Git 2.4.12
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(1)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
13 [--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
14 [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
15 [--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
16 <command> [<args>]
17
18 DESCRIPTION
19 -----------
20 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
21 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
22 and full access to internals.
23
24 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
25 linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
26 commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
27 in-depth introduction.
28
29 After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
30 page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
31 individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
32 manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
33
34 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
35 can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
36
37 ifdef::stalenotes[]
38 [NOTE]
39 ============
40
41 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
42 unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
43 branch of the `git.git` repository.
44 Documentation for older releases are available here:
45
46 * link:v2.4.12/git.html[documentation for release 2.4.12]
47
48 * release notes for
49 link:RelNotes/2.4.12.txt[2.4.12],
50 link:RelNotes/2.4.11.txt[2.4.11],
51 link:RelNotes/2.4.10.txt[2.4.10],
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58 link:RelNotes/2.4.3.txt[2.4.3],
59 link:RelNotes/2.4.2.txt[2.4.2],
60 link:RelNotes/2.4.1.txt[2.4.1],
61 link:RelNotes/2.4.0.txt[2.4].
62
63 * link:v2.3.10/git.html[documentation for release 2.3.10]
64
65 * release notes for
66 link:RelNotes/2.3.10.txt[2.3.10],
67 link:RelNotes/2.3.9.txt[2.3.9],
68 link:RelNotes/2.3.8.txt[2.3.8],
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70 link:RelNotes/2.3.6.txt[2.3.6],
71 link:RelNotes/2.3.5.txt[2.3.5],
72 link:RelNotes/2.3.4.txt[2.3.4],
73 link:RelNotes/2.3.3.txt[2.3.3],
74 link:RelNotes/2.3.2.txt[2.3.2],
75 link:RelNotes/2.3.1.txt[2.3.1],
76 link:RelNotes/2.3.0.txt[2.3].
77
78 * link:v2.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 2.2.3]
79
80 * release notes for
81 link:RelNotes/2.2.3.txt[2.2.3],
82 link:RelNotes/2.2.2.txt[2.2.2],
83 link:RelNotes/2.2.1.txt[2.2.1],
84 link:RelNotes/2.2.0.txt[2.2].
85
86 * link:v2.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.1.4]
87
88 * release notes for
89 link:RelNotes/2.1.4.txt[2.1.4],
90 link:RelNotes/2.1.3.txt[2.1.3],
91 link:RelNotes/2.1.2.txt[2.1.2],
92 link:RelNotes/2.1.1.txt[2.1.1],
93 link:RelNotes/2.1.0.txt[2.1].
94
95 * link:v2.0.5/git.html[documentation for release 2.0.5]
96
97 * release notes for
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99 link:RelNotes/2.0.4.txt[2.0.4],
100 link:RelNotes/2.0.3.txt[2.0.3],
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102 link:RelNotes/2.0.1.txt[2.0.1],
103 link:RelNotes/2.0.0.txt[2.0.0].
104
105 * link:v1.9.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.9.5]
106
107 * release notes for
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113 link:RelNotes/1.9.0.txt[1.9.0].
114
115 * link:v1.8.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.5.6]
116
117 * release notes for
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124 link:RelNotes/1.8.5.txt[1.8.5].
125
126 * link:v1.8.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.4.5]
127
128 * release notes for
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133 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt[1.8.4.1],
134 link:RelNotes/1.8.4.txt[1.8.4].
135
136 * link:v1.8.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.3.4]
137
138 * release notes for
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140 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.3.txt[1.8.3.3],
141 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.2.txt[1.8.3.2],
142 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt[1.8.3.1],
143 link:RelNotes/1.8.3.txt[1.8.3].
144
145 * link:v1.8.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.2.3]
146
147 * release notes for
148 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.3.txt[1.8.2.3],
149 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt[1.8.2.2],
150 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt[1.8.2.1],
151 link:RelNotes/1.8.2.txt[1.8.2].
152
153 * link:v1.8.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.1.6]
154
155 * release notes for
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162 link:RelNotes/1.8.1.txt[1.8.1].
163
164 * link:v1.8.0.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.0.3]
165
166 * release notes for
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170 link:RelNotes/1.8.0.txt[1.8.0].
171
172 * link:v1.7.12.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.12.4]
173
174 * release notes for
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176 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt[1.7.12.3],
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179 link:RelNotes/1.7.12.txt[1.7.12].
180
181 * link:v1.7.11.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.7]
182
183 * release notes for
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191 link:RelNotes/1.7.11.txt[1.7.11].
192
193 * link:v1.7.10.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.10.5]
194
195 * release notes for
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197 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt[1.7.10.4],
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201 link:RelNotes/1.7.10.txt[1.7.10].
202
203 * link:v1.7.9.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.9.7]
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212 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.1.txt[1.7.9.1],
213 link:RelNotes/1.7.9.txt[1.7.9].
214
215 * link:v1.7.8.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.8.6]
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226 * link:v1.7.7.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.7.7]
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238 * link:v1.7.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.6.6]
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249 * link:v1.7.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.5.4]
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258 * link:v1.7.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.4.5]
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278 * link:v1.7.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.2.5]
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297 * link:v1.7.0.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.0.9]
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311 * link:v1.6.6.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.3]
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319 * link:v1.6.5.9/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.9]
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333 * link:v1.6.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.4.5]
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426 * link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
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439 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
440 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
441 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
442 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
443 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
444 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
445 link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
446
447 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
448
449 * release notes for
450 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
451 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
452 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
453 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
454 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
455 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
456 link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
457
458 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
459 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
460 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
461 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
462
463 ============
464
465 endif::stalenotes[]
466
467 OPTIONS
468 -------
469 --version::
470 Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
471
472 --help::
473 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
474 commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
475 available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
476 option will bring up the manual page for that command.
477 +
478 Other options are available to control how the manual page is
479 displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
480 because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
481 help ...`.
482
483 -C <path>::
484 Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
485 directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
486 non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
487 <path>`.
488 +
489 This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
490 `--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
491 made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
492 example the following invocations are equivalent:
493
494 git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
495 git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
496
497 -c <name>=<value>::
498 Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
499 given will override values from configuration files.
500 The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
501 'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
502 +
503 Note that omitting the `=` in `git -c foo.bar ...` is allowed and sets
504 `foo.bar` to the boolean true value (just like `[foo]bar` would in a
505 config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like `git -c
506 foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string.
507
508 --exec-path[=<path>]::
509 Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
510 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
511 environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
512 the current setting and then exit.
513
514 --html-path::
515 Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
516 documentation is installed and exit.
517
518 --man-path::
519 Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
520 this version of Git and exit.
521
522 --info-path::
523 Print the path where the Info files documenting this
524 version of Git are installed and exit.
525
526 -p::
527 --paginate::
528 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER) if standard
529 output is a terminal. This overrides the `pager.<cmd>`
530 configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
531 below).
532
533 --no-pager::
534 Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
535
536 --git-dir=<path>::
537 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
538 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an absolute
539 path or relative path to current working directory.
540
541 --work-tree=<path>::
542 Set the path to the working tree. It can be an absolute path
543 or a path relative to the current working directory.
544 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE
545 environment variable and the core.worktree configuration
546 variable (see core.worktree in linkgit:git-config[1] for a
547 more detailed discussion).
548
549 --namespace=<path>::
550 Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
551 details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
552 variable.
553
554 --bare::
555 Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
556 environment is not set, it is set to the current working
557 directory.
558
559 --no-replace-objects::
560 Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
561 linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
562
563 --literal-pathspecs::
564 Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
565 This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
566 variable to `1`.
567
568 --glob-pathspecs::
569 Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
570 the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
571 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
572 magic ":(literal)"
573
574 --noglob-pathspecs::
575 Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
576 the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
577 globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
578 magic ":(glob)"
579
580 --icase-pathspecs::
581 Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
582 the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
583
584 GIT COMMANDS
585 ------------
586
587 We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
588 ("plumbing") commands.
589
590 High-level commands (porcelain)
591 -------------------------------
592
593 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
594 ancillary user utilities.
595
596 Main porcelain commands
597 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
598
599 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
600
601 Ancillary Commands
602 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
603 Manipulators:
604
605 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
606
607 Interrogators:
608
609 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
610
611
612 Interacting with Others
613 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
614
615 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
616 people via patch over e-mail.
617
618 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
619
620
621 Low-level commands (plumbing)
622 -----------------------------
623
624 Although Git includes its
625 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
626 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
627 might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
628 linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
629
630 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
631 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
632 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
633 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
634 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
635 end user experience.
636
637 The following description divides
638 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
639 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
640 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
641 repositories.
642
643
644 Manipulation commands
645 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
646
647 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
648
649
650 Interrogation commands
651 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
652
653 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
654
655 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
656 the working tree.
657
658
659 Synching repositories
660 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
661
662 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
663
664 The following are helper commands used by the above; end users
665 typically do not use them directly.
666
667 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
668
669
670 Internal helper commands
671 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
672
673 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
674 users typically do not use them directly.
675
676 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
677
678
679 Configuration Mechanism
680 -----------------------
681
682 Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
683 repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
684 like this:
685
686 ------------
687 #
688 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
689 #
690
691 ; core variables
692 [core]
693 ; Don't trust file modes
694 filemode = false
695
696 ; user identity
697 [user]
698 name = "Junio C Hamano"
699 email = "gitster@pobox.com"
700
701 ------------
702
703 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
704 their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
705 list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
706
707
708 Identifier Terminology
709 ----------------------
710 <object>::
711 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
712
713 <blob>::
714 Indicates a blob object name.
715
716 <tree>::
717 Indicates a tree object name.
718
719 <commit>::
720 Indicates a commit object name.
721
722 <tree-ish>::
723 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
724 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
725 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
726 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
727
728 <commit-ish>::
729 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
730 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
731 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
732 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
733
734 <type>::
735 Indicates that an object type is required.
736 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
737
738 <file>::
739 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
740 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
741
742 Symbolic Identifiers
743 --------------------
744 Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
745 symbolic notation:
746
747 HEAD::
748 indicates the head of the current branch.
749
750 <tag>::
751 a valid tag 'name'
752 (i.e. a `refs/tags/<tag>` reference).
753
754 <head>::
755 a valid head 'name'
756 (i.e. a `refs/heads/<head>` reference).
757
758 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
759 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
760
761
762 File/Directory Structure
763 ------------------------
764
765 Please see the linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] document.
766
767 Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about each hook.
768
769 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
770 `$GIT_DIR`.
771
772
773 Terminology
774 -----------
775 Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
776
777
778 Environment Variables
779 ---------------------
780 Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
781
782 The Git Repository
783 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
784 These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
785 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
786 Git so take care if using Cogito etc.
787
788 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
789 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
790 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
791 is used.
792
793 'GIT_INDEX_VERSION'::
794 This environment variable allows the specification of an index
795 version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
796 files. By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See
797 linkgit:git-update-index[1] for more information.
798
799 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
800 If the object storage directory is specified via this
801 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
802 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
803 directory is used.
804
805 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
806 Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
807 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
808 specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
809 of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
810 objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
811
812 'GIT_DIR'::
813 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
814 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
815 for the base of the repository.
816 The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
817
818 'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
819 Set the path to the root of the working tree.
820 This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command-line
821 option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
822
823 'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
824 Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
825 The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
826
827 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
828 This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
829 set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
830 into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
831 excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
832 exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
833 command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
834 the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
835 might be present in order to compare them with the current
836 directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
837 can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
838 subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
839 e.g.,
840 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
841
842 'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
843 When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
844 directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
845 directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
846 does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
847 can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
848 boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
849 an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
850 command line.
851
852 Git Commits
853 ~~~~~~~~~~~
854 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
855 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
856 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
857 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
858 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
859 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
860 'EMAIL'::
861 see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
862
863 Git Diffs
864 ~~~~~~~~~
865 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
866 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
867 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
868 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
869 value passed on the Git diff command line.
870
871 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
872 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
873 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
874 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
875 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
876
877 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
878 +
879 where:
880
881 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
882 contents of <old|new>,
883 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
884 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
885 +
886 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
887 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
888 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
889 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
890 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
891 +
892 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
893 parameter, <path>.
894 +
895 For each path 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called, two environment variables,
896 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER' and 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL' are set.
897
898 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER'::
899 A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
900
901 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL'::
902 The total number of paths.
903
904 other
905 ~~~~~
906 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY'::
907 A number controlling the amount of output shown by
908 the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity.
909 See linkgit:git-merge[1]
910
911 'GIT_PAGER'::
912 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
913 to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
914 a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
915 linkgit:git-config[1].
916
917 'GIT_EDITOR'::
918 This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
919 It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
920 an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
921 and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
922
923 'GIT_SSH'::
924 'GIT_SSH_COMMAND'::
925 If either of these environment variables is set then 'git fetch'
926 and 'git push' will use the specified command instead of 'ssh'
927 when they need to connect to a remote system.
928 The command will be given exactly two or four arguments: the
929 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the shell
930 command to execute on that remote system, optionally preceded by
931 '-p' (literally) and the 'port' from the URL when it specifies
932 something other than the default SSH port.
933 +
934 `$GIT_SSH_COMMAND` takes precedence over `$GIT_SSH`, and is interpreted
935 by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
936 `$GIT_SSH` on the other hand must be just the path to a program
937 (which can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are
938 needed).
939 +
940 Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
941 personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
942 for further details.
943
944 'GIT_ASKPASS'::
945 If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
946 acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
947 will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument
948 and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askPass'
949 option in linkgit:git-config[1].
950
951 'GIT_TERMINAL_PROMPT'::
952 If this environment variable is set to `0`, git will not prompt
953 on the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP authentication).
954
955 'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
956 Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
957 `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
958 be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
959 predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
960 temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
961 waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
962
963 'GIT_FLUSH'::
964 If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
965 as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
966 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
967 force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
968 flushed. If this
969 variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
970 using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
971 not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
972 based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
973
974 'GIT_TRACE'::
975 Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
976 command execution and external command execution.
977 +
978 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
979 is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to
980 stderr.
981 +
982 If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2
983 and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
984 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
985 trace messages into this file descriptor.
986 +
987 Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path
988 (starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
989 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
990 into it.
991 +
992 Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
993 "false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
994
995 'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
996 Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
997 access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
998 recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
999 pack-related performance problems.
1000 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1001
1002 'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
1003 Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
1004 given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
1005 or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet
1006 starting with "PACK".
1007 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1008
1009 'GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE'::
1010 Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
1011 time of each Git command.
1012 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1013
1014 'GIT_TRACE_SETUP'::
1015 Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
1016 working directory after Git has completed its setup phase.
1017 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1018
1019 'GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW'::
1020 Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching /
1021 cloning of shallow repositories.
1022 See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
1023
1024 GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
1025 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1026 pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
1027 running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
1028 for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
1029 glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
1030 literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
1031 `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
1032
1033 GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS::
1034 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1035 pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
1036
1037 GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS::
1038 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1039 pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
1040
1041 GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS::
1042 Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
1043 pathspecs as case-insensitive.
1044
1045 'GIT_REFLOG_ACTION'::
1046 When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
1047 track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
1048 typically the name of the high-level command that updated
1049 the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
1050 A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
1051 helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
1052 variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
1053 end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
1054
1055 `GIT_REF_PARANOIA`::
1056 If set to `1`, include broken or badly named refs when iterating
1057 over lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this
1058 does nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and
1059 abort some operations in the presence of broken refs. Git sets
1060 this variable automatically when performing destructive
1061 operations like linkgit:git-prune[1]. You should not need to set
1062 it yourself unless you want to be paranoid about making sure
1063 an operation has touched every ref (e.g., because you are
1064 cloning a repository to make a backup).
1065
1066 `GIT_ALLOW_PROTOCOL`::
1067 If set, provide a colon-separated list of protocols which are
1068 allowed to be used with fetch/push/clone. This is useful to
1069 restrict recursive submodule initialization from an untrusted
1070 repository. Any protocol not mentioned will be disallowed (i.e.,
1071 this is a whitelist, not a blacklist). If the variable is not
1072 set at all, all protocols are enabled. The protocol names
1073 currently used by git are:
1074
1075 - `file`: any local file-based path (including `file://` URLs,
1076 or local paths)
1077
1078 - `git`: the anonymous git protocol over a direct TCP
1079 connection (or proxy, if configured)
1080
1081 - `ssh`: git over ssh (including `host:path` syntax,
1082 `git+ssh://`, etc).
1083
1084 - `rsync`: git over rsync
1085
1086 - `http`: git over http, both "smart http" and "dumb http".
1087 Note that this does _not_ include `https`; if you want both,
1088 you should specify both as `http:https`.
1089
1090 - any external helpers are named by their protocol (e.g., use
1091 `hg` to allow the `git-remote-hg` helper)
1092
1093
1094 Discussion[[Discussion]]
1095 ------------------------
1096
1097 More detail on the following is available from the
1098 link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1099 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
1100
1101 A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
1102 subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
1103 things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
1104 of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
1105 contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such
1106 as tags and branch heads.
1107
1108 The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which
1109 hold file data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up
1110 directory hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree
1111 and some number of parent commits.
1112
1113 The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
1114 "version", represents a step in the project's history, and each parent
1115 represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
1116 parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
1117
1118 All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
1119 written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
1120 The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
1121 just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
1122 purpose.
1123
1124 When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
1125 efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
1126
1127 Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
1128 may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
1129 with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
1130 recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
1131 tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
1132 `HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
1133
1134 The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each
1135 path, a blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents
1136 the contents of the file as of the head of the current branch. The
1137 attributes (last modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the
1138 corresponding file in the working tree. Subsequent changes to the
1139 working tree can be found by comparing these attributes. The index may
1140 be updated with new content, and new commits may be created from the
1141 content stored in the index.
1142
1143 The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called "stages")
1144 for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the various
1145 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
1146
1147 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
1148 ---------------------
1149
1150 See the references in the "description" section to get started
1151 using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
1152 for a first-time user.
1153
1154 The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
1155 user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
1156 introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
1157
1158 See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
1159
1160 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
1161 examples.
1162
1163 The internals are documented in the
1164 link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
1165
1166 Users migrating from CVS may also want to
1167 read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
1168
1169
1170 Authors
1171 -------
1172 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
1173 C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
1174 <git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary
1175 gives you a more complete list of contributors.
1176
1177 If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
1178 output of linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1] can show you
1179 the authors for specific parts of the project.
1180
1181 Reporting Bugs
1182 --------------
1183
1184 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
1185 development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
1186 subscribed to the list to send a message there.
1187
1188 SEE ALSO
1189 --------
1190 linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
1191 linkgit:giteveryday[7], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
1192 linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
1193 linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
1194 linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
1195
1196 GIT
1197 ---
1198 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite