credential doc: make multiple-helper behavior more prominent
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-branch.txt
1 git-branch(1)
2 =============
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-branch - List, create, or delete branches
7
8 SYNOPSIS
9 --------
10 [verse]
11 'git branch' [--color[=<when>] | --no-color] [-r | -a]
12 [--list] [-v [--abbrev=<length> | --no-abbrev]]
13 [--column[=<options>] | --no-column]
14 [(--merged | --no-merged | --contains) [<commit>]] [--sort=<key>]
15 [--points-at <object>] [<pattern>...]
16 'git branch' [--set-upstream | --track | --no-track] [-l] [-f] <branchname> [<start-point>]
17 'git branch' (--set-upstream-to=<upstream> | -u <upstream>) [<branchname>]
18 'git branch' --unset-upstream [<branchname>]
19 'git branch' (-m | -M) [<oldbranch>] <newbranch>
20 'git branch' (-d | -D) [-r] <branchname>...
21 'git branch' --edit-description [<branchname>]
22
23 DESCRIPTION
24 -----------
25
26 If `--list` is given, or if there are no non-option arguments, existing
27 branches are listed; the current branch will be highlighted with an
28 asterisk. Option `-r` causes the remote-tracking branches to be listed,
29 and option `-a` shows both local and remote branches. If a `<pattern>`
30 is given, it is used as a shell wildcard to restrict the output to
31 matching branches. If multiple patterns are given, a branch is shown if
32 it matches any of the patterns. Note that when providing a
33 `<pattern>`, you must use `--list`; otherwise the command is interpreted
34 as branch creation.
35
36 With `--contains`, shows only the branches that contain the named commit
37 (in other words, the branches whose tip commits are descendants of the
38 named commit). With `--merged`, only branches merged into the named
39 commit (i.e. the branches whose tip commits are reachable from the named
40 commit) will be listed. With `--no-merged` only branches not merged into
41 the named commit will be listed. If the <commit> argument is missing it
42 defaults to `HEAD` (i.e. the tip of the current branch).
43
44 The command's second form creates a new branch head named <branchname>
45 which points to the current `HEAD`, or <start-point> if given.
46
47 Note that this will create the new branch, but it will not switch the
48 working tree to it; use "git checkout <newbranch>" to switch to the
49 new branch.
50
51 When a local branch is started off a remote-tracking branch, Git sets up the
52 branch (specifically the `branch.<name>.remote` and `branch.<name>.merge`
53 configuration entries) so that 'git pull' will appropriately merge from
54 the remote-tracking branch. This behavior may be changed via the global
55 `branch.autoSetupMerge` configuration flag. That setting can be
56 overridden by using the `--track` and `--no-track` options, and
57 changed later using `git branch --set-upstream-to`.
58
59 With a `-m` or `-M` option, <oldbranch> will be renamed to <newbranch>.
60 If <oldbranch> had a corresponding reflog, it is renamed to match
61 <newbranch>, and a reflog entry is created to remember the branch
62 renaming. If <newbranch> exists, -M must be used to force the rename
63 to happen.
64
65 With a `-d` or `-D` option, `<branchname>` will be deleted. You may
66 specify more than one branch for deletion. If the branch currently
67 has a reflog then the reflog will also be deleted.
68
69 Use `-r` together with `-d` to delete remote-tracking branches. Note, that it
70 only makes sense to delete remote-tracking branches if they no longer exist
71 in the remote repository or if 'git fetch' was configured not to fetch
72 them again. See also the 'prune' subcommand of linkgit:git-remote[1] for a
73 way to clean up all obsolete remote-tracking branches.
74
75
76 OPTIONS
77 -------
78 -d::
79 --delete::
80 Delete a branch. The branch must be fully merged in its
81 upstream branch, or in `HEAD` if no upstream was set with
82 `--track` or `--set-upstream`.
83
84 -D::
85 Shortcut for `--delete --force`.
86
87 -l::
88 --create-reflog::
89 Create the branch's reflog. This activates recording of
90 all changes made to the branch ref, enabling use of date
91 based sha1 expressions such as "<branchname>@\{yesterday}".
92 Note that in non-bare repositories, reflogs are usually
93 enabled by default by the `core.logallrefupdates` config option.
94
95 -f::
96 --force::
97 Reset <branchname> to <startpoint> if <branchname> exists
98 already. Without `-f` 'git branch' refuses to change an existing branch.
99 In combination with `-d` (or `--delete`), allow deleting the
100 branch irrespective of its merged status. In combination with
101 `-m` (or `--move`), allow renaming the branch even if the new
102 branch name already exists.
103
104 -m::
105 --move::
106 Move/rename a branch and the corresponding reflog.
107
108 -M::
109 Shortcut for `--move --force`.
110
111 --color[=<when>]::
112 Color branches to highlight current, local, and
113 remote-tracking branches.
114 The value must be always (the default), never, or auto.
115
116 --no-color::
117 Turn off branch colors, even when the configuration file gives the
118 default to color output.
119 Same as `--color=never`.
120
121 --column[=<options>]::
122 --no-column::
123 Display branch listing in columns. See configuration variable
124 column.branch for option syntax.`--column` and `--no-column`
125 without options are equivalent to 'always' and 'never' respectively.
126 +
127 This option is only applicable in non-verbose mode.
128
129 -r::
130 --remotes::
131 List or delete (if used with -d) the remote-tracking branches.
132
133 -a::
134 --all::
135 List both remote-tracking branches and local branches.
136
137 --list::
138 Activate the list mode. `git branch <pattern>` would try to create a branch,
139 use `git branch --list <pattern>` to list matching branches.
140
141 -v::
142 -vv::
143 --verbose::
144 When in list mode,
145 show sha1 and commit subject line for each head, along with
146 relationship to upstream branch (if any). If given twice, print
147 the name of the upstream branch, as well (see also `git remote
148 show <remote>`).
149
150 -q::
151 --quiet::
152 Be more quiet when creating or deleting a branch, suppressing
153 non-error messages.
154
155 --abbrev=<length>::
156 Alter the sha1's minimum display length in the output listing.
157 The default value is 7 and can be overridden by the `core.abbrev`
158 config option.
159
160 --no-abbrev::
161 Display the full sha1s in the output listing rather than abbreviating them.
162
163 -t::
164 --track::
165 When creating a new branch, set up `branch.<name>.remote` and
166 `branch.<name>.merge` configuration entries to mark the
167 start-point branch as "upstream" from the new branch. This
168 configuration will tell git to show the relationship between the
169 two branches in `git status` and `git branch -v`. Furthermore,
170 it directs `git pull` without arguments to pull from the
171 upstream when the new branch is checked out.
172 +
173 This behavior is the default when the start point is a remote-tracking branch.
174 Set the branch.autoSetupMerge configuration variable to `false` if you
175 want `git checkout` and `git branch` to always behave as if `--no-track`
176 were given. Set it to `always` if you want this behavior when the
177 start-point is either a local or remote-tracking branch.
178
179 --no-track::
180 Do not set up "upstream" configuration, even if the
181 branch.autoSetupMerge configuration variable is true.
182
183 --set-upstream::
184 If specified branch does not exist yet or if `--force` has been
185 given, acts exactly like `--track`. Otherwise sets up configuration
186 like `--track` would when creating the branch, except that where
187 branch points to is not changed.
188
189 -u <upstream>::
190 --set-upstream-to=<upstream>::
191 Set up <branchname>'s tracking information so <upstream> is
192 considered <branchname>'s upstream branch. If no <branchname>
193 is specified, then it defaults to the current branch.
194
195 --unset-upstream::
196 Remove the upstream information for <branchname>. If no branch
197 is specified it defaults to the current branch.
198
199 --edit-description::
200 Open an editor and edit the text to explain what the branch is
201 for, to be used by various other commands (e.g. `format-patch`,
202 `request-pull`, and `merge` (if enabled)). Multi-line explanations
203 may be used.
204
205 --contains [<commit>]::
206 Only list branches which contain the specified commit (HEAD
207 if not specified). Implies `--list`.
208
209 --merged [<commit>]::
210 Only list branches whose tips are reachable from the
211 specified commit (HEAD if not specified). Implies `--list`.
212
213 --no-merged [<commit>]::
214 Only list branches whose tips are not reachable from the
215 specified commit (HEAD if not specified). Implies `--list`.
216
217 <branchname>::
218 The name of the branch to create or delete.
219 The new branch name must pass all checks defined by
220 linkgit:git-check-ref-format[1]. Some of these checks
221 may restrict the characters allowed in a branch name.
222
223 <start-point>::
224 The new branch head will point to this commit. It may be
225 given as a branch name, a commit-id, or a tag. If this
226 option is omitted, the current HEAD will be used instead.
227
228 <oldbranch>::
229 The name of an existing branch to rename.
230
231 <newbranch>::
232 The new name for an existing branch. The same restrictions as for
233 <branchname> apply.
234
235 --sort=<key>::
236 Sort based on the key given. Prefix `-` to sort in descending
237 order of the value. You may use the --sort=<key> option
238 multiple times, in which case the last key becomes the primary
239 key. The keys supported are the same as those in `git
240 for-each-ref`. Sort order defaults to sorting based on the
241 full refname (including `refs/...` prefix). This lists
242 detached HEAD (if present) first, then local branches and
243 finally remote-tracking branches.
244
245
246 --points-at <object>::
247 Only list branches of the given object.
248
249 Examples
250 --------
251
252 Start development from a known tag::
253 +
254 ------------
255 $ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/.../linux-2.6 my2.6
256 $ cd my2.6
257 $ git branch my2.6.14 v2.6.14 <1>
258 $ git checkout my2.6.14
259 ------------
260 +
261 <1> This step and the next one could be combined into a single step with
262 "checkout -b my2.6.14 v2.6.14".
263
264 Delete an unneeded branch::
265 +
266 ------------
267 $ git clone git://git.kernel.org/.../git.git my.git
268 $ cd my.git
269 $ git branch -d -r origin/todo origin/html origin/man <1>
270 $ git branch -D test <2>
271 ------------
272 +
273 <1> Delete the remote-tracking branches "todo", "html" and "man". The next
274 'fetch' or 'pull' will create them again unless you configure them not to.
275 See linkgit:git-fetch[1].
276 <2> Delete the "test" branch even if the "master" branch (or whichever branch
277 is currently checked out) does not have all commits from the test branch.
278
279
280 Notes
281 -----
282
283 If you are creating a branch that you want to checkout immediately, it is
284 easier to use the git checkout command with its `-b` option to create
285 a branch and check it out with a single command.
286
287 The options `--contains`, `--merged` and `--no-merged` serve three related
288 but different purposes:
289
290 - `--contains <commit>` is used to find all branches which will need
291 special attention if <commit> were to be rebased or amended, since those
292 branches contain the specified <commit>.
293
294 - `--merged` is used to find all branches which can be safely deleted,
295 since those branches are fully contained by HEAD.
296
297 - `--no-merged` is used to find branches which are candidates for merging
298 into HEAD, since those branches are not fully contained by HEAD.
299
300 SEE ALSO
301 --------
302 linkgit:git-check-ref-format[1],
303 linkgit:git-fetch[1],
304 linkgit:git-remote[1],
305 link:user-manual.html#what-is-a-branch[``Understanding history: What is
306 a branch?''] in the Git User's Manual.
307
308 GIT
309 ---
310 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite