Merge branch 'jn/warn-on-inaccessible-loosen'
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of
26 commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27 in-depth introduction.
28
29 After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
30 page to learn what commands git offers. You can learn more about
31 individual git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
32 manual page gives you an overview of the command line command syntax.
33
34 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest git documentation
35 can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
36
37 ifdef::stalenotes[]
38 [NOTE]
39 ============
40
41 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42 unreleased) version of git, that is available from 'master'
43 branch of the `git.git` repository.
44 Documentation for older releases are available here:
45
46 * link:v1.8.1/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.1]
47
48 * release notes for
49 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.txt[1.8.1].
50
51 * link:v1.8.0.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.0.3]
52
53 * release notes for
54 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.3.txt[1.8.0.3],
55 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.2.txt[1.8.0.2],
56 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.1.txt[1.8.0.1],
57 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.txt[1.8.0].
58
59 * link:v1.7.12.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.12.4]
60
61 * release notes for
62 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.4.txt[1.7.12.4],
63 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt[1.7.12.3],
64 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.2.txt[1.7.12.2],
65 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.1.txt[1.7.12.1],
66 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.txt[1.7.12].
67
68 * link:v1.7.11.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.7]
69
70 * release notes for
71 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.7.txt[1.7.11.7],
72 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.6.txt[1.7.11.6],
73 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.5.txt[1.7.11.5],
74 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.4.txt[1.7.11.4],
75 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.3.txt[1.7.11.3],
76 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.2.txt[1.7.11.2],
77 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.1.txt[1.7.11.1],
78 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.txt[1.7.11].
79
80 * link:v1.7.10.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.10.5]
81
82 * release notes for
83 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.5.txt[1.7.10.5],
84 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt[1.7.10.4],
85 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.3.txt[1.7.10.3],
86 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.2.txt[1.7.10.2],
87 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt[1.7.10.1],
88 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.txt[1.7.10].
89
90 * link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
91
92 * release notes for
93 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.7.txt[1.7.9.7],
94 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.6.txt[1.7.9.6],
95 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.5.txt[1.7.9.5],
96 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.4.txt[1.7.9.4],
97 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.3.txt[1.7.9.3],
98 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.2.txt[1.7.9.2],
99 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.1.txt[1.7.9.1],
100 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
101
102 * link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
103
104 * release notes for
105 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.6.txt[1.7.8.6],
106 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.5.txt[1.7.8.5],
107 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.4.txt[1.7.8.4],
108 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.3.txt[1.7.8.3],
109 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt[1.7.8.2],
110 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.1.txt[1.7.8.1],
111 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
112
113 * link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
114
115 * release notes for
116 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.7.txt[1.7.7.7],
117 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.6.txt[1.7.7.6],
118 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.5.txt[1.7.7.5],
119 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.4.txt[1.7.7.4],
120 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.3.txt[1.7.7.3],
121 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.2.txt[1.7.7.2],
122 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.1.txt[1.7.7.1],
123 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.txt[1.7.7].
124
125 * link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
126
127 * release notes for
128 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.6.txt[1.7.6.6],
129 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.5.txt[1.7.6.5],
130 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.4.txt[1.7.6.4],
131 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.3.txt[1.7.6.3],
132 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.2.txt[1.7.6.2],
133 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.1.txt[1.7.6.1],
134 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
135
136 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
137
138 * release notes for
139 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt[1.7.5.4],
140 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt[1.7.5.3],
141 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.2.txt[1.7.5.2],
142 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.1.txt[1.7.5.1],
143 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.txt[1.7.5].
144
145 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
146
147 * release notes for
148 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.5.txt[1.7.4.5],
149 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.4.txt[1.7.4.4],
150 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.3.txt[1.7.4.3],
151 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.2.txt[1.7.4.2],
152 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.1.txt[1.7.4.1],
153 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.txt[1.7.4].
154
155 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
156
157 * release notes for
158 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.5.txt[1.7.3.5],
159 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.4.txt[1.7.3.4],
160 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.3.txt[1.7.3.3],
161 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.2.txt[1.7.3.2],
162 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.1.txt[1.7.3.1],
163 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.txt[1.7.3].
164
165 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
166
167 * release notes for
168 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.5.txt[1.7.2.5],
169 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.4.txt[1.7.2.4],
170 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.3.txt[1.7.2.3],
171 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.2.txt[1.7.2.2],
172 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.1.txt[1.7.2.1],
173 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.txt[1.7.2].
174
175 * link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
176
177 * release notes for
178 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.4.txt[1.7.1.4],
179 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.3.txt[1.7.1.3],
180 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.2.txt[1.7.1.2],
181 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.1.txt[1.7.1.1],
182 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.txt[1.7.1].
183
184 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
185
186 * release notes for
187 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.9.txt[1.7.0.9],
188 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.8.txt[1.7.0.8],
189 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.7.txt[1.7.0.7],
190 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.6.txt[1.7.0.6],
191 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.5.txt[1.7.0.5],
192 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.4.txt[1.7.0.4],
193 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.3.txt[1.7.0.3],
194 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt[1.7.0.2],
195 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.1.txt[1.7.0.1],
196 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.txt[1.7.0].
197
198 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
199
200 * release notes for
201 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt[1.6.6.3],
202 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
203 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
204 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
205
206 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
207
208 * release notes for
209 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.9.txt[1.6.5.9],
210 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.8.txt[1.6.5.8],
211 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.7.txt[1.6.5.7],
212 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.6.txt[1.6.5.6],
213 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.5.txt[1.6.5.5],
214 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt[1.6.5.4],
215 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.3.txt[1.6.5.3],
216 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.2.txt[1.6.5.2],
217 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.1.txt[1.6.5.1],
218 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
219
220 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
221
222 * release notes for
223 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.5.txt[1.6.4.5],
224 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
225 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
226 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.2.txt[1.6.4.2],
227 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
228 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
229
230 * link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
231
232 * release notes for
233 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
234 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
235 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
236 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
237 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
238
239 * release notes for
240 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
241 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
242 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
243 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
244 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
245 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
246
247 * link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
248
249 * release notes for
250 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
251 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
252 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
253 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
254
255 * link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
256
257 * release notes for
258 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
259 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
260 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
261 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
262 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
263 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
264 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
265
266 * link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
267
268 * release notes for
269 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
270 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
271 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
272 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
273 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
274 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
275 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
276
277 * link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
278
279 * release notes for
280 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
281 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
282 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
283 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
284 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
285 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
286 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
287
288 * link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
289
290 * release notes for
291 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
292 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
293 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
294 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
295 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
296 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
297 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
298 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
299
300 * link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
301
302 * release notes for
303 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
304 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
305 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
306 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
307 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
308 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
309 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
310 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
311 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
312
313 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
314
315 * release notes for
316 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
317 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
318 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
319 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
320 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
321 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
322
323 * link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
324
325 * release notes for
326 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
327 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
328 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
329 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
330 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
331 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
332 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
333
334 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
335
336 * release notes for
337 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
338 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
339 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
340 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
341 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
342 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
343 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
344
345 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
346 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
347 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
348 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
349
350 ============
351
352 endif::stalenotes[]
353
354 OPTIONS
355 -------
356 --version::
357 Prints the git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
358
359 --help::
360 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
361 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
362 available commands are printed. If a git command is named this
363 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
364 +
365 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
366 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
367 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
368 help ...`.
369
370 -c <name>=<value>::
371 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
372 given will override values from configuration files.
373 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
374 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
375
376 --exec-path[=<path>]::
377 Path to wherever your core git programs are installed.
378 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
379 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
380 the current setting and then exit.
381
382 --html-path::
383 Print the path, without trailing slash, where git's HTML
384 documentation is installed and exit.
385
386 --man-path::
387 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
388 this version of git and exit.
389
390 --info-path::
391 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
392 version of git are installed and exit.
393
394 -p::
395 --paginate::
396 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
397 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
398 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
399 below).
400
401 --no-pager::
402 Do not pipe git output into a pager.
403
404 --git-dir=<path>::
405 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
406 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
407 path or relative path to current working directory.
408
409 --work-tree=<path>::
410 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
411 or a path relative to the current working directory.
412 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
413 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
414 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
415 more detailed discussion).
416
417 --namespace=<path>::
418 Set the git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
419 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
420 variable.
421
422 --bare::
423 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
424 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
425 directory.
426
427 --no-replace-objects::
428 Do not use replacement refs to replace git objects. See
429 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
430
431 --literal-pathspecs::
432 Treat pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. This is
433 equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
434 variable to `1`.
435
436
437 GIT COMMANDS
438 ------------
439
440 We divide git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
441 ("plumbing") commands.
442
443 High-level commands (porcelain)
444 -------------------------------
445
446 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
447 ancillary user utilities.
448
449 Main porcelain commands
450 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
451
452 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
453
454 Ancillary Commands
455 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
456 Manipulators:
457
458 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
459
460 Interrogators:
461
462 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
463
464
465 Interacting with Others
466 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
467
468 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
469 people via patch over e-mail.
470
471 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
472
473
474 Low-level commands (plumbing)
475 -----------------------------
476
477 Although git includes its
478 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
479 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
480 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
481 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
482
483 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
484 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
485 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
486 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
487 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
488 end user experience.
489
490 The following description divides
491 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
492 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
493 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
494 repositories.
495
496
497 Manipulation commands
498 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
499
500 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
501
502
503 Interrogation commands
504 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
505
506 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
507
508 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
509 the working tree.
510
511
512 Synching repositories
513 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
514
515 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
516
517 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
518 typically do not use them directly.
519
520 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
521
522
523 Internal helper commands
524 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
525
526 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
527 users typically do not use them directly.
528
529 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
530
531
532 Configuration Mechanism
533 -----------------------
534
535 Starting from 0.99.9 (actually mid 0.99.8.GIT), `.git/config` file
536 is used to hold per-repository configuration options. It is a
537 simple text file modeled after `.ini` format familiar to some
538 people. Here is an example:
539
540 ------------
541 #
542 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
543 #
544
545 ; core variables
546 [core]
547 ; Don't trust file modes
548 filemode = false
549
550 ; user identity
551 [user]
552 name = "Junio C Hamano"
553 email = "junkio@twinsun.com"
554
555 ------------
556
557 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
558 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
559 list.
560
561
562 Identifier Terminology
563 ----------------------
564 <object>::
565 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
566
567 <blob>::
568 Indicates a blob object name.
569
570 <tree>::
571 Indicates a tree object name.
572
573 <commit>::
574 Indicates a commit object name.
575
576 <tree-ish>::
577 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
578 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
579 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
580 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
581
582 <commit-ish>::
583 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
584 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
585 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
586 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
587
588 <type>::
589 Indicates that an object type is required.
590 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
591
592 <file>::
593 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
594 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
595
596 Symbolic Identifiers
597 --------------------
598 Any git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
599 symbolic notation:
600
601 HEAD::
602 indicates the head of the current branch.
603
604 <tag>::
605 a valid tag 'name'
606 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
607
608 <head>::
609 a valid head 'name'
610 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
611
612 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
613 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
614
615
616 File/Directory Structure
617 ------------------------
618
619 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
620
621 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
622
623 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
624 `$GIT_DIR`.
625
626
627 Terminology
628 -----------
629 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
630
631
632 Environment Variables
633 ---------------------
634 Various git commands use the following environment variables:
635
636 The git Repository
637 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
638 These environment variables apply to 'all' core git commands. Nb: it
639 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
640 git so take care if using Cogito etc.
641
642 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
643 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
644 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
645 is used.
646
647 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
648 If the object storage directory is specified via this
649 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
650 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
651 directory is used.
652
653 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
654 Due to the immutable nature of git objects, old objects can be
655 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
656 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
657 of git object directories which can be used to search for git
658 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
659
660 'GIT_DIR'::
661 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
662 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
663 for the base of the repository.
664 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
665
666 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
667 Set the path to the working tree. The value will not be
668 used in combination with repositories found automatically in
669 a .git directory (i.e. $GIT_DIR is not set).
670 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command line
671 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
672
673 'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
674 Set the git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
675 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
676
677 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
678 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths.
679 If set, it is a list of directories that git should not chdir
680 up into while looking for a repository directory.
681 It will not exclude the current working directory or
682 a GIT_DIR set on the command line or in the environment.
683 (Useful for excluding slow-loading network directories.)
684
685 'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
686 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
687 directory, git tries to find such a directory in the parent
688 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
689 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
690 can be set to true to tell git not to stop at filesystem
691 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
692 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
693 command line.
694
695 git Commits
696 ~~~~~~~~~~~
697 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
698 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
699 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
700 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
701 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
702 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
703 'EMAIL'::
704 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
705
706 git Diffs
707 ~~~~~~~~~
708 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
709 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
710 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
711 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
712 value passed on the git diff command line.
713
714 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
715 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
716 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
717 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
718 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
719
720 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
721 +
722 where:
723
724 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
725 contents of <old|new>,
726 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA1 hashes,
727 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
728 +
729 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
730 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
731 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
732 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
733 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
734 +
735 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
736 parameter, <path>.
737
738 other
739 ~~~~~
740 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
741 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
742 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
743 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
744
745 'GIT_PAGER'::
746 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
747 to an empty string or to the value "cat", git will not launch
748 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
749 linkgit:git-config[1].
750
751 'GIT_EDITOR'::
752 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
753 It is used by several git commands when, on interactive mode,
754 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
755 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
756
757 'GIT_SSH'::
758 If this environment variable is set then 'git fetch'
759 and 'git push' will use this command instead
760 of 'ssh' when they need to connect to a remote system.
761 The '$GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two arguments:
762 the 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the
763 shell command to execute on that remote system.
764 +
765 To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH
766 you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script,
767 then set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.
768 +
769 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
770 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
771 for further details.
772
773 'GIT_ASKPASS'::
774 If this environment variable is set, then git commands which need to
775 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
776 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command line argument
777 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askpass'
778 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
779
780 'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
781 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
782 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
783 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
784 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
785 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
786 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
787
788 'GIT_FLUSH'::
789 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
790 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
791 and 'git whatchanged' will force a flush of the output stream
792 after each commit-oriented record have been flushed. If this
793 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
794 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
795 not set, git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
796 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
797
798 'GIT_TRACE'::
799 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
800 is case insensitive), git will print `trace:` messages on
801 stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
802 execution and external command execution.
803 If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1
804 and lower than 10 (strictly) then git will interpret this
805 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
806 trace messages into this file descriptor.
807 Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path
808 (starting with a '/' character), git will interpret this
809 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
810 into it.
811
812 GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
813 Setting this variable to `1` will cause git to treat all
814 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
815 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
816 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
817 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
818 literal paths to git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
819 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
820
821
822 Discussion[[Discussion]]
823 ------------------------
824
825 More detail on the following is available from the
826 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
827 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
828
829 A git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
830 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
831 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
832 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
833 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
834 as tags and branch heads.
835
836 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
837 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
838 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
839 and some number of parent commits.
840
841 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
842 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
843 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
844 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
845
846 All objects are named by the SHA1 hash of their contents, normally
847 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
848 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
849 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
850 purpose.
851
852 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
853 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
854
855 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
856 may contain the SHA1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
857 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA1 name of the most
858 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA1 names of
859 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
860 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
861
862 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
863 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
864 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
865 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
866 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
867 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
868 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
869 content stored in the index.
870
871 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
872 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
873 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
874
875 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
876 ---------------------
877
878 See the references in the "description" section to get started
879 using git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
880 for a first-time user.
881
882 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
883 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
884 introductions to the underlying git architecture.
885
886 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
887
888 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
889 examples.
890
891 The internals are documented in the
892 link:technical/api-index.html[GIT API documentation].
893
894 Users migrating from CVS may also want to
895 read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
896
897
898 Authors
899 -------
900 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
901 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the git mailing list
902 <git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.ohloh.net/p/git/contributors/summary
903 gives you a more complete list of contributors.
904
905 If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
906 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
907 the authors for specific parts of the project.
908
909 Reporting Bugs
910 --------------
911
912 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
913 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
914 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
915
916 SEE ALSO
917 --------
918 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
919 link:everyday.html[Everyday Git], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
920 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
921 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
922 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
923
924 GIT
925 ---
926 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite