Everyday: some examples.
[git/git.git] / Documentation / everyday.txt
1 Everyday GIT With 20 Commands Or So
2 ===================================
3
4 GIT suite has over 100 commands, and the manual page for each of
5 them discusses what the command does and how it is used in
6 detail, but until you know what command should be used in order
7 to achieve what you want to do, you cannot tell which manual
8 page to look at, and if you know that already you do not need
9 the manual.
10
11 Does that mean you need to know all of them before you can use
12 git? Not at all. Depending on the role you play, the set of
13 commands you need to know is slightly different, but in any case
14 what you need to learn is far smaller than the full set of
15 commands to carry out your day-to-day work. This document is to
16 serve as a cheat-sheet and a set of pointers for people playing
17 various roles.
18
19 <<Basic Repository>> commands are needed by people who has a
20 repository --- that is everybody, because every working tree of
21 git is a repository.
22
23 In addition, <<Individual Developer (Standalone)>> commands are
24 essential for anybody who makes a commit, even for somebody who
25 works alone.
26
27 If you work with other people, you will need commands listed in
28 <<Individual Developer (Participant)>> section as well.
29
30 People who play <<Integrator>> role need to learn some more
31 commands in addition to the above.
32
33 <<Repository Administration>> commands are for system
34 administrators who are responsible to care and feed git
35 repositories to support developers.
36
37
38 Basic Repository[[Basic Repository]]
39 ------------------------------------
40
41 Everybody uses these commands to feed and care git repositories.
42
43 * gitlink:git-init-db[1] or gitlink:git-clone[1] to create a
44 new repository.
45
46 * gitlink:git-fsck-objects[1] to validate the repository.
47
48 * gitlink:git-prune[1] to garbage collect crufts in the
49 repository.
50
51 * gitlink:git-repack[1] to pack loose objects for efficiency.
52
53 Individual Developer (Standalone)[[Individual Developer (Standalone)]]
54 ----------------------------------------------------------------------
55
56 A standalone individual developer does not exchange patches with
57 other poeple, and works alone in a single repository, using the
58 following commands.
59
60 * gitlink:git-show-branch[1] to see where you are.
61
62 * gitlink:git-log[1] to see what happened.
63
64 * gitlink:git-whatchanged[1] to find out where things have
65 come from.
66
67 * gitlink:git-checkout[1] and gitlink:git-branch[1] to switch
68 branches.
69
70 * gitlink:git-add[1] and gitlink:git-update-index[1] to manage
71 the index file.
72
73 * gitlink:git-diff[1] and gitlink:git-status[1] to see what
74 you are in the middle of doing.
75
76 * gitlink:git-commit[1] to advance the current branch.
77
78 * gitlink:git-reset[1] and gitlink:git-checkout[1] (with
79 pathname parameters) to undo changes.
80
81 * gitlink:git-pull[1] with "." as the remote to merge between
82 local branches.
83
84 * gitlink:git-rebase[1] to maintain topic branches.
85
86
87 Examples
88 ~~~~~~~~
89
90 * Extract a tarball and create a working tree and a new repository to keep track of it.
91 ------------
92 $ tar zxf frotz.tar.gz
93 $ cd frotz
94 $ git-init-db
95 $ git add .
96 $ git commit -m 'import of frotz source tree.'
97 ------------
98
99 * Create a topic branch and develop
100 ------------
101 $ git checkout -b private
102 $ edit/compile/test
103 $ git diff <1>
104 $ git checkout -- foo.c <2>
105 $ edit/compile/test
106 $ git commit -a -s <3>
107 $ git checkout master <4>
108 $ git pull . private <5>
109
110 <1> to see what changes you are committing.
111 <2> revert your botched changes in selected path "foo.c".
112 <3> commit everything as you have tested.
113 <4> switch to the master branch.
114 <5> merge a topic branch into your master branch
115 ------------
116
117
118 Individual Developer (Participant)[[Individual Developer (Participant)]]
119 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
120
121 A developer working as a participant in a group project needs to
122 learn how to communicate with others, and uses these commands in
123 addition to the ones needed by a standalone developer.
124
125 * gitlink:git-pull[1] from "origin" to keep up-to-date with
126 the upstream.
127
128 * gitlink:git-push[1] to shared repository if you adopt CVS
129 style shared repository workflow.
130
131 * gitlink:git-format-patch[1] to prepare e-mail submission, if
132 you adopt Linux kernel-style public forum workflow.
133
134
135 Examples
136 ~~~~~~~~
137
138 * Clone the upstream and work on it. Feed changes to upstream.
139 ------------
140 $ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/.../torvalds/linux-2.6 my2.6
141 $ cd my2.6
142 $ edit/compile/test; git commit -a -s <1>
143 $ git format-patch master <2>
144 $ git pull <3>
145 $ git pull git://git.kernel.org/pub/.../jgarzik/libata-dev.git ALL <4>
146
147 <1> repeat as needed.
148 <2> extract patches from your branch for e-mail submission.
149 <3> "pull" fetches from "origin" by default and merges.
150 <4> fetch from a specific branch from a specific repository and and merge.
151 ------------
152
153 * Branch off of a specific tag.
154 ------------
155 $ git checkout -b private2.6.14 v2.6.14 <1>
156 $ edit/compile/test; git commit -a
157 $ git checkout master
158 $ git format-patch -k -m --stdout v2.6.14..private2.6.14 |
159 git am -3 -k <2>
160 <1> create a private branch based on a well known (but somewhat behind)
161 tag.
162 <2> forward port all changes in private2.6.14 branch to master
163 branch without formal "merging".
164 ------------
165
166
167 Integrator[[Integrator]]
168 ------------------------
169
170 A fairly central person acting as the integrator in a group
171 project receives changes made by others, reviews and integrates
172 them and publishes the result for others to use, using these
173 commands in addition to the ones needed by participants.
174
175 * gitlink:git-am[1] to apply patches e-mailed in from your
176 contributors.
177
178 * gitlink:git-pull[1] to merge from your trusted lieutenants.
179
180 * gitlink:git-format-patch[1] to prepare and send suggested
181 alternative to contributors.
182
183 * gitlink:git-revert[1] to undo botched commits.
184
185 * gitlink:git-push[1] to publish the bleeding edge.
186
187
188 Repository Administration[[Repository Administration]]
189 ------------------------------------------------------
190
191 A repository administrator uses the following tools to set up
192 and maintain access to the repository by developers.
193
194 * gitlink:git-daemon[1] to allow anonymous download from
195 repository.
196
197 * gitlink:git-shell[1] can be used as a 'restricted login shell'
198 for shared central repository users.
199
200 * link:howto/update-hook-example.txt[update hook howto] has a
201 good example of managing a shared central repository.
202