Fix typos in the documentation
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git-svn.txt
1 git-svn(1)
2 ==========
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git-svn - Bidirectional operation between a Subversion repository and git
7
8 SYNOPSIS
9 --------
10 'git svn' <command> [options] [arguments]
11
12 DESCRIPTION
13 -----------
14 'git svn' is a simple conduit for changesets between Subversion and git.
15 It provides a bidirectional flow of changes between a Subversion and a git
16 repository.
17
18 'git svn' can track a standard Subversion repository,
19 following the common "trunk/branches/tags" layout, with the --stdlayout option.
20 It can also follow branches and tags in any layout with the -T/-t/-b options
21 (see options to 'init' below, and also the 'clone' command).
22
23 Once tracking a Subversion repository (with any of the above methods), the git
24 repository can be updated from Subversion by the 'fetch' command and
25 Subversion updated from git by the 'dcommit' command.
26
27 COMMANDS
28 --------
29
30 'init'::
31 Initializes an empty git repository with additional
32 metadata directories for 'git svn'. The Subversion URL
33 may be specified as a command-line argument, or as full
34 URL arguments to -T/-t/-b. Optionally, the target
35 directory to operate on can be specified as a second
36 argument. Normally this command initializes the current
37 directory.
38
39 -T<trunk_subdir>;;
40 --trunk=<trunk_subdir>;;
41 -t<tags_subdir>;;
42 --tags=<tags_subdir>;;
43 -b<branches_subdir>;;
44 --branches=<branches_subdir>;;
45 -s;;
46 --stdlayout;;
47 These are optional command-line options for init. Each of
48 these flags can point to a relative repository path
49 (--tags=project/tags) or a full url
50 (--tags=https://foo.org/project/tags).
51 You can specify more than one --tags and/or --branches options, in case
52 your Subversion repository places tags or branches under multiple paths.
53 The option --stdlayout is
54 a shorthand way of setting trunk,tags,branches as the relative paths,
55 which is the Subversion default. If any of the other options are given
56 as well, they take precedence.
57 --no-metadata;;
58 Set the 'noMetadata' option in the [svn-remote] config.
59 This option is not recommended, please read the 'svn.noMetadata'
60 section of this manpage before using this option.
61 --use-svm-props;;
62 Set the 'useSvmProps' option in the [svn-remote] config.
63 --use-svnsync-props;;
64 Set the 'useSvnsyncProps' option in the [svn-remote] config.
65 --rewrite-root=<URL>;;
66 Set the 'rewriteRoot' option in the [svn-remote] config.
67 --rewrite-uuid=<UUID>;;
68 Set the 'rewriteUUID' option in the [svn-remote] config.
69 --username=<USER>;;
70 For transports that SVN handles authentication for (http,
71 https, and plain svn), specify the username. For other
72 transports (eg svn+ssh://), you must include the username in
73 the URL, eg svn+ssh://foo@svn.bar.com/project
74 --prefix=<prefix>;;
75 This allows one to specify a prefix which is prepended
76 to the names of remotes if trunk/branches/tags are
77 specified. The prefix does not automatically include a
78 trailing slash, so be sure you include one in the
79 argument if that is what you want. If --branches/-b is
80 specified, the prefix must include a trailing slash.
81 Setting a prefix is useful if you wish to track multiple
82 projects that share a common repository.
83 --ignore-paths=<regex>;;
84 When passed to 'init' or 'clone' this regular expression will
85 be preserved as a config key. See 'fetch' for a description
86 of '--ignore-paths'.
87 --no-minimize-url;;
88 When tracking multiple directories (using --stdlayout,
89 --branches, or --tags options), git svn will attempt to connect
90 to the root (or highest allowed level) of the Subversion
91 repository. This default allows better tracking of history if
92 entire projects are moved within a repository, but may cause
93 issues on repositories where read access restrictions are in
94 place. Passing '--no-minimize-url' will allow git svn to
95 accept URLs as-is without attempting to connect to a higher
96 level directory. This option is off by default when only
97 one URL/branch is tracked (it would do little good).
98
99 'fetch'::
100 Fetch unfetched revisions from the Subversion remote we are
101 tracking. The name of the [svn-remote "..."] section in the
102 .git/config file may be specified as an optional command-line
103 argument.
104
105 --localtime;;
106 Store Git commit times in the local timezone instead of UTC. This
107 makes 'git log' (even without --date=local) show the same times
108 that `svn log` would in the local timezone.
109 +
110 This doesn't interfere with interoperating with the Subversion
111 repository you cloned from, but if you wish for your local Git
112 repository to be able to interoperate with someone else's local Git
113 repository, either don't use this option or you should both use it in
114 the same local timezone.
115
116 --parent;;
117 Fetch only from the SVN parent of the current HEAD.
118
119 --ignore-paths=<regex>;;
120 This allows one to specify a Perl regular expression that will
121 cause skipping of all matching paths from checkout from SVN.
122 The '--ignore-paths' option should match for every 'fetch'
123 (including automatic fetches due to 'clone', 'dcommit',
124 'rebase', etc) on a given repository.
125 +
126 [verse]
127 config key: svn-remote.<name>.ignore-paths
128 +
129 If the ignore-paths config key is set and the command line option is
130 also given, both regular expressions will be used.
131 +
132 Examples:
133 +
134 --
135 Skip "doc*" directory for every fetch;;
136 +
137 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
138 --ignore-paths="^doc"
139 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
140
141 Skip "branches" and "tags" of first level directories;;
142 +
143 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
144 --ignore-paths="^[^/]+/(?:branches|tags)"
145 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
146 --
147
148 --use-log-author;;
149 When retrieving svn commits into git (as part of fetch, rebase, or
150 dcommit operations), look for the first From: or Signed-off-by: line
151 in the log message and use that as the author string.
152 --add-author-from;;
153 When committing to svn from git (as part of commit or dcommit
154 operations), if the existing log message doesn't already have a
155 From: or Signed-off-by: line, append a From: line based on the
156 git commit's author string. If you use this, then --use-log-author
157 will retrieve a valid author string for all commits.
158
159 'clone'::
160 Runs 'init' and 'fetch'. It will automatically create a
161 directory based on the basename of the URL passed to it;
162 or if a second argument is passed; it will create a directory
163 and work within that. It accepts all arguments that the
164 'init' and 'fetch' commands accept; with the exception of
165 '--fetch-all' and '--parent'. After a repository is cloned,
166 the 'fetch' command will be able to update revisions without
167 affecting the working tree; and the 'rebase' command will be
168 able to update the working tree with the latest changes.
169
170 'rebase'::
171 This fetches revisions from the SVN parent of the current HEAD
172 and rebases the current (uncommitted to SVN) work against it.
173 +
174 This works similarly to `svn update` or 'git pull' except that
175 it preserves linear history with 'git rebase' instead of
176 'git merge' for ease of dcommitting with 'git svn'.
177 +
178 This accepts all options that 'git svn fetch' and 'git rebase'
179 accept. However, '--fetch-all' only fetches from the current
180 [svn-remote], and not all [svn-remote] definitions.
181 +
182 Like 'git rebase'; this requires that the working tree be clean
183 and have no uncommitted changes.
184
185 -l;;
186 --local;;
187 Do not fetch remotely; only run 'git rebase' against the
188 last fetched commit from the upstream SVN.
189
190 'dcommit'::
191 Commit each diff from a specified head directly to the SVN
192 repository, and then rebase or reset (depending on whether or
193 not there is a diff between SVN and head). This will create
194 a revision in SVN for each commit in git.
195 It is recommended that you run 'git svn' fetch and rebase (not
196 pull or merge) your commits against the latest changes in the
197 SVN repository.
198 An optional revision or branch argument may be specified, and
199 causes 'git svn' to do all work on that revision/branch
200 instead of HEAD.
201 This is advantageous over 'set-tree' (below) because it produces
202 cleaner, more linear history.
203 +
204 --no-rebase;;
205 After committing, do not rebase or reset.
206 --commit-url <URL>;;
207 Commit to this SVN URL (the full path). This is intended to
208 allow existing 'git svn' repositories created with one transport
209 method (e.g. `svn://` or `http://` for anonymous read) to be
210 reused if a user is later given access to an alternate transport
211 method (e.g. `svn+ssh://` or `https://`) for commit.
212 +
213 [verse]
214 config key: svn-remote.<name>.commiturl
215 config key: svn.commiturl (overwrites all svn-remote.<name>.commiturl options)
216 +
217 Using this option for any other purpose (don't ask) is very strongly
218 discouraged.
219
220 'branch'::
221 Create a branch in the SVN repository.
222
223 -m;;
224 --message;;
225 Allows to specify the commit message.
226
227 -t;;
228 --tag;;
229 Create a tag by using the tags_subdir instead of the branches_subdir
230 specified during git svn init.
231
232 -d;;
233 --destination;;
234 If more than one --branches (or --tags) option was given to the 'init'
235 or 'clone' command, you must provide the location of the branch (or
236 tag) you wish to create in the SVN repository. The value of this
237 option must match one of the paths specified by a --branches (or
238 --tags) option. You can see these paths with the commands
239 +
240 git config --get-all svn-remote.<name>.branches
241 git config --get-all svn-remote.<name>.tags
242 +
243 where <name> is the name of the SVN repository as specified by the -R option to
244 'init' (or "svn" by default).
245
246 --username;;
247 Specify the SVN username to perform the commit as. This option overrides
248 the 'username' configuration property.
249
250 --commit-url;;
251 Use the specified URL to connect to the destination Subversion
252 repository. This is useful in cases where the source SVN
253 repository is read-only. This option overrides configuration
254 property 'commiturl'.
255 +
256 git config --get-all svn-remote.<name>.commiturl
257 +
258
259 'tag'::
260 Create a tag in the SVN repository. This is a shorthand for
261 'branch -t'.
262
263 'log'::
264 This should make it easy to look up svn log messages when svn
265 users refer to -r/--revision numbers.
266 +
267 The following features from `svn log' are supported:
268 +
269 --
270 -r <n>[:<n>];;
271 --revision=<n>[:<n>];;
272 is supported, non-numeric args are not:
273 HEAD, NEXT, BASE, PREV, etc ...
274 -v;;
275 --verbose;;
276 it's not completely compatible with the --verbose
277 output in svn log, but reasonably close.
278 --limit=<n>;;
279 is NOT the same as --max-count, doesn't count
280 merged/excluded commits
281 --incremental;;
282 supported
283 --
284 +
285 New features:
286 +
287 --
288 --show-commit;;
289 shows the git commit sha1, as well
290 --oneline;;
291 our version of --pretty=oneline
292 --
293 +
294 NOTE: SVN itself only stores times in UTC and nothing else. The regular svn
295 client converts the UTC time to the local time (or based on the TZ=
296 environment). This command has the same behaviour.
297 +
298 Any other arguments are passed directly to 'git log'
299
300 'blame'::
301 Show what revision and author last modified each line of a file. The
302 output of this mode is format-compatible with the output of
303 `svn blame' by default. Like the SVN blame command,
304 local uncommitted changes in the working copy are ignored;
305 the version of the file in the HEAD revision is annotated. Unknown
306 arguments are passed directly to 'git blame'.
307 +
308 --git-format;;
309 Produce output in the same format as 'git blame', but with
310 SVN revision numbers instead of git commit hashes. In this mode,
311 changes that haven't been committed to SVN (including local
312 working-copy edits) are shown as revision 0.
313
314 'find-rev'::
315 When given an SVN revision number of the form 'rN', returns the
316 corresponding git commit hash (this can optionally be followed by a
317 tree-ish to specify which branch should be searched). When given a
318 tree-ish, returns the corresponding SVN revision number.
319
320 'set-tree'::
321 You should consider using 'dcommit' instead of this command.
322 Commit specified commit or tree objects to SVN. This relies on
323 your imported fetch data being up-to-date. This makes
324 absolutely no attempts to do patching when committing to SVN, it
325 simply overwrites files with those specified in the tree or
326 commit. All merging is assumed to have taken place
327 independently of 'git svn' functions.
328
329 'create-ignore'::
330 Recursively finds the svn:ignore property on directories and
331 creates matching .gitignore files. The resulting files are staged to
332 be committed, but are not committed. Use -r/--revision to refer to a
333 specific revision.
334
335 'show-ignore'::
336 Recursively finds and lists the svn:ignore property on
337 directories. The output is suitable for appending to
338 the $GIT_DIR/info/exclude file.
339
340 'mkdirs'::
341 Attempts to recreate empty directories that core git cannot track
342 based on information in $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>/unhandled.log files.
343 Empty directories are automatically recreated when using
344 "git svn clone" and "git svn rebase", so "mkdirs" is intended
345 for use after commands like "git checkout" or "git reset".
346
347 'commit-diff'::
348 Commits the diff of two tree-ish arguments from the
349 command-line. This command does not rely on being inside an `git svn
350 init`-ed repository. This command takes three arguments, (a) the
351 original tree to diff against, (b) the new tree result, (c) the
352 URL of the target Subversion repository. The final argument
353 (URL) may be omitted if you are working from a 'git svn'-aware
354 repository (that has been `init`-ed with 'git svn').
355 The -r<revision> option is required for this.
356
357 'info'::
358 Shows information about a file or directory similar to what
359 `svn info' provides. Does not currently support a -r/--revision
360 argument. Use the --url option to output only the value of the
361 'URL:' field.
362
363 'proplist'::
364 Lists the properties stored in the Subversion repository about a
365 given file or directory. Use -r/--revision to refer to a specific
366 Subversion revision.
367
368 'propget'::
369 Gets the Subversion property given as the first argument, for a
370 file. A specific revision can be specified with -r/--revision.
371
372 'show-externals'::
373 Shows the Subversion externals. Use -r/--revision to specify a
374 specific revision.
375
376 'gc'::
377 Compress $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>/unhandled.log files in .git/svn
378 and remove $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>index files in .git/svn.
379
380 'reset'::
381 Undoes the effects of 'fetch' back to the specified revision.
382 This allows you to re-'fetch' an SVN revision. Normally the
383 contents of an SVN revision should never change and 'reset'
384 should not be necessary. However, if SVN permissions change,
385 or if you alter your --ignore-paths option, a 'fetch' may fail
386 with "not found in commit" (file not previously visible) or
387 "checksum mismatch" (missed a modification). If the problem
388 file cannot be ignored forever (with --ignore-paths) the only
389 way to repair the repo is to use 'reset'.
390 +
391 Only the rev_map and refs/remotes/git-svn are changed. Follow 'reset'
392 with a 'fetch' and then 'git reset' or 'git rebase' to move local
393 branches onto the new tree.
394
395 -r <n>;;
396 --revision=<n>;;
397 Specify the most recent revision to keep. All later revisions
398 are discarded.
399 -p;;
400 --parent;;
401 Discard the specified revision as well, keeping the nearest
402 parent instead.
403 Example:;;
404 Assume you have local changes in "master", but you need to refetch "r2".
405 +
406 ------------
407 r1---r2---r3 remotes/git-svn
408 \
409 A---B master
410 ------------
411 +
412 Fix the ignore-paths or SVN permissions problem that caused "r2" to
413 be incomplete in the first place. Then:
414 +
415 [verse]
416 git svn reset -r2 -p
417 git svn fetch
418 +
419 ------------
420 r1---r2'--r3' remotes/git-svn
421 \
422 r2---r3---A---B master
423 ------------
424 +
425 Then fixup "master" with 'git rebase'.
426 Do NOT use 'git merge' or your history will not be compatible with a
427 future 'dcommit'!
428 +
429 [verse]
430 git rebase --onto remotes/git-svn A^ master
431 +
432 ------------
433 r1---r2'--r3' remotes/git-svn
434 \
435 A'--B' master
436 ------------
437
438 OPTIONS
439 -------
440
441 --shared[=(false|true|umask|group|all|world|everybody)]::
442 --template=<template_directory>::
443 Only used with the 'init' command.
444 These are passed directly to 'git init'.
445
446 -r <ARG>::
447 --revision <ARG>::
448 Used with the 'fetch' command.
449 +
450 This allows revision ranges for partial/cauterized history
451 to be supported. $NUMBER, $NUMBER1:$NUMBER2 (numeric ranges),
452 $NUMBER:HEAD, and BASE:$NUMBER are all supported.
453 +
454 This can allow you to make partial mirrors when running fetch;
455 but is generally not recommended because history will be skipped
456 and lost.
457
458 -::
459 --stdin::
460 Only used with the 'set-tree' command.
461 +
462 Read a list of commits from stdin and commit them in reverse
463 order. Only the leading sha1 is read from each line, so
464 'git rev-list --pretty=oneline' output can be used.
465
466 --rmdir::
467 Only used with the 'dcommit', 'set-tree' and 'commit-diff' commands.
468 +
469 Remove directories from the SVN tree if there are no files left
470 behind. SVN can version empty directories, and they are not
471 removed by default if there are no files left in them. git
472 cannot version empty directories. Enabling this flag will make
473 the commit to SVN act like git.
474 +
475 [verse]
476 config key: svn.rmdir
477
478 -e::
479 --edit::
480 Only used with the 'dcommit', 'set-tree' and 'commit-diff' commands.
481 +
482 Edit the commit message before committing to SVN. This is off by
483 default for objects that are commits, and forced on when committing
484 tree objects.
485 +
486 [verse]
487 config key: svn.edit
488
489 -l<num>::
490 --find-copies-harder::
491 Only used with the 'dcommit', 'set-tree' and 'commit-diff' commands.
492 +
493 They are both passed directly to 'git diff-tree'; see
494 linkgit:git-diff-tree[1] for more information.
495 +
496 [verse]
497 config key: svn.l
498 config key: svn.findcopiesharder
499
500 -A<filename>::
501 --authors-file=<filename>::
502 Syntax is compatible with the file used by 'git cvsimport':
503 +
504 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
505 loginname = Joe User <user@example.com>
506 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
507 +
508 If this option is specified and 'git svn' encounters an SVN
509 committer name that does not exist in the authors-file, 'git svn'
510 will abort operation. The user will then have to add the
511 appropriate entry. Re-running the previous 'git svn' command
512 after the authors-file is modified should continue operation.
513 +
514 [verse]
515 config key: svn.authorsfile
516
517 --authors-prog=<filename>::
518 If this option is specified, for each SVN committer name that
519 does not exist in the authors file, the given file is executed
520 with the committer name as the first argument. The program is
521 expected to return a single line of the form "Name <email>",
522 which will be treated as if included in the authors file.
523
524 -q::
525 --quiet::
526 Make 'git svn' less verbose. Specify a second time to make it
527 even less verbose.
528
529 --repack[=<n>]::
530 --repack-flags=<flags>::
531 These should help keep disk usage sane for large fetches with
532 many revisions.
533 +
534 --repack takes an optional argument for the number of revisions
535 to fetch before repacking. This defaults to repacking every
536 1000 commits fetched if no argument is specified.
537 +
538 --repack-flags are passed directly to 'git repack'.
539 +
540 [verse]
541 config key: svn.repack
542 config key: svn.repackflags
543
544 -m::
545 --merge::
546 -s<strategy>::
547 --strategy=<strategy>::
548 These are only used with the 'dcommit' and 'rebase' commands.
549 +
550 Passed directly to 'git rebase' when using 'dcommit' if a
551 'git reset' cannot be used (see 'dcommit').
552
553 -n::
554 --dry-run::
555 This can be used with the 'dcommit', 'rebase', 'branch' and
556 'tag' commands.
557 +
558 For 'dcommit', print out the series of git arguments that would show
559 which diffs would be committed to SVN.
560 +
561 For 'rebase', display the local branch associated with the upstream svn
562 repository associated with the current branch and the URL of svn
563 repository that will be fetched from.
564 +
565 For 'branch' and 'tag', display the urls that will be used for copying when
566 creating the branch or tag.
567
568
569 ADVANCED OPTIONS
570 ----------------
571
572 -i<GIT_SVN_ID>::
573 --id <GIT_SVN_ID>::
574 This sets GIT_SVN_ID (instead of using the environment). This
575 allows the user to override the default refname to fetch from
576 when tracking a single URL. The 'log' and 'dcommit' commands
577 no longer require this switch as an argument.
578
579 -R<remote name>::
580 --svn-remote <remote name>::
581 Specify the [svn-remote "<remote name>"] section to use,
582 this allows SVN multiple repositories to be tracked.
583 Default: "svn"
584
585 --follow-parent::
586 This is especially helpful when we're tracking a directory
587 that has been moved around within the repository, or if we
588 started tracking a branch and never tracked the trunk it was
589 descended from. This feature is enabled by default, use
590 --no-follow-parent to disable it.
591 +
592 [verse]
593 config key: svn.followparent
594
595 CONFIG FILE-ONLY OPTIONS
596 ------------------------
597
598 svn.noMetadata::
599 svn-remote.<name>.noMetadata::
600 This gets rid of the 'git-svn-id:' lines at the end of every commit.
601 +
602 This option can only be used for one-shot imports as 'git svn'
603 will not be able to fetch again without metadata. Additionally,
604 if you lose your .git/svn/**/.rev_map.* files, 'git svn' will not
605 be able to rebuild them.
606 +
607 The 'git svn log' command will not work on repositories using
608 this, either. Using this conflicts with the 'useSvmProps'
609 option for (hopefully) obvious reasons.
610 +
611 This option is NOT recommended as it makes it difficult to track down
612 old references to SVN revision numbers in existing documentation, bug
613 reports and archives. If you plan to eventually migrate from SVN to git
614 and are certain about dropping SVN history, consider
615 linkgit:git-filter-branch[1] instead. filter-branch also allows
616 reformatting of metadata for ease-of-reading and rewriting authorship
617 info for non-"svn.authorsFile" users.
618
619 svn.useSvmProps::
620 svn-remote.<name>.useSvmProps::
621 This allows 'git svn' to re-map repository URLs and UUIDs from
622 mirrors created using SVN::Mirror (or svk) for metadata.
623 +
624 If an SVN revision has a property, "svm:headrev", it is likely
625 that the revision was created by SVN::Mirror (also used by SVK).
626 The property contains a repository UUID and a revision. We want
627 to make it look like we are mirroring the original URL, so
628 introduce a helper function that returns the original identity
629 URL and UUID, and use it when generating metadata in commit
630 messages.
631
632 svn.useSvnsyncProps::
633 svn-remote.<name>.useSvnsyncprops::
634 Similar to the useSvmProps option; this is for users
635 of the svnsync(1) command distributed with SVN 1.4.x and
636 later.
637
638 svn-remote.<name>.rewriteRoot::
639 This allows users to create repositories from alternate
640 URLs. For example, an administrator could run 'git svn' on the
641 server locally (accessing via file://) but wish to distribute
642 the repository with a public http:// or svn:// URL in the
643 metadata so users of it will see the public URL.
644
645 svn-remote.<name>.rewriteUUID::
646 Similar to the useSvmProps option; this is for users who need
647 to remap the UUID manually. This may be useful in situations
648 where the original UUID is not available via either useSvmProps
649 or useSvnsyncProps.
650
651 svn.brokenSymlinkWorkaround::
652 This disables potentially expensive checks to workaround
653 broken symlinks checked into SVN by broken clients. Set this
654 option to "false" if you track a SVN repository with many
655 empty blobs that are not symlinks. This option may be changed
656 while 'git svn' is running and take effect on the next
657 revision fetched. If unset, 'git svn' assumes this option to
658 be "true".
659
660 svn.pathnameencoding::
661 This instructs git svn to recode pathnames to a given encoding.
662 It can be used by windows users and by those who work in non-utf8
663 locales to avoid corrupted file names with non-ASCII characters.
664 Valid encodings are the ones supported by Perl's Encode module.
665
666 Since the noMetadata, rewriteRoot, rewriteUUID, useSvnsyncProps and useSvmProps
667 options all affect the metadata generated and used by 'git svn'; they
668 *must* be set in the configuration file before any history is imported
669 and these settings should never be changed once they are set.
670
671 Additionally, only one of these options can be used per svn-remote
672 section because they affect the 'git-svn-id:' metadata line, except
673 for rewriteRoot and rewriteUUID which can be used together.
674
675
676 BASIC EXAMPLES
677 --------------
678
679 Tracking and contributing to the trunk of a Subversion-managed project:
680
681 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
682 # Clone a repo (like git clone):
683 git svn clone http://svn.example.com/project/trunk
684 # Enter the newly cloned directory:
685 cd trunk
686 # You should be on master branch, double-check with 'git branch'
687 git branch
688 # Do some work and commit locally to git:
689 git commit ...
690 # Something is committed to SVN, rebase your local changes against the
691 # latest changes in SVN:
692 git svn rebase
693 # Now commit your changes (that were committed previously using git) to SVN,
694 # as well as automatically updating your working HEAD:
695 git svn dcommit
696 # Append svn:ignore settings to the default git exclude file:
697 git svn show-ignore >> .git/info/exclude
698 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
699
700 Tracking and contributing to an entire Subversion-managed project
701 (complete with a trunk, tags and branches):
702
703 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
704 # Clone a repo (like git clone):
705 git svn clone http://svn.example.com/project -T trunk -b branches -t tags
706 # View all branches and tags you have cloned:
707 git branch -r
708 # Create a new branch in SVN
709 git svn branch waldo
710 # Reset your master to trunk (or any other branch, replacing 'trunk'
711 # with the appropriate name):
712 git reset --hard remotes/trunk
713 # You may only dcommit to one branch/tag/trunk at a time. The usage
714 # of dcommit/rebase/show-ignore should be the same as above.
715 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
716
717 The initial 'git svn clone' can be quite time-consuming
718 (especially for large Subversion repositories). If multiple
719 people (or one person with multiple machines) want to use
720 'git svn' to interact with the same Subversion repository, you can
721 do the initial 'git svn clone' to a repository on a server and
722 have each person clone that repository with 'git clone':
723
724 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
725 # Do the initial import on a server
726 ssh server "cd /pub && git svn clone http://svn.example.com/project
727 # Clone locally - make sure the refs/remotes/ space matches the server
728 mkdir project
729 cd project
730 git init
731 git remote add origin server:/pub/project
732 git config --add remote.origin.fetch '+refs/remotes/*:refs/remotes/*'
733 git fetch
734 # Create a local branch from one of the branches just fetched
735 git checkout -b master FETCH_HEAD
736 # Initialize 'git svn' locally (be sure to use the same URL and -T/-b/-t options as were used on server)
737 git svn init http://svn.example.com/project
738 # Pull the latest changes from Subversion
739 git svn rebase
740 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
741
742 REBASE VS. PULL/MERGE
743 ---------------------
744
745 Originally, 'git svn' recommended that the 'remotes/git-svn' branch be
746 pulled or merged from. This is because the author favored
747 `git svn set-tree B` to commit a single head rather than the
748 `git svn set-tree A..B` notation to commit multiple commits.
749
750 If you use `git svn set-tree A..B` to commit several diffs and you do
751 not have the latest remotes/git-svn merged into my-branch, you should
752 use `git svn rebase` to update your work branch instead of `git pull` or
753 `git merge`. `pull`/`merge` can cause non-linear history to be flattened
754 when committing into SVN, which can lead to merge commits reversing
755 previous commits in SVN.
756
757 DESIGN PHILOSOPHY
758 -----------------
759 Merge tracking in Subversion is lacking and doing branched development
760 with Subversion can be cumbersome as a result. While 'git svn' can track
761 copy history (including branches and tags) for repositories adopting a
762 standard layout, it cannot yet represent merge history that happened
763 inside git back upstream to SVN users. Therefore it is advised that
764 users keep history as linear as possible inside git to ease
765 compatibility with SVN (see the CAVEATS section below).
766
767 CAVEATS
768 -------
769
770 For the sake of simplicity and interoperating with a less-capable system
771 (SVN), it is recommended that all 'git svn' users clone, fetch and dcommit
772 directly from the SVN server, and avoid all 'git clone'/'pull'/'merge'/'push'
773 operations between git repositories and branches. The recommended
774 method of exchanging code between git branches and users is
775 'git format-patch' and 'git am', or just 'dcommit'ing to the SVN repository.
776
777 Running 'git merge' or 'git pull' is NOT recommended on a branch you
778 plan to 'dcommit' from. Subversion does not represent merges in any
779 reasonable or useful fashion; so users using Subversion cannot see any
780 merges you've made. Furthermore, if you merge or pull from a git branch
781 that is a mirror of an SVN branch, 'dcommit' may commit to the wrong
782 branch.
783
784 If you do merge, note the following rule: 'git svn dcommit' will
785 attempt to commit on top of the SVN commit named in
786 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
787 git log --grep=^git-svn-id: --first-parent -1
788 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
789 You 'must' therefore ensure that the most recent commit of the branch
790 you want to dcommit to is the 'first' parent of the merge. Chaos will
791 ensue otherwise, especially if the first parent is an older commit on
792 the same SVN branch.
793
794 'git clone' does not clone branches under the refs/remotes/ hierarchy or
795 any 'git svn' metadata, or config. So repositories created and managed with
796 using 'git svn' should use 'rsync' for cloning, if cloning is to be done
797 at all.
798
799 Since 'dcommit' uses rebase internally, any git branches you 'git push' to
800 before 'dcommit' on will require forcing an overwrite of the existing ref
801 on the remote repository. This is generally considered bad practice,
802 see the linkgit:git-push[1] documentation for details.
803
804 Do not use the --amend option of linkgit:git-commit[1] on a change you've
805 already dcommitted. It is considered bad practice to --amend commits
806 you've already pushed to a remote repository for other users, and
807 dcommit with SVN is analogous to that.
808
809 When using multiple --branches or --tags, 'git svn' does not automatically
810 handle name collisions (for example, if two branches from different paths have
811 the same name, or if a branch and a tag have the same name). In these cases,
812 use 'init' to set up your git repository then, before your first 'fetch', edit
813 the .git/config file so that the branches and tags are associated with
814 different name spaces. For example:
815
816 branches = stable/*:refs/remotes/svn/stable/*
817 branches = debug/*:refs/remotes/svn/debug/*
818
819 BUGS
820 ----
821
822 We ignore all SVN properties except svn:executable. Any unhandled
823 properties are logged to $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>/unhandled.log
824
825 Renamed and copied directories are not detected by git and hence not
826 tracked when committing to SVN. I do not plan on adding support for
827 this as it's quite difficult and time-consuming to get working for all
828 the possible corner cases (git doesn't do it, either). Committing
829 renamed and copied files are fully supported if they're similar enough
830 for git to detect them.
831
832 CONFIGURATION
833 -------------
834
835 'git svn' stores [svn-remote] configuration information in the
836 repository .git/config file. It is similar the core git
837 [remote] sections except 'fetch' keys do not accept glob
838 arguments; but they are instead handled by the 'branches'
839 and 'tags' keys. Since some SVN repositories are oddly
840 configured with multiple projects glob expansions such those
841 listed below are allowed:
842
843 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
844 [svn-remote "project-a"]
845 url = http://server.org/svn
846 fetch = trunk/project-a:refs/remotes/project-a/trunk
847 branches = branches/*/project-a:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/*
848 tags = tags/*/project-a:refs/remotes/project-a/tags/*
849 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
850
851 Keep in mind that the '\*' (asterisk) wildcard of the local ref
852 (right of the ':') *must* be the farthest right path component;
853 however the remote wildcard may be anywhere as long as it's an
854 independent path component (surrounded by '/' or EOL). This
855 type of configuration is not automatically created by 'init' and
856 should be manually entered with a text-editor or using 'git config'.
857
858 It is also possible to fetch a subset of branches or tags by using a
859 comma-separated list of names within braces. For example:
860
861 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
862 [svn-remote "huge-project"]
863 url = http://server.org/svn
864 fetch = trunk/src:refs/remotes/trunk
865 branches = branches/{red,green}/src:refs/remotes/branches/*
866 tags = tags/{1.0,2.0}/src:refs/remotes/tags/*
867 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
868
869 Note that git-svn keeps track of the highest revision in which a branch
870 or tag has appeared. If the subset of branches or tags is changed after
871 fetching, then .git/svn/.metadata must be manually edited to remove (or
872 reset) branches-maxRev and/or tags-maxRev as appropriate.
873
874 SEE ALSO
875 --------
876 linkgit:git-rebase[1]
877
878 Author
879 ------
880 Written by Eric Wong <normalperson@yhbt.net>.
881
882 Documentation
883 -------------
884 Written by Eric Wong <normalperson@yhbt.net>.