi" is enough to point to the former working tree.
182 -------
183 Each linked working tree has a private sub-directory in the repository's
184 $GIT_DIR/worktrees directory. The private sub-directory's name is usually
185 the base name of the linked working tree's path, possibly appended with a
186 number to make it unique. For example, when `$GIT_DIR=/path/main/.git` the
187 command `git worktree add /path/other/test-next next` creates the linked
188 working tree in `/path/other/test-next` and also creates a
189 `$GIT_DIR/worktrees/test-next` directory (or `$GIT_DIR/worktrees/test-next1`
190 if `test-next` is already taken).
192 Within a linked working tree, $GIT_DIR is set to point to this private
193 directory (e.g. `/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next` in the example) and
194 $GIT_COMMON_DIR is set to point back to the main working tree's $GIT_DIR
195 (e.g. `/path/main/.git`). These settings are made in a `.git` file located at
196 the top directory of the linked working tree.
198 Path resolution via `git rev-parse --git-path` uses either
199 $GIT_DIR or $GIT_COMMON_DIR depending on the path. For example, in the
200 linked working tree `git rev-parse --git-path HEAD` returns
201 `/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next/HEAD` (not
202 `/path/other/test-next/.git/HEAD` or `/path/main/.git/HEAD`) while `git
203 rev-parse --git-path refs/heads/master` uses
204 $GIT_COMMON_DIR and returns `/path/main/.git/refs/heads/master`,
205 since refs are shared across all working trees.
207 See linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] for more information. The rule of
208 thumb is do not make any assumption about whether a path belongs to
209 $GIT_DIR or $GIT_COMMON_DIR when you need to directly access something
210 inside $GIT_DIR. Use `git rev-parse --git-path` to get the final path.
212 If you manually move a linked working tree, you need to update the 'gitdir' file
213 in the entry's directory. For example, if a linked working tree is moved
214 to `/newpath/test-next` and its `.git` file points to
215 `/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next`, then update
216 `/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next/gitdir` to reference `/newpath/test-next`
217 instead.
219 To prevent a $GIT_DIR/worktrees entry from being pruned (which
220 can be useful in some situations, such as when the
221 entry's working tree is stored on a portable device), use the
222 `git worktree lock` command, which adds a file named
223 'locked' to the entry's directory. The file contains the reason in
224 plain text. For example, if a linked working tree's `.git` file points
225 to `/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next` then a file named
226 `/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next/locked` will prevent the
227 `test-next` entry from being pruned. See
228 linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] for details.
231 ------------------
232 The worktree list command has two output formats. The default format shows the
233 details on a single line with columns. For example:
235 ------------
236 $ git worktree list
237 /path/to/bare-source (bare)
238 /path/to/linked-worktree abcd1234 [master]
239 /path/to/other-linked-worktree 1234abc (detached HEAD)
240 ------------
242 Porcelain Format
243 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
244 The porcelain format has a line per attribute. Attributes are listed with a
245 label and value separated by a single space. Boolean attributes (like 'bare'
246 and 'detached') are listed as a label only, and are only present if and only
247 if the value is true. An empty line indicates the end of a worktree. For
248 example:
250 ------------
251 $ git worktree list --porcelain
252 worktree /path/to/bare-source
253 bare
255 worktree /path/to/linked-worktree
256 HEAD abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234
257 branch refs/heads/master
259 worktree /path/to/other-linked-worktree
260 HEAD 1234abc1234abc1234abc1234abc1234abc1234a
261 detached
263 ------------
266 --------
267 You are in the middle of a refactoring session and your boss comes in and
268 demands that you fix something immediately. You might typically use
269 linkgit:git-stash[1] to store your changes away temporarily, however, your
270 working tree is in such a state of disarray (with new, moved, and removed
271 files, and other bits and pieces strewn around) that you don't want to risk
272 disturbing any of it. Instead, you create a temporary linked working tree to
273 make the emergency fix, remove it when done, and then resume your earlier
274 refactoring session.
276 ------------
277 $ git worktree add -b emergency-fix ../temp master
278 $ pushd ../temp
279 # ... hack hack hack ...
280 $ git commit -a -m 'emergency fix for boss'
281 $ popd
282 $ git worktree remove ../temp
283 ------------
285 BUGS
286 ----
287 Multiple checkout in general is still experimental, and the support
288 for submodules is incomplete. It is NOT recommended to make multiple
289 checkouts of a superproject.
291 GIT
292 ---
293 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite