credential doc: make multiple-helper behavior more prominent
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-for-each-ref.txt
1 git-for-each-ref(1)
2 ===================
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-for-each-ref - Output information on each ref
7
8 SYNOPSIS
9 --------
10 [verse]
11 'git for-each-ref' [--count=<count>] [--shell|--perl|--python|--tcl]
12 [(--sort=<key>)...] [--format=<format>] [<pattern>...]
13 [--points-at <object>] [(--merged | --no-merged) [<object>]]
14 [--contains [<object>]]
15
16 DESCRIPTION
17 -----------
18
19 Iterate over all refs that match `<pattern>` and show them
20 according to the given `<format>`, after sorting them according
21 to the given set of `<key>`. If `<count>` is given, stop after
22 showing that many refs. The interpolated values in `<format>`
23 can optionally be quoted as string literals in the specified
24 host language allowing their direct evaluation in that language.
25
26 OPTIONS
27 -------
28 <count>::
29 By default the command shows all refs that match
30 `<pattern>`. This option makes it stop after showing
31 that many refs.
32
33 <key>::
34 A field name to sort on. Prefix `-` to sort in
35 descending order of the value. When unspecified,
36 `refname` is used. You may use the --sort=<key> option
37 multiple times, in which case the last key becomes the primary
38 key.
39
40 <format>::
41 A string that interpolates `%(fieldname)` from the
42 object pointed at by a ref being shown. If `fieldname`
43 is prefixed with an asterisk (`*`) and the ref points
44 at a tag object, the value for the field in the object
45 tag refers is used. When unspecified, defaults to
46 `%(objectname) SPC %(objecttype) TAB %(refname)`.
47 It also interpolates `%%` to `%`, and `%xx` where `xx`
48 are hex digits interpolates to character with hex code
49 `xx`; for example `%00` interpolates to `\0` (NUL),
50 `%09` to `\t` (TAB) and `%0a` to `\n` (LF).
51
52 <pattern>...::
53 If one or more patterns are given, only refs are shown that
54 match against at least one pattern, either using fnmatch(3) or
55 literally, in the latter case matching completely or from the
56 beginning up to a slash.
57
58 --shell::
59 --perl::
60 --python::
61 --tcl::
62 If given, strings that substitute `%(fieldname)`
63 placeholders are quoted as string literals suitable for
64 the specified host language. This is meant to produce
65 a scriptlet that can directly be `eval`ed.
66
67 --points-at <object>::
68 Only list refs which points at the given object.
69
70 --merged [<object>]::
71 Only list refs whose tips are reachable from the
72 specified commit (HEAD if not specified).
73
74 --no-merged [<object>]::
75 Only list refs whose tips are not reachable from the
76 specified commit (HEAD if not specified).
77
78 --contains [<object>]::
79 Only list refs which contain the specified commit (HEAD if not
80 specified).
81
82 FIELD NAMES
83 -----------
84
85 Various values from structured fields in referenced objects can
86 be used to interpolate into the resulting output, or as sort
87 keys.
88
89 For all objects, the following names can be used:
90
91 refname::
92 The name of the ref (the part after $GIT_DIR/).
93 For a non-ambiguous short name of the ref append `:short`.
94 The option core.warnAmbiguousRefs is used to select the strict
95 abbreviation mode. If `strip=<N>` is appended, strips `<N>`
96 slash-separated path components from the front of the refname
97 (e.g., `%(refname:strip=2)` turns `refs/tags/foo` into `foo`.
98 `<N>` must be a positive integer. If a displayed ref has fewer
99 components than `<N>`, the command aborts with an error.
100
101 objecttype::
102 The type of the object (`blob`, `tree`, `commit`, `tag`).
103
104 objectsize::
105 The size of the object (the same as 'git cat-file -s' reports).
106
107 objectname::
108 The object name (aka SHA-1).
109 For a non-ambiguous abbreviation of the object name append `:short`.
110
111 upstream::
112 The name of a local ref which can be considered ``upstream''
113 from the displayed ref. Respects `:short` in the same way as
114 `refname` above. Additionally respects `:track` to show
115 "[ahead N, behind M]" and `:trackshort` to show the terse
116 version: ">" (ahead), "<" (behind), "<>" (ahead and behind),
117 or "=" (in sync). Has no effect if the ref does not have
118 tracking information associated with it.
119
120 push::
121 The name of a local ref which represents the `@{push}` location
122 for the displayed ref. Respects `:short`, `:track`, and
123 `:trackshort` options as `upstream` does. Produces an empty
124 string if no `@{push}` ref is configured.
125
126 HEAD::
127 '*' if HEAD matches current ref (the checked out branch), ' '
128 otherwise.
129
130 color::
131 Change output color. Followed by `:<colorname>`, where names
132 are described in `color.branch.*`.
133
134 align::
135 Left-, middle-, or right-align the content between
136 %(align:...) and %(end). The "align:" is followed by
137 `width=<width>` and `position=<position>` in any order
138 separated by a comma, where the `<position>` is either left,
139 right or middle, default being left and `<width>` is the total
140 length of the content with alignment. For brevity, the
141 "width=" and/or "position=" prefixes may be omitted, and bare
142 <width> and <position> used instead. For instance,
143 `%(align:<width>,<position>)`. If the contents length is more
144 than the width then no alignment is performed. If used with
145 `--quote` everything in between %(align:...) and %(end) is
146 quoted, but if nested then only the topmost level performs
147 quoting.
148
149 In addition to the above, for commit and tag objects, the header
150 field names (`tree`, `parent`, `object`, `type`, and `tag`) can
151 be used to specify the value in the header field.
152
153 For commit and tag objects, the special `creatordate` and `creator`
154 fields will correspond to the appropriate date or name-email-date tuple
155 from the `committer` or `tagger` fields depending on the object type.
156 These are intended for working on a mix of annotated and lightweight tags.
157
158 Fields that have name-email-date tuple as its value (`author`,
159 `committer`, and `tagger`) can be suffixed with `name`, `email`,
160 and `date` to extract the named component.
161
162 The complete message in a commit and tag object is `contents`.
163 Its first line is `contents:subject`, where subject is the concatenation
164 of all lines of the commit message up to the first blank line. The next
165 line is 'contents:body', where body is all of the lines after the first
166 blank line. The optional GPG signature is `contents:signature`. The
167 first `N` lines of the message is obtained using `contents:lines=N`.
168
169 For sorting purposes, fields with numeric values sort in numeric order
170 (`objectsize`, `authordate`, `committerdate`, `creatordate`, `taggerdate`).
171 All other fields are used to sort in their byte-value order.
172
173 There is also an option to sort by versions, this can be done by using
174 the fieldname `version:refname` or its alias `v:refname`.
175
176 In any case, a field name that refers to a field inapplicable to
177 the object referred by the ref does not cause an error. It
178 returns an empty string instead.
179
180 As a special case for the date-type fields, you may specify a format for
181 the date by adding `:` followed by date format name (see the
182 values the `--date` option to linkgit:git-rev-list[1] takes).
183
184
185 EXAMPLES
186 --------
187
188 An example directly producing formatted text. Show the most recent
189 3 tagged commits:
190
191 ------------
192 #!/bin/sh
193
194 git for-each-ref --count=3 --sort='-*authordate' \
195 --format='From: %(*authorname) %(*authoremail)
196 Subject: %(*subject)
197 Date: %(*authordate)
198 Ref: %(*refname)
199
200 %(*body)
201 ' 'refs/tags'
202 ------------
203
204
205 A simple example showing the use of shell eval on the output,
206 demonstrating the use of --shell. List the prefixes of all heads:
207 ------------
208 #!/bin/sh
209
210 git for-each-ref --shell --format="ref=%(refname)" refs/heads | \
211 while read entry
212 do
213 eval "$entry"
214 echo `dirname $ref`
215 done
216 ------------
217
218
219 A bit more elaborate report on tags, demonstrating that the format
220 may be an entire script:
221 ------------
222 #!/bin/sh
223
224 fmt='
225 r=%(refname)
226 t=%(*objecttype)
227 T=${r#refs/tags/}
228
229 o=%(*objectname)
230 n=%(*authorname)
231 e=%(*authoremail)
232 s=%(*subject)
233 d=%(*authordate)
234 b=%(*body)
235
236 kind=Tag
237 if test "z$t" = z
238 then
239 # could be a lightweight tag
240 t=%(objecttype)
241 kind="Lightweight tag"
242 o=%(objectname)
243 n=%(authorname)
244 e=%(authoremail)
245 s=%(subject)
246 d=%(authordate)
247 b=%(body)
248 fi
249 echo "$kind $T points at a $t object $o"
250 if test "z$t" = zcommit
251 then
252 echo "The commit was authored by $n $e
253 at $d, and titled
254
255 $s
256
257 Its message reads as:
258 "
259 echo "$b" | sed -e "s/^/ /"
260 echo
261 fi
262 '
263
264 eval=`git for-each-ref --shell --format="$fmt" \
265 --sort='*objecttype' \
266 --sort=-taggerdate \
267 refs/tags`
268 eval "$eval"
269 ------------
270
271 SEE ALSO
272 --------
273 linkgit:git-show-ref[1]
274
275 GIT
276 ---
277 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite