Merge branch 'tg/deprecate-stash-save'
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-stash.txt
1 git-stash(1)
2 ============
5 ----
6 git-stash - Stash the changes in a dirty working directory away
9 --------
10 [verse]
11 'git stash' list [<options>]
12 'git stash' show [<stash>]
13 'git stash' drop [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]
14 'git stash' ( pop | apply ) [--index] [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]
15 'git stash' branch <branchname> [<stash>]
16 'git stash' [push [-p|--patch] [-k|--[no-]keep-index] [-q|--quiet]
17 [-u|--include-untracked] [-a|--all] [-m|--message <message>]]
18 [--] [<pathspec>...]]
19 'git stash' clear
20 'git stash' create [<message>]
21 'git stash' store [-m|--message <message>] [-q|--quiet] <commit>
24 -----------
26 Use `git stash` when you want to record the current state of the
27 working directory and the index, but want to go back to a clean
28 working directory. The command saves your local modifications away
29 and reverts the working directory to match the `HEAD` commit.
31 The modifications stashed away by this command can be listed with
32 `git stash list`, inspected with `git stash show`, and restored
33 (potentially on top of a different commit) with `git stash apply`.
34 Calling `git stash` without any arguments is equivalent to `git stash push`.
35 A stash is by default listed as "WIP on 'branchname' ...", but
36 you can give a more descriptive message on the command line when
37 you create one.
39 The latest stash you created is stored in `refs/stash`; older
40 stashes are found in the reflog of this reference and can be named using
41 the usual reflog syntax (e.g. `stash@{0}` is the most recently
42 created stash, `stash@{1}` is the one before it, `stash@{2.hours.ago}`
43 is also possible). Stashes may also be referenced by specifying just the
44 stash index (e.g. the integer `n` is equivalent to `stash@{n}`).
47 -------
49 push [-p|--patch] [-k|--[no-]keep-index] [-u|--include-untracked] [-a|--all] [-q|--quiet] [-m|--message <message>] [--] [<pathspec>...]::
51 Save your local modifications to a new 'stash entry' and roll them
52 back to HEAD (in the working tree and in the index).
53 The <message> part is optional and gives
54 the description along with the stashed state.
55 +
56 For quickly making a snapshot, you can omit "push". In this mode,
57 non-option arguments are not allowed to prevent a misspelled
58 subcommand from making an unwanted stash entry. The two exceptions to this
59 are `stash -p` which acts as alias for `stash push -p` and pathspecs,
60 which are allowed after a double hyphen `--` for disambiguation.
61 +
62 When pathspec is given to 'git stash push', the new stash entry records the
63 modified states only for the files that match the pathspec. The index
64 entries and working tree files are then rolled back to the state in
65 HEAD only for these files, too, leaving files that do not match the
66 pathspec intact.
67 +
68 If the `--keep-index` option is used, all changes already added to the
69 index are left intact.
70 +
71 If the `--include-untracked` option is used, all untracked files are also
72 stashed and then cleaned up with `git clean`, leaving the working directory
73 in a very clean state. If the `--all` option is used instead then the
74 ignored files are stashed and cleaned in addition to the untracked files.
75 +
76 With `--patch`, you can interactively select hunks from the diff
77 between HEAD and the working tree to be stashed. The stash entry is
78 constructed such that its index state is the same as the index state
79 of your repository, and its worktree contains only the changes you
80 selected interactively. The selected changes are then rolled back
81 from your worktree. See the ``Interactive Mode'' section of
82 linkgit:git-add[1] to learn how to operate the `--patch` mode.
83 +
84 The `--patch` option implies `--keep-index`. You can use
85 `--no-keep-index` to override this.
87 save [-p|--patch] [-k|--[no-]keep-index] [-u|--include-untracked] [-a|--all] [-q|--quiet] [<message>]::
89 This option is deprecated in favour of 'git stash push'. It
90 differs from "stash push" in that it cannot take pathspecs,
91 and any non-option arguments form the message.
93 list [<options>]::
95 List the stash entries that you currently have. Each 'stash entry' is
96 listed with its name (e.g. `stash@{0}` is the latest entry, `stash@{1}` is
97 the one before, etc.), the name of the branch that was current when the
98 entry was made, and a short description of the commit the entry was
99 based on.
100 +
101 ----------------------------------------------------------------
102 stash@{0}: WIP on submit: 6ebd0e2... Update git-stash documentation
103 stash@{1}: On master: 9cc0589... Add git-stash
104 ----------------------------------------------------------------
105 +
106 The command takes options applicable to the 'git log'
107 command to control what is shown and how. See linkgit:git-log[1].
109 show [<stash>]::
111 Show the changes recorded in the stash entry as a diff between the
112 stashed contents and the commit back when the stash entry was first
113 created. When no `<stash>` is given, it shows the latest one.
114 By default, the command shows the diffstat, but it will accept any
115 format known to 'git diff' (e.g., `git stash show -p stash@{1}`
116 to view the second most recent entry in patch form).
117 You can use stash.showStat and/or stash.showPatch config variables
118 to change the default behavior.
120 pop [--index] [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]::
122 Remove a single stashed state from the stash list and apply it
123 on top of the current working tree state, i.e., do the inverse
124 operation of `git stash push`. The working directory must
125 match the index.
126 +
127 Applying the state can fail with conflicts; in this case, it is not
128 removed from the stash list. You need to resolve the conflicts by hand
129 and call `git stash drop` manually afterwards.
130 +
131 If the `--index` option is used, then tries to reinstate not only the working
132 tree's changes, but also the index's ones. However, this can fail, when you
133 have conflicts (which are stored in the index, where you therefore can no
134 longer apply the changes as they were originally).
135 +
136 When no `<stash>` is given, `stash@{0}` is assumed, otherwise `<stash>` must
137 be a reference of the form `stash@{<revision>}`.
139 apply [--index] [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]::
141 Like `pop`, but do not remove the state from the stash list. Unlike `pop`,
142 `<stash>` may be any commit that looks like a commit created by
143 `stash push` or `stash create`.
145 branch <branchname> [<stash>]::
147 Creates and checks out a new branch named `<branchname>` starting from
148 the commit at which the `<stash>` was originally created, applies the
149 changes recorded in `<stash>` to the new working tree and index.
150 If that succeeds, and `<stash>` is a reference of the form
151 `stash@{<revision>}`, it then drops the `<stash>`. When no `<stash>`
152 is given, applies the latest one.
153 +
154 This is useful if the branch on which you ran `git stash push` has
155 changed enough that `git stash apply` fails due to conflicts. Since
156 the stash entry is applied on top of the commit that was HEAD at the
157 time `git stash` was run, it restores the originally stashed state
158 with no conflicts.
160 clear::
161 Remove all the stash entries. Note that those entries will then
162 be subject to pruning, and may be impossible to recover (see
163 'Examples' below for a possible strategy).
165 drop [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]::
167 Remove a single stash entry from the list of stash entries.
168 When no `<stash>` is given, it removes the latest one.
169 i.e. `stash@{0}`, otherwise `<stash>` must be a valid stash
170 log reference of the form `stash@{<revision>}`.
172 create::
174 Create a stash entry (which is a regular commit object) and
175 return its object name, without storing it anywhere in the ref
176 namespace.
177 This is intended to be useful for scripts. It is probably not
178 the command you want to use; see "push" above.
180 store::
182 Store a given stash created via 'git stash create' (which is a
183 dangling merge commit) in the stash ref, updating the stash
184 reflog. This is intended to be useful for scripts. It is
185 probably not the command you want to use; see "push" above.
188 ----------
190 A stash entry is represented as a commit whose tree records the state
191 of the working directory, and its first parent is the commit at `HEAD`
192 when the entry was created. The tree of the second parent records the
193 state of the index when the entry is made, and it is made a child of
194 the `HEAD` commit. The ancestry graph looks like this:
196 .----W
197 / /
198 -----H----I
200 where `H` is the `HEAD` commit, `I` is a commit that records the state
201 of the index, and `W` is a commit that records the state of the working
202 tree.
206 --------
208 Pulling into a dirty tree::
210 When you are in the middle of something, you learn that there are
211 upstream changes that are possibly relevant to what you are
212 doing. When your local changes do not conflict with the changes in
213 the upstream, a simple `git pull` will let you move forward.
214 +
215 However, there are cases in which your local changes do conflict with
216 the upstream changes, and `git pull` refuses to overwrite your
217 changes. In such a case, you can stash your changes away,
218 perform a pull, and then unstash, like this:
219 +
220 ----------------------------------------------------------------
221 $ git pull
222 ...
223 file foobar not up to date, cannot merge.
224 $ git stash
225 $ git pull
226 $ git stash pop
227 ----------------------------------------------------------------
229 Interrupted workflow::
231 When you are in the middle of something, your boss comes in and
232 demands that you fix something immediately. Traditionally, you would
233 make a commit to a temporary branch to store your changes away, and
234 return to your original branch to make the emergency fix, like this:
235 +
236 ----------------------------------------------------------------
237 # ... hack hack hack ...
238 $ git checkout -b my_wip
239 $ git commit -a -m "WIP"
240 $ git checkout master
241 $ edit emergency fix
242 $ git commit -a -m "Fix in a hurry"
243 $ git checkout my_wip
244 $ git reset --soft HEAD^
245 # ... continue hacking ...
246 ----------------------------------------------------------------
247 +
248 You can use 'git stash' to simplify the above, like this:
249 +
250 ----------------------------------------------------------------
251 # ... hack hack hack ...
252 $ git stash
253 $ edit emergency fix
254 $ git commit -a -m "Fix in a hurry"
255 $ git stash pop
256 # ... continue hacking ...
257 ----------------------------------------------------------------
259 Testing partial commits::
261 You can use `git stash push --keep-index` when you want to make two or
262 more commits out of the changes in the work tree, and you want to test
263 each change before committing:
264 +
265 ----------------------------------------------------------------
266 # ... hack hack hack ...
267 $ git add --patch foo # add just first part to the index
268 $ git stash push --keep-index # save all other changes to the stash
269 $ edit/build/test first part
270 $ git commit -m 'First part' # commit fully tested change
271 $ git stash pop # prepare to work on all other changes
272 # ... repeat above five steps until one commit remains ...
273 $ edit/build/test remaining parts
274 $ git commit foo -m 'Remaining parts'
275 ----------------------------------------------------------------
277 Recovering stash entries that were cleared/dropped erroneously::
279 If you mistakenly drop or clear stash entries, they cannot be recovered
280 through the normal safety mechanisms. However, you can try the
281 following incantation to get a list of stash entries that are still in
282 your repository, but not reachable any more:
283 +
284 ----------------------------------------------------------------
285 git fsck --unreachable |
286 grep commit | cut -d\ -f3 |
287 xargs git log --merges --no-walk --grep=WIP
288 ----------------------------------------------------------------
292 --------
293 linkgit:git-checkout[1],
294 linkgit:git-commit[1],
295 linkgit:git-reflog[1],
296 linkgit:git-reset[1]
298 GIT
299 ---
300 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite