4e0ad6fd8e0b91d9d82ef66f8e3a10a3882589e8
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-pull.txt
1 git-pull(1)
2 ===========
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-pull - Fetch from and integrate with another repository or a local branch
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git pull' [options] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
13
14
15 DESCRIPTION
16 -----------
17
18 Incorporates changes from a remote repository into the current
19 branch. In its default mode, `git pull` is shorthand for
20 `git fetch` followed by `git merge FETCH_HEAD`.
21
22 More precisely, 'git pull' runs 'git fetch' with the given
23 parameters and calls 'git merge' to merge the retrieved branch
24 heads into the current branch.
25 With `--rebase`, it runs 'git rebase' instead of 'git merge'.
26
27 <repository> should be the name of a remote repository as
28 passed to linkgit:git-fetch[1]. <refspec> can name an
29 arbitrary remote ref (for example, the name of a tag) or even
30 a collection of refs with corresponding remote-tracking branches
31 (e.g., refs/heads/{asterisk}:refs/remotes/origin/{asterisk}),
32 but usually it is the name of a branch in the remote repository.
33
34 Default values for <repository> and <branch> are read from the
35 "remote" and "merge" configuration for the current branch
36 as set by linkgit:git-branch[1] `--track`.
37
38 Assume the following history exists and the current branch is
39 "`master`":
40
41 ------------
42 A---B---C master on origin
43 /
44 D---E---F---G master
45 ^
46 origin/master in your repository
47 ------------
48
49 Then "`git pull`" will fetch and replay the changes from the remote
50 `master` branch since it diverged from the local `master` (i.e., `E`)
51 until its current commit (`C`) on top of `master` and record the
52 result in a new commit along with the names of the two parent commits
53 and a log message from the user describing the changes.
54
55 ------------
56 A---B---C origin/master
57 / \
58 D---E---F---G---H master
59 ------------
60
61 See linkgit:git-merge[1] for details, including how conflicts
62 are presented and handled.
63
64 In Git 1.7.0 or later, to cancel a conflicting merge, use
65 `git reset --merge`. *Warning*: In older versions of Git, running 'git pull'
66 with uncommitted changes is discouraged: while possible, it leaves you
67 in a state that may be hard to back out of in the case of a conflict.
68
69 If any of the remote changes overlap with local uncommitted changes,
70 the merge will be automatically canceled and the work tree untouched.
71 It is generally best to get any local changes in working order before
72 pulling or stash them away with linkgit:git-stash[1].
73
74 OPTIONS
75 -------
76
77 -q::
78 --quiet::
79 This is passed to both underlying git-fetch to squelch reporting of
80 during transfer, and underlying git-merge to squelch output during
81 merging.
82
83 -v::
84 --verbose::
85 Pass --verbose to git-fetch and git-merge.
86
87 --[no-]recurse-submodules[=yes|on-demand|no]::
88 This option controls if new commits of all populated submodules should
89 be fetched and updated, too (see linkgit:git-config[1] and
90 linkgit:gitmodules[5]).
91 +
92 If the checkout is done via rebase, local submodule commits are rebased as well.
93 +
94 If the update is done via merge, the submodule conflicts are resolved and checked out.
95
96 Options related to merging
97 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
98
99 :git-pull: 1
100
101 include::merge-options.txt[]
102
103 -r::
104 --rebase[=false|true|merges|preserve|interactive]::
105 When true, rebase the current branch on top of the upstream
106 branch after fetching. If there is a remote-tracking branch
107 corresponding to the upstream branch and the upstream branch
108 was rebased since last fetched, the rebase uses that information
109 to avoid rebasing non-local changes.
110 +
111 When set to `merges`, rebase using `git rebase --rebase-merges` so that
112 the local merge commits are included in the rebase (see
113 linkgit:git-rebase[1] for details).
114 +
115 When set to preserve, rebase with the `--preserve-merges` option passed
116 to `git rebase` so that locally created merge commits will not be flattened.
117 +
118 When false, merge the current branch into the upstream branch.
119 +
120 When `interactive`, enable the interactive mode of rebase.
121 +
122 See `pull.rebase`, `branch.<name>.rebase` and `branch.autoSetupRebase` in
123 linkgit:git-config[1] if you want to make `git pull` always use
124 `--rebase` instead of merging.
125 +
126 [NOTE]
127 This is a potentially _dangerous_ mode of operation.
128 It rewrites history, which does not bode well when you
129 published that history already. Do *not* use this option
130 unless you have read linkgit:git-rebase[1] carefully.
131
132 --no-rebase::
133 Override earlier --rebase.
134
135 --autostash::
136 --no-autostash::
137 Before starting rebase, stash local modifications away (see
138 linkgit:git-stash[1]) if needed, and apply the stash entry when
139 done. `--no-autostash` is useful to override the `rebase.autoStash`
140 configuration variable (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
141 +
142 This option is only valid when "--rebase" is used.
143
144 Options related to fetching
145 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
146
147 include::fetch-options.txt[]
148
149 include::pull-fetch-param.txt[]
150
151 include::urls-remotes.txt[]
152
153 include::merge-strategies.txt[]
154
155 DEFAULT BEHAVIOUR
156 -----------------
157
158 Often people use `git pull` without giving any parameter.
159 Traditionally, this has been equivalent to saying `git pull
160 origin`. However, when configuration `branch.<name>.remote` is
161 present while on branch `<name>`, that value is used instead of
162 `origin`.
163
164 In order to determine what URL to use to fetch from, the value
165 of the configuration `remote.<origin>.url` is consulted
166 and if there is not any such variable, the value on the `URL:` line
167 in `$GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin>` is used.
168
169 In order to determine what remote branches to fetch (and
170 optionally store in the remote-tracking branches) when the command is
171 run without any refspec parameters on the command line, values
172 of the configuration variable `remote.<origin>.fetch` are
173 consulted, and if there aren't any, `$GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin>`
174 is consulted and its `Pull:` lines are used.
175 In addition to the refspec formats described in the OPTIONS
176 section, you can have a globbing refspec that looks like this:
177
178 ------------
179 refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*
180 ------------
181
182 A globbing refspec must have a non-empty RHS (i.e. must store
183 what were fetched in remote-tracking branches), and its LHS and RHS
184 must end with `/*`. The above specifies that all remote
185 branches are tracked using remote-tracking branches in
186 `refs/remotes/origin/` hierarchy under the same name.
187
188 The rule to determine which remote branch to merge after
189 fetching is a bit involved, in order not to break backward
190 compatibility.
191
192 If explicit refspecs were given on the command
193 line of `git pull`, they are all merged.
194
195 When no refspec was given on the command line, then `git pull`
196 uses the refspec from the configuration or
197 `$GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin>`. In such cases, the following
198 rules apply:
199
200 . If `branch.<name>.merge` configuration for the current
201 branch `<name>` exists, that is the name of the branch at the
202 remote site that is merged.
203
204 . If the refspec is a globbing one, nothing is merged.
205
206 . Otherwise the remote branch of the first refspec is merged.
207
208
209 EXAMPLES
210 --------
211
212 * Update the remote-tracking branches for the repository
213 you cloned from, then merge one of them into your
214 current branch:
215 +
216 ------------------------------------------------
217 $ git pull
218 $ git pull origin
219 ------------------------------------------------
220 +
221 Normally the branch merged in is the HEAD of the remote repository,
222 but the choice is determined by the branch.<name>.remote and
223 branch.<name>.merge options; see linkgit:git-config[1] for details.
224
225 * Merge into the current branch the remote branch `next`:
226 +
227 ------------------------------------------------
228 $ git pull origin next
229 ------------------------------------------------
230 +
231 This leaves a copy of `next` temporarily in FETCH_HEAD, but
232 does not update any remote-tracking branches. Using remote-tracking
233 branches, the same can be done by invoking fetch and merge:
234 +
235 ------------------------------------------------
236 $ git fetch origin
237 $ git merge origin/next
238 ------------------------------------------------
239
240
241 If you tried a pull which resulted in complex conflicts and
242 would want to start over, you can recover with 'git reset'.
243
244
245 include::transfer-data-leaks.txt[]
246
247 BUGS
248 ----
249 Using --recurse-submodules can only fetch new commits in already checked
250 out submodules right now. When e.g. upstream added a new submodule in the
251 just fetched commits of the superproject the submodule itself can not be
252 fetched, making it impossible to check out that submodule later without
253 having to do a fetch again. This is expected to be fixed in a future Git
254 version.
255
256 SEE ALSO
257 --------
258 linkgit:git-fetch[1], linkgit:git-merge[1], linkgit:git-config[1]
259
260 GIT
261 ---
262 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite