git-format-patch.txt: general rewordings and cleanups
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-format-patch.txt
1 git-format-patch(1)
2 ===================
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-format-patch - Prepare patches for e-mail submission
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git format-patch' [-k] [(-o|--output-directory) <dir> | --stdout]
13 [--thread[=<style>]]
14 [(--attach|--inline)[=<boundary>] | --no-attach]
15 [-s | --signoff]
16 [-n | --numbered | -N | --no-numbered]
17 [--start-number <n>] [--numbered-files]
18 [--in-reply-to=Message-Id] [--suffix=.<sfx>]
19 [--ignore-if-in-upstream]
20 [--subject-prefix=Subject-Prefix]
21 [--cc=<email>]
22 [--cover-letter]
23 [<common diff options>]
24 [ <since> | <revision range> ]
25
26 DESCRIPTION
27 -----------
28
29 Prepare each commit with its patch in
30 one file per commit, formatted to resemble UNIX mailbox format.
31 The output of this command is convenient for e-mail submission or
32 for use with 'git-am'.
33
34 There are two ways to specify which commits to operate on.
35
36 1. A single commit, <since>, specifies that the commits leading
37 to the tip of the current branch that are not in the history
38 that leads to the <since> to be output.
39
40 2. Generic <revision range> expression (see "SPECIFYING
41 REVISIONS" section in linkgit:git-rev-parse[1]) means the
42 commits in the specified range.
43
44 The first rule takes precedence in the case of a single <commit>. To
45 apply the second rule, i.e., format everything since the beginning of
46 history up until <commit>, use the '\--root' option: "git format-patch
47 \--root <commit>". If you want to format only <commit> itself, you
48 can do this with "git format-patch -1 <commit>".
49
50 By default, each output file is numbered sequentially from 1, and uses the
51 first line of the commit message (massaged for pathname safety) as
52 the filename. With the --numbered-files option, the output file names
53 will only be numbers, without the first line of the commit appended.
54 The names of the output files are printed to standard
55 output, unless the --stdout option is specified.
56
57 If -o is specified, output files are created in <dir>. Otherwise
58 they are created in the current working directory.
59
60 By default, the subject of a single patch is "[PATCH] First Line" and
61 the subject when multiple patches are output is "[PATCH n/m] First
62 Line". To force 1/1 to be added for a single patch, use -n. To omit
63 patch numbers from the subject, use -N
64
65 If given --thread, 'git-format-patch' will generate In-Reply-To and
66 References headers to make the second and subsequent patch mails appear
67 as replies to the first mail; this also generates a Message-Id header to
68 reference.
69
70 OPTIONS
71 -------
72 :git-format-patch: 1
73 include::diff-options.txt[]
74
75 -<n>::
76 Limits the number of patches to prepare.
77
78 -o <dir>::
79 --output-directory <dir>::
80 Use <dir> to store the resulting files, instead of the
81 current working directory.
82
83 -n::
84 --numbered::
85 Name output in '[PATCH n/m]' format, even with a single patch.
86
87 -N::
88 --no-numbered::
89 Name output in '[PATCH]' format.
90
91 --start-number <n>::
92 Start numbering the patches at <n> instead of 1.
93
94 --numbered-files::
95 Output file names will be a simple number sequence
96 without the default first line of the commit appended.
97
98 -k::
99 --keep-subject::
100 Do not strip/add '[PATCH]' from the first line of the
101 commit log message.
102
103 -s::
104 --signoff::
105 Add `Signed-off-by:` line to the commit message, using
106 the committer identity of yourself.
107
108 --stdout::
109 Print all commits to the standard output in mbox format,
110 instead of creating a file for each one.
111
112 --attach[=<boundary>]::
113 Create multipart/mixed attachment, the first part of
114 which is the commit message and the patch itself in the
115 second part, with "Content-Disposition: attachment".
116
117 --no-attach::
118 Disable the creation of an attachment, overriding the
119 configuration setting.
120
121 --inline[=<boundary>]::
122 Create multipart/mixed attachment, the first part of
123 which is the commit message and the patch itself in the
124 second part, with "Content-Disposition: inline".
125
126 --thread[=<style>]::
127 Add In-Reply-To and References headers to make the second and
128 subsequent mails appear as replies to the first. Also generates
129 the Message-Id header to reference.
130 +
131 The optional <style> argument can be either `shallow` or `deep`.
132 'shallow' threading makes every mail a reply to the head of the
133 series, where the head is chosen from the cover letter, the
134 `\--in-reply-to`, and the first patch mail, in this order. 'deep'
135 threading makes every mail a reply to the previous one. If not
136 specified, defaults to the 'format.thread' configuration, or `shallow`
137 if that is not set.
138
139 --in-reply-to=Message-Id::
140 Make the first mail (or all the mails with --no-thread) appear as a
141 reply to the given Message-Id, which avoids breaking threads to
142 provide a new patch series.
143
144 --ignore-if-in-upstream::
145 Do not include a patch that matches a commit in
146 <until>..<since>. This will examine all patches reachable
147 from <since> but not from <until> and compare them with the
148 patches being generated, and any patch that matches is
149 ignored.
150
151 --subject-prefix=<Subject-Prefix>::
152 Instead of the standard '[PATCH]' prefix in the subject
153 line, instead use '[<Subject-Prefix>]'. This
154 allows for useful naming of a patch series, and can be
155 combined with the --numbered option.
156
157 --cc=<email>::
158 Add a "Cc:" header to the email headers. This is in addition
159 to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times.
160
161 --add-header=<header>::
162 Add an arbitrary header to the email headers. This is in addition
163 to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times.
164 For example, --add-header="Organization: git-foo"
165
166 --cover-letter::
167 In addition to the patches, generate a cover letter file
168 containing the shortlog and the overall diffstat. You can
169 fill in a description in the file before sending it out.
170
171 --suffix=.<sfx>::
172 Instead of using `.patch` as the suffix for generated
173 filenames, use specified suffix. A common alternative is
174 `--suffix=.txt`. Leaving this empty will remove the `.patch`
175 suffix.
176 +
177 Note that the leading character does not have to be a dot; for example,
178 you can use `--suffix=-patch` to get `0001-description-of-my-change-patch`.
179
180 --no-binary::
181 Do not output contents of changes in binary files, instead
182 display a notice that those files changed. Patches generated
183 using this option cannot be applied properly, but they are
184 still useful for code review.
185
186 --root::
187 Treat the revision argument as a <revision range>, even if it
188 is just a single commit (that would normally be treated as a
189 <since>). Note that root commits included in the specified
190 range are always formatted as creation patches, independently
191 of this flag.
192
193 CONFIGURATION
194 -------------
195 You can specify extra mail header lines to be added to each message,
196 defaults for the subject prefix and file suffix, number patches when
197 outputting more than one patch, add "Cc:" headers, configure attachments,
198 and sign off patches with configuration variables.
199
200 ------------
201 [format]
202 headers = "Organization: git-foo\n"
203 subjectprefix = CHANGE
204 suffix = .txt
205 numbered = auto
206 cc = <email>
207 attach [ = mime-boundary-string ]
208 signoff = true
209 ------------
210
211
212 EXAMPLES
213 --------
214
215 * Extract commits between revisions R1 and R2, and apply them on top of
216 the current branch using 'git-am' to cherry-pick them:
217 +
218 ------------
219 $ git format-patch -k --stdout R1..R2 | git am -3 -k
220 ------------
221
222 * Extract all commits which are in the current branch but not in the
223 origin branch:
224 +
225 ------------
226 $ git format-patch origin
227 ------------
228 +
229 For each commit a separate file is created in the current directory.
230
231 * Extract all commits that lead to 'origin' since the inception of the
232 project:
233 +
234 ------------
235 $ git format-patch --root origin
236 ------------
237
238 * The same as the previous one:
239 +
240 ------------
241 $ git format-patch -M -B origin
242 ------------
243 +
244 Additionally, it detects and handles renames and complete rewrites
245 intelligently to produce a renaming patch. A renaming patch reduces
246 the amount of text output, and generally makes it easier to review.
247 Note that non-git "patch" programs won't understand renaming patches, so
248 use it only when you know the recipient uses git to apply your patch.
249
250 * Extract three topmost commits from the current branch and format them
251 as e-mailable patches:
252 +
253 ------------
254 $ git format-patch -3
255 ------------
256
257 SEE ALSO
258 --------
259 linkgit:git-am[1], linkgit:git-send-email[1]
260
261
262 Author
263 ------
264 Written by Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
265
266 Documentation
267 --------------
268 Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
269
270 GIT
271 ---
272 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite