credential doc: make multiple-helper behavior more prominent
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 [--super-prefix=<path>]
17 <command> [<args>]
18
19 DESCRIPTION
20 -----------
21 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
22 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
23 and full access to internals.
24
25 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
26 linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
27 commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
28 in-depth introduction.
29
30 After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
31 page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
32 individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
33 manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
34
35 A formatted and hyperlinked copy of the latest Git documentation
36 can be viewed at `https://git.github.io/htmldocs/git.html`.
37
38 ifdef::stalenotes[]
39 [NOTE]
40 ============
41
42 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
43 unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
44 branch of the `git.git` repository.
45 Documentation for older releases are available here:
46
47 * link:v2.11.1/git.html[documentation for release 2.11.1]
48
49 * release notes for
50 link:RelNotes/2.11.1.txt[2.11.1],
51 link:RelNotes/2.11.0.txt[2.11].
52
53 * link:v2.10.2/git.html[documentation for release 2.10.2]
54
55 * release notes for
56 link:RelNotes/2.10.2.txt[2.10.2],
57 link:RelNotes/2.10.1.txt[2.10.1],
58 link:RelNotes/2.10.0.txt[2.10].
59
60 * link:v2.9.3/git.html[documentation for release 2.9.3]
61
62 * release notes for
63 link:RelNotes/2.9.3.txt[2.9.3],
64 link:RelNotes/2.9.2.txt[2.9.2],
65 link:RelNotes/2.9.1.txt[2.9.1],
66 link:RelNotes/2.9.0.txt[2.9].
67
68 * link:v2.8.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.8.4]
69
70 * release notes for
71 link:RelNotes/2.8.4.txt[2.8.4],
72 link:RelNotes/2.8.3.txt[2.8.3],
73 link:RelNotes/2.8.2.txt[2.8.2],
74 link:RelNotes/2.8.1.txt[2.8.1],
75 link:RelNotes/2.8.0.txt[2.8].
76
77 * link:v2.7.3/git.html[documentation for release 2.7.3]
78
79 * release notes for
80 link:RelNotes/2.7.3.txt[2.7.3],
81 link:RelNotes/2.7.2.txt[2.7.2],
82 link:RelNotes/2.7.1.txt[2.7.1],
83 link:RelNotes/2.7.0.txt[2.7].
84
85 * link:v2.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 2.6.6]
86
87 * release notes for
88 link:RelNotes/2.6.6.txt[2.6.6],
89 link:RelNotes/2.6.5.txt[2.6.5],
90 link:RelNotes/2.6.4.txt[2.6.4],
91 link:RelNotes/2.6.3.txt[2.6.3],
92 link:RelNotes/2.6.2.txt[2.6.2],
93 link:RelNotes/2.6.1.txt[2.6.1],
94 link:RelNotes/2.6.0.txt[2.6].
95
96 * link:v2.5.5/git.html[documentation for release 2.5.5]
97
98 * release notes for
99 link:RelNotes/2.5.5.txt[2.5.5],
100 link:RelNotes/2.5.4.txt[2.5.4],
101 link:RelNotes/2.5.3.txt[2.5.3],
102 link:RelNotes/2.5.2.txt[2.5.2],
103 link:RelNotes/2.5.1.txt[2.5.1],
104 link:RelNotes/2.5.0.txt[2.5].
105
106 * link:v2.4.11/git.html[documentation for release 2.4.11]
107
108 * release notes for
109 link:RelNotes/2.4.11.txt[2.4.11],
110 link:RelNotes/2.4.10.txt[2.4.10],
111 link:RelNotes/2.4.9.txt[2.4.9],
112 link:RelNotes/2.4.8.txt[2.4.8],
113 link:RelNotes/2.4.7.txt[2.4.7],
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115 link:RelNotes/2.4.5.txt[2.4.5],
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117 link:RelNotes/2.4.3.txt[2.4.3],
118 link:RelNotes/2.4.2.txt[2.4.2],
119 link:RelNotes/2.4.1.txt[2.4.1],
120 link:RelNotes/2.4.0.txt[2.4].
121
122 * link:v2.3.10/git.html[documentation for release 2.3.10]
123
124 * release notes for
125 link:RelNotes/2.3.10.txt[2.3.10],
126 link:RelNotes/2.3.9.txt[2.3.9],
127 link:RelNotes/2.3.8.txt[2.3.8],
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130 link:RelNotes/2.3.5.txt[2.3.5],
131 link:RelNotes/2.3.4.txt[2.3.4],
132 link:RelNotes/2.3.3.txt[2.3.3],
133 link:RelNotes/2.3.2.txt[2.3.2],
134 link:RelNotes/2.3.1.txt[2.3.1],
135 link:RelNotes/2.3.0.txt[2.3].
136
137 * link:v2.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 2.2.3]
138
139 * release notes for
140 link:RelNotes/2.2.3.txt[2.2.3],
141 link:RelNotes/2.2.2.txt[2.2.2],
142 link:RelNotes/2.2.1.txt[2.2.1],
143 link:RelNotes/2.2.0.txt[2.2].
144
145 * link:v2.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.1.4]
146
147 * release notes for
148 link:RelNotes/2.1.4.txt[2.1.4],
149 link:RelNotes/2.1.3.txt[2.1.3],
150 link:RelNotes/2.1.2.txt[2.1.2],
151 link:RelNotes/2.1.1.txt[2.1.1],
152 link:RelNotes/2.1.0.txt[2.1].
153
154 * link:v2.0.5/git.html[documentation for release 2.0.5]
155
156 * release notes for
157 link:RelNotes/2.0.5.txt[2.0.5],
158 link:RelNotes/2.0.4.txt[2.0.4],
159 link:RelNotes/2.0.3.txt[2.0.3],
160 link:RelNotes/2.0.2.txt[2.0.2],
161 link:RelNotes/2.0.1.txt[2.0.1],
162 link:RelNotes/2.0.0.txt[2.0.0].
163
164 * link:v1.9.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.9.5]
165
166 * release notes for
167 link:RelNotes/1.9.5.txt[1.9.5],
168 link:RelNotes/1.9.4.txt[1.9.4],
169 link:RelNotes/1.9.3.txt[1.9.3],
170 link:RelNotes/1.9.2.txt[1.9.2],
171 link:RelNotes/1.9.1.txt[1.9.1],
172 link:RelNotes/1.9.0.txt[1.9.0].
173
174 * link:v1.8.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.5.6]
175
176 * release notes for
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178 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.5.txt[1.8.5.5],
179 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.4.txt[1.8.5.4],
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182 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.1.txt[1.8.5.1],
183 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.txt[1.8.5].
184
185 * link:v1.8.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.4.5]
186
187 * release notes for
188 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.5.txt[1.8.4.5],
189 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt[1.8.4.4],
190 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.3.txt[1.8.4.3],
191 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.2.txt[1.8.4.2],
192 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt[1.8.4.1],
193 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.txt[1.8.4].
194
195 * link:v1.8.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.3.4]
196
197 * release notes for
198 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.4.txt[1.8.3.4],
199 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.3.txt[1.8.3.3],
200 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.2.txt[1.8.3.2],
201 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt[1.8.3.1],
202 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.txt[1.8.3].
203
204 * link:v1.8.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.2.3]
205
206 * release notes for
207 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.3.txt[1.8.2.3],
208 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt[1.8.2.2],
209 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt[1.8.2.1],
210 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.txt[1.8.2].
211
212 * link:v1.8.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.1.6]
213
214 * release notes for
215 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.6.txt[1.8.1.6],
216 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.5.txt[1.8.1.5],
217 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.4.txt[1.8.1.4],
218 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.3.txt[1.8.1.3],
219 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.2.txt[1.8.1.2],
220 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.1.txt[1.8.1.1],
221 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.txt[1.8.1].
222
223 * link:v1.8.0.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.0.3]
224
225 * release notes for
226 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.3.txt[1.8.0.3],
227 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.2.txt[1.8.0.2],
228 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.1.txt[1.8.0.1],
229 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.txt[1.8.0].
230
231 * link:v1.7.12.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.12.4]
232
233 * release notes for
234 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.4.txt[1.7.12.4],
235 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt[1.7.12.3],
236 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.2.txt[1.7.12.2],
237 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.1.txt[1.7.12.1],
238 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.txt[1.7.12].
239
240 * link:v1.7.11.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.7]
241
242 * release notes for
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244 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.6.txt[1.7.11.6],
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249 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.1.txt[1.7.11.1],
250 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.txt[1.7.11].
251
252 * link:v1.7.10.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.10.5]
253
254 * release notes for
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256 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt[1.7.10.4],
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260 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.txt[1.7.10].
261
262 * link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
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264 * release notes for
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272 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
273
274 * link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
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276 * release notes for
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285 * link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
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297 * link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
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308 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
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317 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
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326
327 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
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337 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
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356 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
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370 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
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427 * link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
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452 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
453 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
454 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
455 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
456 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
457 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
458 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
459
460 * link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
461
462 * release notes for
463 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
464 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
465 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
466 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
467 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
468 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
469 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
470 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
471
472 * link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
473
474 * release notes for
475 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
476 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
477 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
478 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
479 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
480 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
481 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
482 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
483 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
484
485 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
486
487 * release notes for
488 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
489 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
490 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
491 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
492 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
493 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
494
495 * link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
496
497 * release notes for
498 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
499 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
500 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
501 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
502 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
503 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
504 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
505
506 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
507
508 * release notes for
509 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
510 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
511 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
512 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
513 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
514 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
515 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
516
517 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
518 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
519 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
520 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
521
522 ============
523
524 endif::stalenotes[]
525
526 OPTIONS
527 -------
528 --version::
529 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
530
531 --help::
532 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
533 commands. If the option `--all` or `-a` is given then all
534 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
535 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
536 +
537 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
538 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
539 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
540 help ...`.
541
542 -C <path>::
543 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
544 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
545 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
546 <path>`.
547 +
548 This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
549 `--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
550 made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
551 example the following invocations are equivalent:
552
553 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
554 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
555
556 -c <name>=<value>::
557 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
558 given will override values from configuration files.
559 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
560 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
561 +
562 Note that omitting the `=` in `git -c foo.bar ...` is allowed and sets
563 `foo.bar` to the boolean true value (just like `[foo]bar` would in a
564 config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like `git -c
565 foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string.
566
567 --exec-path[=<path>]::
568 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
569 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
570 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
571 the current setting and then exit.
572
573 --html-path::
574 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
575 documentation is installed and exit.
576
577 --man-path::
578 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
579 this version of Git and exit.
580
581 --info-path::
582 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
583 version of Git are installed and exit.
584
585 -p::
586 --paginate::
587 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
588 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
589 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
590 below).
591
592 --no-pager::
593 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
594
595 --git-dir=<path>::
596 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
597 setting the `GIT_DIR` environment variable. It can be an absolute
598 path or relative path to current working directory.
599
600 --work-tree=<path>::
601 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
602 or a path relative to the current working directory.
603 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
604 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
605 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
606 more detailed discussion).
607
608 --namespace=<path>::
609 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
610 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
611 variable.
612
613 --super-prefix=<path>::
614 Currently for internal use only. Set a prefix which gives a path from
615 above a repository down to its root. One use is to give submodules
616 context about the superproject that invoked it.
617
618 --bare::
619 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
620 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
621 directory.
622
623 --no-replace-objects::
624 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
625 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
626
627 --literal-pathspecs::
628 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
629 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
630 variable to `1`.
631
632 --glob-pathspecs::
633 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
634 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
635 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
636 magic ":(literal)"
637
638 --noglob-pathspecs::
639 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
640 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
641 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
642 magic ":(glob)"
643
644 --icase-pathspecs::
645 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
646 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
647
648 GIT COMMANDS
649 ------------
650
651 We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
652 ("plumbing") commands.
653
654 High-level commands (porcelain)
655 -------------------------------
656
657 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
658 ancillary user utilities.
659
660 Main porcelain commands
661 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
662
663 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
664
665 Ancillary Commands
666 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
667 Manipulators:
668
669 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
670
671 Interrogators:
672
673 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
674
675
676 Interacting with Others
677 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
678
679 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
680 people via patch over e-mail.
681
682 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
683
684
685 Low-level commands (plumbing)
686 -----------------------------
687
688 Although Git includes its
689 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
690 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
691 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
692 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
693
694 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
695 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
696 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
697 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
698 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
699 end user experience.
700
701 The following description divides
702 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
703 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
704 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
705 repositories.
706
707
708 Manipulation commands
709 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
710
711 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
712
713
714 Interrogation commands
715 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
716
717 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
718
719 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
720 the working tree.
721
722
723 Synching repositories
724 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
725
726 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
727
728 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
729 typically do not use them directly.
730
731 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
732
733
734 Internal helper commands
735 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
736
737 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
738 users typically do not use them directly.
739
740 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
741
742
743 Configuration Mechanism
744 -----------------------
745
746 Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
747 repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
748 like this:
749
750 ------------
751 #
752 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
753 #
754
755 ; core variables
756 [core]
757 ; Don't trust file modes
758 filemode = false
759
760 ; user identity
761 [user]
762 name = "Junio C Hamano"
763 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
764
765 ------------
766
767 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
768 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
769 list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
770
771
772 Identifier Terminology
773 ----------------------
774 <object>::
775 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
776
777 <blob>::
778 Indicates a blob object name.
779
780 <tree>::
781 Indicates a tree object name.
782
783 <commit>::
784 Indicates a commit object name.
785
786 <tree-ish>::
787 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
788 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
789 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
790 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
791
792 <commit-ish>::
793 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
794 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
795 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
796 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
797
798 <type>::
799 Indicates that an object type is required.
800 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
801
802 <file>::
803 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
804 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
805
806 Symbolic Identifiers
807 --------------------
808 Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
809 symbolic notation:
810
811 HEAD::
812 indicates the head of the current branch.
813
814 <tag>::
815 a valid tag 'name'
816 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
817
818 <head>::
819 a valid head 'name'
820 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
821
822 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
823 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
824
825
826 File/Directory Structure
827 ------------------------
828
829 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
830
831 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
832
833 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
834 `$GIT_DIR`.
835
836
837 Terminology
838 -----------
839 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
840
841
842 Environment Variables
843 ---------------------
844 Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
845
846 The Git Repository
847 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
848 These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
849 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
850 Git so take care if using a foreign front-end.
851
852 `GIT_INDEX_FILE`::
853 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
854 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
855 is used.
856
857 `GIT_INDEX_VERSION`::
858 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
859 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
860 files. By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See
861 linkgit:git-update-index[1] for more information.
862
863 `GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY`::
864 If the object storage directory is specified via this
865 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
866 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
867 directory is used.
868
869 `GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES`::
870 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
871 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
872 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
873 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
874 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
875 +
876 Entries that begin with `"` (double-quote) will be interpreted
877 as C-style quoted paths, removing leading and trailing
878 double-quotes and respecting backslash escapes. E.g., the value
879 `"path-with-\"-and-:-in-it":vanilla-path` has two paths:
880 `path-with-"-and-:-in-it` and `vanilla-path`.
881
882 `GIT_DIR`::
883 If the `GIT_DIR` environment variable is set then it
884 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
885 for the base of the repository.
886 The `--git-dir` command-line option also sets this value.
887
888 `GIT_WORK_TREE`::
889 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
890 This can also be controlled by the `--work-tree` command-line
891 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
892
893 `GIT_NAMESPACE`::
894 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
895 The `--namespace` command-line option also sets this value.
896
897 `GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES`::
898 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
899 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
900 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
901 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
902 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
903 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
904 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
905 might be present in order to compare them with the current
906 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
907 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
908 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
909 e.g.,
910 `GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink`.
911
912 `GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM`::
913 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
914 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
915 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
916 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
917 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
918 boundaries. Like `GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES`, this will not affect
919 an explicit repository directory set via `GIT_DIR` or on the
920 command line.
921
922 `GIT_COMMON_DIR`::
923 If this variable is set to a path, non-worktree files that are
924 normally in $GIT_DIR will be taken from this path
925 instead. Worktree-specific files such as HEAD or index are
926 taken from $GIT_DIR. See linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] and
927 linkgit:git-worktree[1] for
928 details. This variable has lower precedence than other path
929 variables such as GIT_INDEX_FILE, GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY...
930
931 Git Commits
932 ~~~~~~~~~~~
933 `GIT_AUTHOR_NAME`::
934 `GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL`::
935 `GIT_AUTHOR_DATE`::
936 `GIT_COMMITTER_NAME`::
937 `GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL`::
938 `GIT_COMMITTER_DATE`::
939 'EMAIL'::
940 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
941
942 Git Diffs
943 ~~~~~~~~~
944 `GIT_DIFF_OPTS`::
945 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
946 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
947 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
948 value passed on the Git diff command line.
949
950 `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF`::
951 When the environment variable `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` is set, the
952 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
953 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
954 `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` is called with 7 parameters:
955
956 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
957 +
958 where:
959
960 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
961 contents of <old|new>,
962 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
963 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
964 +
965 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
966 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
967 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
968 index). `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` should not worry about unlinking the
969 temporary file --- it is removed when `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` exits.
970 +
971 For a path that is unmerged, `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` is called with 1
972 parameter, <path>.
973 +
974 For each path `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` is called, two environment variables,
975 `GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER` and `GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL` are set.
976
977 `GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER`::
978 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
979
980 `GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL`::
981 The total number of paths.
982
983 other
984 ~~~~~
985 `GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY`::
986 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
987 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
988 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
989
990 `GIT_PAGER`::
991 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
992 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
993 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
994 linkgit:git-config[1].
995
996 `GIT_EDITOR`::
997 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
998 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
999 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
1000 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
1001
1002 `GIT_SSH`::
1003 `GIT_SSH_COMMAND`::
1004 If either of these environment variables is set then 'git fetch'
1005 and 'git push' will use the specified command instead of 'ssh'
1006 when they need to connect to a remote system.
1007 The command will be given exactly two or four arguments: the
1008 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the shell
1009 command to execute on that remote system, optionally preceded by
1010 `-p` (literally) and the 'port' from the URL when it specifies
1011 something other than the default SSH port.
1012 +
1013 `$GIT_SSH_COMMAND` takes precedence over `$GIT_SSH`, and is interpreted
1014 by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
1015 `$GIT_SSH` on the other hand must be just the path to a program
1016 (which can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are
1017 needed).
1018 +
1019 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
1020 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
1021 for further details.
1022
1023 `GIT_ASKPASS`::
1024 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
1025 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
1026 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument
1027 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the `core.askPass`
1028 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
1029
1030 `GIT_TERMINAL_PROMPT`::
1031 If this environment variable is set to `0`, git will not prompt
1032 on the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).
1033
1034 `GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM`::
1035 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
1036 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
1037 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
1038 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
1039 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
1040 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
1041
1042 `GIT_FLUSH`::
1043 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
1044 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
1045 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
1046 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
1047 flushed. If this
1048 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
1049 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
1050 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
1051 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
1052
1053 `GIT_TRACE`::
1054 Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
1055 command execution and external command execution.
1056 +
1057 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
1058 is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to
1059 stderr.
1060 +
1061 If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2
1062 and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
1063 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
1064 trace messages into this file descriptor.
1065 +
1066 Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path
1067 (starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
1068 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
1069 into it.
1070 +
1071 Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
1072 "false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
1073
1074 `GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS`::
1075 Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
1076 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
1077 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
1078 pack-related performance problems.
1079 See `GIT_TRACE` for available trace output options.
1080
1081 `GIT_TRACE_PACKET`::
1082 Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
1083 given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
1084 or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet
1085 starting with "PACK" (but see `GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE` below).
1086 See `GIT_TRACE` for available trace output options.
1087
1088 `GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE`::
1089 Enables tracing of packfiles sent or received by a
1090 given program. Unlike other trace output, this trace is
1091 verbatim: no headers, and no quoting of binary data. You almost
1092 certainly want to direct into a file (e.g.,
1093 `GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE=/tmp/my.pack`) rather than displaying it on
1094 the terminal or mixing it with other trace output.
1095 +
1096 Note that this is currently only implemented for the client side
1097 of clones and fetches.
1098
1099 `GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE`::
1100 Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
1101 time of each Git command.
1102 See `GIT_TRACE` for available trace output options.
1103
1104 `GIT_TRACE_SETUP`::
1105 Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
1106 working directory after Git has completed its setup phase.
1107 See `GIT_TRACE` for available trace output options.
1108
1109 `GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW`::
1110 Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching /
1111 cloning of shallow repositories.
1112 See `GIT_TRACE` for available trace output options.
1113
1114 `GIT_TRACE_CURL`::
1115 Enables a curl full trace dump of all incoming and outgoing data,
1116 including descriptive information, of the git transport protocol.
1117 This is similar to doing curl `--trace-ascii` on the command line.
1118 This option overrides setting the `GIT_CURL_VERBOSE` environment
1119 variable.
1120 See `GIT_TRACE` for available trace output options.
1121
1122 `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS`::
1123 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1124 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
1125 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
1126 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
1127 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
1128 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
1129 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
1130
1131 `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS`::
1132 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1133 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
1134
1135 `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS`::
1136 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1137 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
1138
1139 `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS`::
1140 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1141 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
1142
1143 `GIT_REFLOG_ACTION`::
1144 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
1145 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
1146 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
1147 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
1148 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
1149 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
1150 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
1151 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
1152
1153 `GIT_REF_PARANOIA`::
1154 If set to `1`, include broken or badly named refs when iterating
1155 over lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this
1156 does nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and
1157 abort some operations in the presence of broken refs. Git sets
1158 this variable automatically when performing destructive
1159 operations like linkgit:git-prune[1]. You should not need to set
1160 it yourself unless you want to be paranoid about making sure
1161 an operation has touched every ref (e.g., because you are
1162 cloning a repository to make a backup).
1163
1164 `GIT_ALLOW_PROTOCOL`::
1165 If set, provide a colon-separated list of protocols which are
1166 allowed to be used with fetch/push/clone. This is useful to
1167 restrict recursive submodule initialization from an untrusted
1168 repository. Any protocol not mentioned will be disallowed (i.e.,
1169 this is a whitelist, not a blacklist). If the variable is not
1170 set at all, all protocols are enabled. The protocol names
1171 currently used by git are:
1172
1173 - `file`: any local file-based path (including `file://` URLs,
1174 or local paths)
1175
1176 - `git`: the anonymous git protocol over a direct TCP
1177 connection (or proxy, if configured)
1178
1179 - `ssh`: git over ssh (including `host:path` syntax,
1180 `ssh://`, etc).
1181
1182 - `http`: git over http, both "smart http" and "dumb http".
1183 Note that this does _not_ include `https`; if you want both,
1184 you should specify both as `http:https`.
1185
1186 - any external helpers are named by their protocol (e.g., use
1187 `hg` to allow the `git-remote-hg` helper)
1188
1189
1190 Discussion[[Discussion]]
1191 ------------------------
1192
1193 More detail on the following is available from the
1194 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1195 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
1196
1197 A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
1198 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
1199 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
1200 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
1201 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
1202 as tags and branch heads.
1203
1204 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
1205 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
1206 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
1207 and some number of parent commits.
1208
1209 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
1210 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
1211 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
1212 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
1213
1214 All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
1215 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
1216 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
1217 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
1218 purpose.
1219
1220 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
1221 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
1222
1223 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
1224 may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
1225 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
1226 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
1227 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
1228 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
1229
1230 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
1231 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1232 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1233 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1234 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1235 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1236 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1237 content stored in the index.
1238
1239 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1240 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1241 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
1242
1243 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1244 ---------------------
1245
1246 See the references in the "description" section to get started
1247 using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
1248 for a first-time user.
1249
1250 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1251 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
1252 introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
1253
1254 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1255
1256 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1257 examples.
1258
1259 The internals are documented in the
1260 link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
1261
1262 Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1263 read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1264
1265
1266 Authors
1267 -------
1268 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
1269 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
1270 <git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary
1271 gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1272
1273 If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
1274 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1275 the authors for specific parts of the project.
1276
1277 Reporting Bugs
1278 --------------
1279
1280 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1281 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1282 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1283
1284 SEE ALSO
1285 --------
1286 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
1287 linkgit:giteveryday[7], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
1288 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
1289 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1290 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
1291
1292 GIT
1293 ---
1294 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite