git-submodule.txt: quote usage in monospace, drop backslash
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-worktree.txt
1 git-worktree(1)
2 ===============
5 ----
6 git-worktree - Manage multiple working trees
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git worktree add' [-f] [--detach] [--checkout] [--lock] [-b <new-branch>] <path> [<commit-ish>]
13 'git worktree list' [--porcelain]
14 'git worktree lock' [--reason <string>] <worktree>
15 'git worktree move' <worktree> <new-path>
16 'git worktree prune' [-n] [-v] [--expire <expire>]
17 'git worktree remove' [--force] <worktree>
18 'git worktree unlock' <worktree>
21 -----------
23 Manage multiple working trees attached to the same repository.
25 A git repository can support multiple working trees, allowing you to check
26 out more than one branch at a time. With `git worktree add` a new working
27 tree is associated with the repository. This new working tree is called a
28 "linked working tree" as opposed to the "main working tree" prepared by "git
29 init" or "git clone". A repository has one main working tree (if it's not a
30 bare repository) and zero or more linked working trees.
32 When you are done with a linked working tree you can simply delete it.
33 The working tree's administrative files in the repository (see
34 "DETAILS" below) will eventually be removed automatically (see
35 `gc.worktreePruneExpire` in linkgit:git-config[1]), or you can run
36 `git worktree prune` in the main or any linked working tree to
37 clean up any stale administrative files.
39 If a linked working tree is stored on a portable device or network share
40 which is not always mounted, you can prevent its administrative files from
41 being pruned by issuing the `git worktree lock` command, optionally
42 specifying `--reason` to explain why the working tree is locked.
45 --------
46 add <path> [<commit-ish>]::
48 Create `<path>` and checkout `<commit-ish>` into it. The new working directory
49 is linked to the current repository, sharing everything except working
50 directory specific files such as HEAD, index, etc. `-` may also be
51 specified as `<commit-ish>`; it is synonymous with `@{-1}`.
52 +
53 If <commit-ish> is a branch name (call it `<branch>`) and is not found,
54 and neither `-b` nor `-B` nor `--detach` are used, but there does
55 exist a tracking branch in exactly one remote (call it `<remote>`)
56 with a matching name, treat as equivalent to:
57 +
58 ------------
59 $ git worktree add --track -b <branch> <path> <remote>/<branch>
60 ------------
61 +
62 If `<commit-ish>` is omitted and neither `-b` nor `-B` nor `--detach` used,
63 then, as a convenience, a new branch based at HEAD is created automatically,
64 as if `-b $(basename <path>)` was specified.
66 list::
68 List details of each worktree. The main worktree is listed first, followed by
69 each of the linked worktrees. The output details include if the worktree is
70 bare, the revision currently checked out, and the branch currently checked out
71 (or 'detached HEAD' if none).
73 lock::
75 If a working tree is on a portable device or network share which
76 is not always mounted, lock it to prevent its administrative
77 files from being pruned automatically. This also prevents it from
78 being moved or deleted. Optionally, specify a reason for the lock
79 with `--reason`.
81 move::
83 Move a working tree to a new location. Note that the main working tree
84 or linked working trees containing submodules cannot be moved.
86 prune::
88 Prune working tree information in $GIT_DIR/worktrees.
90 remove::
92 Remove a working tree. Only clean working trees (no untracked files
93 and no modification in tracked files) can be removed. Unclean working
94 trees or ones with submodules can be removed with `--force`. The main
95 working tree cannot be removed.
97 unlock::
99 Unlock a working tree, allowing it to be pruned, moved or deleted.
102 -------
104 -f::
105 --force::
106 By default, `add` refuses to create a new working tree when
107 `<commit-ish>` is a branch name and is already checked out by
108 another working tree and `remove` refuses to remove an unclean
109 working tree. This option overrides that safeguard.
111 -b <new-branch>::
112 -B <new-branch>::
113 With `add`, create a new branch named `<new-branch>` starting at
114 `<commit-ish>`, and check out `<new-branch>` into the new working tree.
115 If `<commit-ish>` is omitted, it defaults to HEAD.
116 By default, `-b` refuses to create a new branch if it already
117 exists. `-B` overrides this safeguard, resetting `<new-branch>` to
118 `<commit-ish>`.
120 --detach::
121 With `add`, detach HEAD in the new working tree. See "DETACHED HEAD"
122 in linkgit:git-checkout[1].
124 --[no-]checkout::
125 By default, `add` checks out `<commit-ish>`, however, `--no-checkout` can
126 be used to suppress checkout in order to make customizations,
127 such as configuring sparse-checkout. See "Sparse checkout"
128 in linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
130 --[no-]guess-remote::
131 With `worktree add <path>`, without `<commit-ish>`, instead
132 of creating a new branch from HEAD, if there exists a tracking
133 branch in exactly one remote matching the basename of `<path>`,
134 base the new branch on the remote-tracking branch, and mark
135 the remote-tracking branch as "upstream" from the new branch.
136 +
137 This can also be set up as the default behaviour by using the
138 `worktree.guessRemote` config option.
140 --[no-]track::
141 When creating a new branch, if `<commit-ish>` is a branch,
142 mark it as "upstream" from the new branch. This is the
143 default if `<commit-ish>` is a remote-tracking branch. See
144 "--track" in linkgit:git-branch[1] for details.
146 --lock::
147 Keep the working tree locked after creation. This is the
148 equivalent of `git worktree lock` after `git worktree add`,
149 but without race condition.
151 -n::
152 --dry-run::
153 With `prune`, do not remove anything; just report what it would
154 remove.
156 --porcelain::
157 With `list`, output in an easy-to-parse format for scripts.
158 This format will remain stable across Git versions and regardless of user
159 configuration. See below for details.
161 -v::
162 --verbose::
163 With `prune`, report all removals.
165 --expire <time>::
166 With `prune`, only expire unused working trees older than <time>.
168 --reason <string>::
169 With `lock`, an explanation why the working tree is locked.
171 <worktree>::
172 Working trees can be identified by path, either relative or
173 absolute.
174 +
175 If the last path components in the working tree's path is unique among
176 working trees, it can be used to identify worktrees. For example if
177 you only have two working trees, at "/abc/def/ghi" and "/abc/def/ggg",
178 then "ghi" or "def/ghi" is enough to point to the former working tree.
181 -------
182 Each linked working tree has a private sub-directory in the repository's
183 $GIT_DIR/worktrees directory. The private sub-directory's name is usually
184 the base name of the linked working tree's path, possibly appended with a
185 number to make it unique. For example, when `$GIT_DIR=/path/main/.git` the
186 command `git worktree add /path/other/test-next next` creates the linked
187 working tree in `/path/other/test-next` and also creates a
188 `$GIT_DIR/worktrees/test-next` directory (or `$GIT_DIR/worktrees/test-next1`
189 if `test-next` is already taken).
191 Within a linked working tree, $GIT_DIR is set to point to this private
192 directory (e.g. `/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next` in the example) and
193 $GIT_COMMON_DIR is set to point back to the main working tree's $GIT_DIR
194 (e.g. `/path/main/.git`). These settings are made in a `.git` file located at
195 the top directory of the linked working tree.
197 Path resolution via `git rev-parse --git-path` uses either
198 $GIT_DIR or $GIT_COMMON_DIR depending on the path. For example, in the
199 linked working tree `git rev-parse --git-path HEAD` returns
200 `/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next/HEAD` (not
201 `/path/other/test-next/.git/HEAD` or `/path/main/.git/HEAD`) while `git
202 rev-parse --git-path refs/heads/master` uses
203 $GIT_COMMON_DIR and returns `/path/main/.git/refs/heads/master`,
204 since refs are shared across all working trees.
206 See linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] for more information. The rule of
207 thumb is do not make any assumption about whether a path belongs to
208 $GIT_DIR or $GIT_COMMON_DIR when you need to directly access something
209 inside $GIT_DIR. Use `git rev-parse --git-path` to get the final path.
211 If you manually move a linked working tree, you need to update the 'gitdir' file
212 in the entry's directory. For example, if a linked working tree is moved
213 to `/newpath/test-next` and its `.git` file points to
214 `/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next`, then update
215 `/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next/gitdir` to reference `/newpath/test-next`
216 instead.
218 To prevent a $GIT_DIR/worktrees entry from being pruned (which
219 can be useful in some situations, such as when the
220 entry's working tree is stored on a portable device), use the
221 `git worktree lock` command, which adds a file named
222 'locked' to the entry's directory. The file contains the reason in
223 plain text. For example, if a linked working tree's `.git` file points
224 to `/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next` then a file named
225 `/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next/locked` will prevent the
226 `test-next` entry from being pruned. See
227 linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] for details.
230 ------------------
231 The worktree list command has two output formats. The default format shows the
232 details on a single line with columns. For example:
234 ------------
235 S git worktree list
236 /path/to/bare-source (bare)
237 /path/to/linked-worktree abcd1234 [master]
238 /path/to/other-linked-worktree 1234abc (detached HEAD)
239 ------------
241 Porcelain Format
242 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
243 The porcelain format has a line per attribute. Attributes are listed with a
244 label and value separated by a single space. Boolean attributes (like 'bare'
245 and 'detached') are listed as a label only, and are only present if and only
246 if the value is true. An empty line indicates the end of a worktree. For
247 example:
249 ------------
250 S git worktree list --porcelain
251 worktree /path/to/bare-source
252 bare
254 worktree /path/to/linked-worktree
255 HEAD abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234
256 branch refs/heads/master
258 worktree /path/to/other-linked-worktree
259 HEAD 1234abc1234abc1234abc1234abc1234abc1234a
260 detached
262 ------------
265 --------
266 You are in the middle of a refactoring session and your boss comes in and
267 demands that you fix something immediately. You might typically use
268 linkgit:git-stash[1] to store your changes away temporarily, however, your
269 working tree is in such a state of disarray (with new, moved, and removed
270 files, and other bits and pieces strewn around) that you don't want to risk
271 disturbing any of it. Instead, you create a temporary linked working tree to
272 make the emergency fix, remove it when done, and then resume your earlier
273 refactoring session.
275 ------------
276 $ git worktree add -b emergency-fix ../temp master
277 $ pushd ../temp
278 # ... hack hack hack ...
279 $ git commit -a -m 'emergency fix for boss'
280 $ popd
281 $ rm -rf ../temp
282 $ git worktree prune
283 ------------
285 BUGS
286 ----
287 Multiple checkout in general is still experimental, and the support
288 for submodules is incomplete. It is NOT recommended to make multiple
289 checkouts of a superproject.
291 GIT
292 ---
293 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite