Git 2.2.3
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
26 commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27 in-depth introduction.
28
29 After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
30 page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31 individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
32 manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
33
34 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
35 can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
36
37 ifdef::stalenotes[]
38 [NOTE]
39 ============
40
41 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42 unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
43 branch of the `git.git` repository.
44 Documentation for older releases are available here:
45
46 * link:v2.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 2.2.3]
47
48 * release notes for
49 link:RelNotes/2.2.3.txt[2.2.3],
50 link:RelNotes/2.2.2.txt[2.2.2],
51 link:RelNotes/2.2.1.txt[2.2.1],
52 link:RelNotes/2.2.0.txt[2.2].
53
54 * link:v2.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.1.4]
55
56 * release notes for
57 link:RelNotes/2.1.4.txt[2.1.4],
58 link:RelNotes/2.1.3.txt[2.1.3],
59 link:RelNotes/2.1.2.txt[2.1.2],
60 link:RelNotes/2.1.1.txt[2.1.1],
61 link:RelNotes/2.1.0.txt[2.1].
62
63 * link:v2.0.5/git.html[documentation for release 2.0.5]
64
65 * release notes for
66 link:RelNotes/2.0.5.txt[2.0.5],
67 link:RelNotes/2.0.4.txt[2.0.4],
68 link:RelNotes/2.0.3.txt[2.0.3],
69 link:RelNotes/2.0.2.txt[2.0.2],
70 link:RelNotes/2.0.1.txt[2.0.1],
71 link:RelNotes/2.0.0.txt[2.0.0].
72
73 * link:v1.9.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.9.5]
74
75 * release notes for
76 link:RelNotes/1.9.5.txt[1.9.5],
77 link:RelNotes/1.9.4.txt[1.9.4],
78 link:RelNotes/1.9.3.txt[1.9.3],
79 link:RelNotes/1.9.2.txt[1.9.2],
80 link:RelNotes/1.9.1.txt[1.9.1],
81 link:RelNotes/1.9.0.txt[1.9.0].
82
83 * link:v1.8.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.5.6]
84
85 * release notes for
86 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.6.txt[1.8.5.6],
87 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.5.txt[1.8.5.5],
88 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.4.txt[1.8.5.4],
89 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.3.txt[1.8.5.3],
90 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.2.txt[1.8.5.2],
91 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.1.txt[1.8.5.1],
92 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.txt[1.8.5].
93
94 * link:v1.8.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.4.5]
95
96 * release notes for
97 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.5.txt[1.8.4.5],
98 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt[1.8.4.4],
99 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.3.txt[1.8.4.3],
100 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.2.txt[1.8.4.2],
101 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt[1.8.4.1],
102 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.txt[1.8.4].
103
104 * link:v1.8.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.3.4]
105
106 * release notes for
107 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.4.txt[1.8.3.4],
108 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.3.txt[1.8.3.3],
109 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.2.txt[1.8.3.2],
110 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt[1.8.3.1],
111 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.txt[1.8.3].
112
113 * link:v1.8.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.2.3]
114
115 * release notes for
116 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.3.txt[1.8.2.3],
117 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt[1.8.2.2],
118 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt[1.8.2.1],
119 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.txt[1.8.2].
120
121 * link:v1.8.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.1.6]
122
123 * release notes for
124 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.6.txt[1.8.1.6],
125 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.5.txt[1.8.1.5],
126 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.4.txt[1.8.1.4],
127 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.3.txt[1.8.1.3],
128 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.2.txt[1.8.1.2],
129 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.1.txt[1.8.1.1],
130 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.txt[1.8.1].
131
132 * link:v1.8.0.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.0.3]
133
134 * release notes for
135 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.3.txt[1.8.0.3],
136 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.2.txt[1.8.0.2],
137 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.1.txt[1.8.0.1],
138 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.txt[1.8.0].
139
140 * link:v1.7.12.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.12.4]
141
142 * release notes for
143 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.4.txt[1.7.12.4],
144 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt[1.7.12.3],
145 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.2.txt[1.7.12.2],
146 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.1.txt[1.7.12.1],
147 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.txt[1.7.12].
148
149 * link:v1.7.11.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.7]
150
151 * release notes for
152 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.7.txt[1.7.11.7],
153 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.6.txt[1.7.11.6],
154 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.5.txt[1.7.11.5],
155 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.4.txt[1.7.11.4],
156 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.3.txt[1.7.11.3],
157 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.2.txt[1.7.11.2],
158 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.1.txt[1.7.11.1],
159 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.txt[1.7.11].
160
161 * link:v1.7.10.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.10.5]
162
163 * release notes for
164 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.5.txt[1.7.10.5],
165 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt[1.7.10.4],
166 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.3.txt[1.7.10.3],
167 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.2.txt[1.7.10.2],
168 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt[1.7.10.1],
169 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.txt[1.7.10].
170
171 * link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
172
173 * release notes for
174 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.7.txt[1.7.9.7],
175 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.6.txt[1.7.9.6],
176 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.5.txt[1.7.9.5],
177 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.4.txt[1.7.9.4],
178 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.3.txt[1.7.9.3],
179 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.2.txt[1.7.9.2],
180 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.1.txt[1.7.9.1],
181 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
182
183 * link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
184
185 * release notes for
186 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.6.txt[1.7.8.6],
187 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.5.txt[1.7.8.5],
188 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.4.txt[1.7.8.4],
189 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.3.txt[1.7.8.3],
190 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt[1.7.8.2],
191 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.1.txt[1.7.8.1],
192 link:RelNotes/1.7.8.txt[1.7.8].
193
194 * link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
195
196 * release notes for
197 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.7.txt[1.7.7.7],
198 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.6.txt[1.7.7.6],
199 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.5.txt[1.7.7.5],
200 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.4.txt[1.7.7.4],
201 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.3.txt[1.7.7.3],
202 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.2.txt[1.7.7.2],
203 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.1.txt[1.7.7.1],
204 link:RelNotes/1.7.7.txt[1.7.7].
205
206 * link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
207
208 * release notes for
209 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.6.txt[1.7.6.6],
210 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.5.txt[1.7.6.5],
211 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.4.txt[1.7.6.4],
212 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.3.txt[1.7.6.3],
213 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.2.txt[1.7.6.2],
214 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.1.txt[1.7.6.1],
215 link:RelNotes/1.7.6.txt[1.7.6].
216
217 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
218
219 * release notes for
220 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt[1.7.5.4],
221 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt[1.7.5.3],
222 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.2.txt[1.7.5.2],
223 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.1.txt[1.7.5.1],
224 link:RelNotes/1.7.5.txt[1.7.5].
225
226 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
227
228 * release notes for
229 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.5.txt[1.7.4.5],
230 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.4.txt[1.7.4.4],
231 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.3.txt[1.7.4.3],
232 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.2.txt[1.7.4.2],
233 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.1.txt[1.7.4.1],
234 link:RelNotes/1.7.4.txt[1.7.4].
235
236 * link:v1.7.3.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.3.5]
237
238 * release notes for
239 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.5.txt[1.7.3.5],
240 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.4.txt[1.7.3.4],
241 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.3.txt[1.7.3.3],
242 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.2.txt[1.7.3.2],
243 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.1.txt[1.7.3.1],
244 link:RelNotes/1.7.3.txt[1.7.3].
245
246 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
247
248 * release notes for
249 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.5.txt[1.7.2.5],
250 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.4.txt[1.7.2.4],
251 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.3.txt[1.7.2.3],
252 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.2.txt[1.7.2.2],
253 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.1.txt[1.7.2.1],
254 link:RelNotes/1.7.2.txt[1.7.2].
255
256 * link:v1.7.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.1.4]
257
258 * release notes for
259 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.4.txt[1.7.1.4],
260 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.3.txt[1.7.1.3],
261 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.2.txt[1.7.1.2],
262 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.1.txt[1.7.1.1],
263 link:RelNotes/1.7.1.txt[1.7.1].
264
265 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
266
267 * release notes for
268 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.9.txt[1.7.0.9],
269 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.8.txt[1.7.0.8],
270 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.7.txt[1.7.0.7],
271 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.6.txt[1.7.0.6],
272 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.5.txt[1.7.0.5],
273 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.4.txt[1.7.0.4],
274 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.3.txt[1.7.0.3],
275 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt[1.7.0.2],
276 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.1.txt[1.7.0.1],
277 link:RelNotes/1.7.0.txt[1.7.0].
278
279 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
280
281 * release notes for
282 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt[1.6.6.3],
283 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
284 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
285 link:RelNotes/1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
286
287 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
288
289 * release notes for
290 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.9.txt[1.6.5.9],
291 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.8.txt[1.6.5.8],
292 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.7.txt[1.6.5.7],
293 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.6.txt[1.6.5.6],
294 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.5.txt[1.6.5.5],
295 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt[1.6.5.4],
296 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.3.txt[1.6.5.3],
297 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.2.txt[1.6.5.2],
298 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.1.txt[1.6.5.1],
299 link:RelNotes/1.6.5.txt[1.6.5].
300
301 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
302
303 * release notes for
304 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.5.txt[1.6.4.5],
305 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.4.txt[1.6.4.4],
306 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.3.txt[1.6.4.3],
307 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.2.txt[1.6.4.2],
308 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.1.txt[1.6.4.1],
309 link:RelNotes/1.6.4.txt[1.6.4].
310
311 * link:v1.6.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.3.4]
312
313 * release notes for
314 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.4.txt[1.6.3.4],
315 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.3.txt[1.6.3.3],
316 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.2.txt[1.6.3.2],
317 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.1.txt[1.6.3.1],
318 link:RelNotes/1.6.3.txt[1.6.3].
319
320 * release notes for
321 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.5.txt[1.6.2.5],
322 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.4.txt[1.6.2.4],
323 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.3.txt[1.6.2.3],
324 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.2.txt[1.6.2.2],
325 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
326 link:RelNotes/1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
327
328 * link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
329
330 * release notes for
331 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
332 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
333 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
334 link:RelNotes/1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
335
336 * link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
337
338 * release notes for
339 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
340 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
341 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
342 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
343 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
344 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
345 link:RelNotes/1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
346
347 * link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
348
349 * release notes for
350 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
351 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
352 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
353 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
354 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.2.txt[1.5.6.2],
355 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
356 link:RelNotes/1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
357
358 * link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
359
360 * release notes for
361 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
362 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
363 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
364 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
365 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
366 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
367 link:RelNotes/1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
368
369 * link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
370
371 * release notes for
372 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
373 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
374 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
375 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
376 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
377 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.2.txt[1.5.4.2],
378 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.1.txt[1.5.4.1],
379 link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
380
381 * link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
382
383 * release notes for
384 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
385 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
386 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
387 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.5.txt[1.5.3.5],
388 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.4.txt[1.5.3.4],
389 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.3.txt[1.5.3.3],
390 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.2.txt[1.5.3.2],
391 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
392 link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
393
394 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
395
396 * release notes for
397 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
398 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
399 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
400 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
401 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
402 link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
403
404 * link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
405
406 * release notes for
407 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
408 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
409 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
410 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
411 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
412 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
413 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
414
415 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
416
417 * release notes for
418 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
419 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
420 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
421 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
422 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
423 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
424 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
425
426 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
427 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
428 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
429 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
430
431 ============
432
433 endif::stalenotes[]
434
435 OPTIONS
436 -------
437 --version::
438 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
439
440 --help::
441 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
442 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
443 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
444 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
445 +
446 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
447 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
448 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
449 help ...`.
450
451 -C <path>::
452 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
453 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
454 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
455 <path>`.
456 +
457 This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
458 `--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
459 made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
460 example the following invocations are equivalent:
461
462 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
463 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
464
465 -c <name>=<value>::
466 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
467 given will override values from configuration files.
468 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
469 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
470 +
471 Note that omitting the `=` in `git -c foo.bar ...` is allowed and sets
472 `foo.bar` to the boolean true value (just like `[foo]bar` would in a
473 config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like `git -c
474 foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string.
475
476 --exec-path[=<path>]::
477 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
478 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
479 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
480 the current setting and then exit.
481
482 --html-path::
483 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
484 documentation is installed and exit.
485
486 --man-path::
487 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
488 this version of Git and exit.
489
490 --info-path::
491 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
492 version of Git are installed and exit.
493
494 -p::
495 --paginate::
496 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
497 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
498 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
499 below).
500
501 --no-pager::
502 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
503
504 --git-dir=<path>::
505 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
506 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
507 path or relative path to current working directory.
508
509 --work-tree=<path>::
510 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
511 or a path relative to the current working directory.
512 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
513 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
514 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
515 more detailed discussion).
516
517 --namespace=<path>::
518 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
519 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
520 variable.
521
522 --bare::
523 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
524 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
525 directory.
526
527 --no-replace-objects::
528 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
529 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
530
531 --literal-pathspecs::
532 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
533 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
534 variable to `1`.
535
536 --glob-pathspecs::
537 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
538 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
539 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
540 magic ":(literal)"
541
542 --noglob-pathspecs::
543 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
544 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
545 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
546 magic ":(glob)"
547
548 --icase-pathspecs::
549 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
550 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
551
552 GIT COMMANDS
553 ------------
554
555 We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
556 ("plumbing") commands.
557
558 High-level commands (porcelain)
559 -------------------------------
560
561 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
562 ancillary user utilities.
563
564 Main porcelain commands
565 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
566
567 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
568
569 Ancillary Commands
570 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
571 Manipulators:
572
573 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
574
575 Interrogators:
576
577 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
578
579
580 Interacting with Others
581 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
582
583 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
584 people via patch over e-mail.
585
586 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
587
588
589 Low-level commands (plumbing)
590 -----------------------------
591
592 Although Git includes its
593 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
594 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
595 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
596 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
597
598 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
599 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
600 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
601 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
602 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
603 end user experience.
604
605 The following description divides
606 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
607 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
608 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
609 repositories.
610
611
612 Manipulation commands
613 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
614
615 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
616
617
618 Interrogation commands
619 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
620
621 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
622
623 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
624 the working tree.
625
626
627 Synching repositories
628 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
629
630 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
631
632 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
633 typically do not use them directly.
634
635 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
636
637
638 Internal helper commands
639 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
640
641 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
642 users typically do not use them directly.
643
644 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
645
646
647 Configuration Mechanism
648 -----------------------
649
650 Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
651 repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
652 like this:
653
654 ------------
655 #
656 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
657 #
658
659 ; core variables
660 [core]
661 ; Don't trust file modes
662 filemode = false
663
664 ; user identity
665 [user]
666 name = "Junio C Hamano"
667 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
668
669 ------------
670
671 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
672 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
673 list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
674
675
676 Identifier Terminology
677 ----------------------
678 <object>::
679 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
680
681 <blob>::
682 Indicates a blob object name.
683
684 <tree>::
685 Indicates a tree object name.
686
687 <commit>::
688 Indicates a commit object name.
689
690 <tree-ish>::
691 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
692 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
693 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
694 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
695
696 <commit-ish>::
697 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
698 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
699 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
700 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
701
702 <type>::
703 Indicates that an object type is required.
704 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
705
706 <file>::
707 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
708 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
709
710 Symbolic Identifiers
711 --------------------
712 Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
713 symbolic notation:
714
715 HEAD::
716 indicates the head of the current branch.
717
718 <tag>::
719 a valid tag 'name'
720 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
721
722 <head>::
723 a valid head 'name'
724 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
725
726 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
727 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
728
729
730 File/Directory Structure
731 ------------------------
732
733 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
734
735 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
736
737 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
738 `$GIT_DIR`.
739
740
741 Terminology
742 -----------
743 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
744
745
746 Environment Variables
747 ---------------------
748 Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
749
750 The Git Repository
751 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
752 These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
753 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
754 Git so take care if using Cogito etc.
755
756 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
757 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
758 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
759 is used.
760
761 'GIT_INDEX_VERSION'::
762 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
763 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
764 files. By default index file version [23] is used.
765
766 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
767 If the object storage directory is specified via this
768 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
769 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
770 directory is used.
771
772 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
773 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
774 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
775 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
776 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
777 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
778
779 'GIT_DIR'::
780 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
781 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
782 for the base of the repository.
783 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
784
785 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
786 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
787 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command-line
788 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
789
790 'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
791 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
792 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
793
794 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
795 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
796 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
797 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
798 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
799 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
800 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
801 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
802 might be present in order to compare them with the current
803 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
804 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
805 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
806 e.g.,
807 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
808
809 'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
810 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
811 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
812 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
813 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
814 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
815 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
816 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
817 command line.
818
819 Git Commits
820 ~~~~~~~~~~~
821 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
822 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
823 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
824 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
825 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
826 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
827 'EMAIL'::
828 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
829
830 Git Diffs
831 ~~~~~~~~~
832 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
833 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
834 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
835 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
836 value passed on the Git diff command line.
837
838 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
839 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
840 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
841 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
842 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
843
844 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
845 +
846 where:
847
848 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
849 contents of <old|new>,
850 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
851 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
852 +
853 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
854 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
855 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
856 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
857 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
858 +
859 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
860 parameter, <path>.
861 +
862 For each path 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called, two environment variables,
863 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER' and 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL' are set.
864
865 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER'::
866 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
867
868 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL'::
869 The total number of paths.
870
871 other
872 ~~~~~
873 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
874 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
875 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
876 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
877
878 'GIT_PAGER'::
879 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
880 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
881 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
882 linkgit:git-config[1].
883
884 'GIT_EDITOR'::
885 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
886 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
887 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
888 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
889
890 'GIT_SSH'::
891 If this environment variable is set then 'git fetch'
892 and 'git push' will use this command instead
893 of 'ssh' when they need to connect to a remote system.
894 The '$GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two or
895 four arguments: the 'username@host' (or just 'host')
896 from the URL and the shell command to execute on that
897 remote system, optionally preceded by '-p' (literally) and
898 the 'port' from the URL when it specifies something other
899 than the default SSH port.
900 +
901 To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH
902 you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script,
903 then set GIT_SSH to refer to the shell script.
904 +
905 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
906 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
907 for further details.
908
909 'GIT_ASKPASS'::
910 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
911 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
912 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument
913 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askpass'
914 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
915
916 'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
917 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
918 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
919 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
920 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
921 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
922 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
923
924 'GIT_FLUSH'::
925 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
926 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
927 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
928 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
929 flushed. If this
930 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
931 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
932 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
933 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
934
935 'GIT_TRACE'::
936 Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
937 command execution and external command execution.
938 +
939 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
940 is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to
941 stderr.
942 +
943 If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2
944 and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
945 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
946 trace messages into this file descriptor.
947 +
948 Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path
949 (starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
950 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
951 into it.
952 +
953 Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
954 "false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
955
956 'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
957 Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
958 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
959 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
960 pack-related performance problems.
961 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
962
963 'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
964 Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
965 given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
966 or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet
967 starting with "PACK".
968 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
969
970 'GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE'::
971 Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
972 time of each Git command.
973 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
974
975 'GIT_TRACE_SETUP'::
976 Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
977 working directory after Git has completed its setup phase.
978 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
979
980 'GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW'::
981 Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching /
982 cloning of shallow repositories.
983 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
984
985 GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
986 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
987 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
988 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
989 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
990 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
991 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
992 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
993
994 GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS::
995 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
996 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
997
998 GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS::
999 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1000 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
1001
1002 GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS::
1003 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1004 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
1005
1006 'GIT_REFLOG_ACTION'::
1007 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
1008 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
1009 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
1010 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
1011 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
1012 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
1013 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
1014 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
1015
1016
1017 Discussion[[Discussion]]
1018 ------------------------
1019
1020 More detail on the following is available from the
1021 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1022 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
1023
1024 A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
1025 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
1026 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
1027 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
1028 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
1029 as tags and branch heads.
1030
1031 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
1032 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
1033 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
1034 and some number of parent commits.
1035
1036 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
1037 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
1038 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
1039 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
1040
1041 All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
1042 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
1043 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
1044 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
1045 purpose.
1046
1047 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
1048 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
1049
1050 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
1051 may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
1052 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
1053 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
1054 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
1055 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
1056
1057 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
1058 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1059 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1060 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1061 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1062 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1063 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1064 content stored in the index.
1065
1066 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1067 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1068 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
1069
1070 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1071 ---------------------
1072
1073 See the references in the "description" section to get started
1074 using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
1075 for a first-time user.
1076
1077 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1078 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
1079 introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
1080
1081 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1082
1083 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1084 examples.
1085
1086 The internals are documented in the
1087 link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
1088
1089 Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1090 read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1091
1092
1093 Authors
1094 -------
1095 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
1096 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
1097 <git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary
1098 gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1099
1100 If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
1101 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1102 the authors for specific parts of the project.
1103
1104 Reporting Bugs
1105 --------------
1106
1107 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1108 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1109 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1110
1111 SEE ALSO
1112 --------
1113 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
1114 linkgit:giteveryday[7], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
1115 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
1116 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1117 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
1118
1119 GIT
1120 ---
1121 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite