everyday: use the dashless form of git-init
[git/git.git] / Documentation / everyday.txt
1 Everyday GIT With 20 Commands Or So
2 ===================================
3
4 <<Basic Repository>> commands are needed by people who have a
5 repository --- that is everybody, because every working tree of
6 git is a repository.
7
8 In addition, <<Individual Developer (Standalone)>> commands are
9 essential for anybody who makes a commit, even for somebody who
10 works alone.
11
12 If you work with other people, you will need commands listed in
13 the <<Individual Developer (Participant)>> section as well.
14
15 People who play the <<Integrator>> role need to learn some more
16 commands in addition to the above.
17
18 <<Repository Administration>> commands are for system
19 administrators who are responsible for the care and feeding
20 of git repositories.
21
22
23 Basic Repository[[Basic Repository]]
24 ------------------------------------
25
26 Everybody uses these commands to maintain git repositories.
27
28 * linkgit:git-init[1] or linkgit:git-clone[1] to create a
29 new repository.
30
31 * linkgit:git-fsck[1] to check the repository for errors.
32
33 * linkgit:git-gc[1] to do common housekeeping tasks such as
34 repack and prune.
35
36 Examples
37 ~~~~~~~~
38
39 Check health and remove cruft.::
40 +
41 ------------
42 $ git fsck <1>
43 $ git count-objects <2>
44 $ git gc <3>
45 ------------
46 +
47 <1> running without `\--full` is usually cheap and assures the
48 repository health reasonably well.
49 <2> check how many loose objects there are and how much
50 disk space is wasted by not repacking.
51 <3> repacks the local repository and performs other housekeeping tasks.
52
53 Repack a small project into single pack.::
54 +
55 ------------
56 $ git gc <1>
57 ------------
58 +
59 <1> pack all the objects reachable from the refs into one pack,
60 then remove the other packs.
61
62
63 Individual Developer (Standalone)[[Individual Developer (Standalone)]]
64 ----------------------------------------------------------------------
65
66 A standalone individual developer does not exchange patches with
67 other people, and works alone in a single repository, using the
68 following commands.
69
70 * linkgit:git-show-branch[1] to see where you are.
71
72 * linkgit:git-log[1] to see what happened.
73
74 * linkgit:git-checkout[1] and linkgit:git-branch[1] to switch
75 branches.
76
77 * linkgit:git-add[1] to manage the index file.
78
79 * linkgit:git-diff[1] and linkgit:git-status[1] to see what
80 you are in the middle of doing.
81
82 * linkgit:git-commit[1] to advance the current branch.
83
84 * linkgit:git-reset[1] and linkgit:git-checkout[1] (with
85 pathname parameters) to undo changes.
86
87 * linkgit:git-merge[1] to merge between local branches.
88
89 * linkgit:git-rebase[1] to maintain topic branches.
90
91 * linkgit:git-tag[1] to mark known point.
92
93 Examples
94 ~~~~~~~~
95
96 Use a tarball as a starting point for a new repository.::
97 +
98 ------------
99 $ tar zxf frotz.tar.gz
100 $ cd frotz
101 $ git init
102 $ git add . <1>
103 $ git commit -m "import of frotz source tree."
104 $ git tag v2.43 <2>
105 ------------
106 +
107 <1> add everything under the current directory.
108 <2> make a lightweight, unannotated tag.
109
110 Create a topic branch and develop.::
111 +
112 ------------
113 $ git checkout -b alsa-audio <1>
114 $ edit/compile/test
115 $ git checkout -- curses/ux_audio_oss.c <2>
116 $ git add curses/ux_audio_alsa.c <3>
117 $ edit/compile/test
118 $ git diff HEAD <4>
119 $ git commit -a -s <5>
120 $ edit/compile/test
121 $ git reset --soft HEAD^ <6>
122 $ edit/compile/test
123 $ git diff ORIG_HEAD <7>
124 $ git commit -a -c ORIG_HEAD <8>
125 $ git checkout master <9>
126 $ git merge alsa-audio <10>
127 $ git log --since='3 days ago' <11>
128 $ git log v2.43.. curses/ <12>
129 ------------
130 +
131 <1> create a new topic branch.
132 <2> revert your botched changes in `curses/ux_audio_oss.c`.
133 <3> you need to tell git if you added a new file; removal and
134 modification will be caught if you do `git commit -a` later.
135 <4> to see what changes you are committing.
136 <5> commit everything as you have tested, with your sign-off.
137 <6> take the last commit back, keeping what is in the working tree.
138 <7> look at the changes since the premature commit we took back.
139 <8> redo the commit undone in the previous step, using the message
140 you originally wrote.
141 <9> switch to the master branch.
142 <10> merge a topic branch into your master branch.
143 <11> review commit logs; other forms to limit output can be
144 combined and include `\--max-count=10` (show 10 commits),
145 `\--until=2005-12-10`, etc.
146 <12> view only the changes that touch what's in `curses/`
147 directory, since `v2.43` tag.
148
149
150 Individual Developer (Participant)[[Individual Developer (Participant)]]
151 ------------------------------------------------------------------------
152
153 A developer working as a participant in a group project needs to
154 learn how to communicate with others, and uses these commands in
155 addition to the ones needed by a standalone developer.
156
157 * linkgit:git-clone[1] from the upstream to prime your local
158 repository.
159
160 * linkgit:git-pull[1] and linkgit:git-fetch[1] from "origin"
161 to keep up-to-date with the upstream.
162
163 * linkgit:git-push[1] to shared repository, if you adopt CVS
164 style shared repository workflow.
165
166 * linkgit:git-format-patch[1] to prepare e-mail submission, if
167 you adopt Linux kernel-style public forum workflow.
168
169 Examples
170 ~~~~~~~~
171
172 Clone the upstream and work on it. Feed changes to upstream.::
173 +
174 ------------
175 $ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/.../torvalds/linux-2.6 my2.6
176 $ cd my2.6
177 $ edit/compile/test; git commit -a -s <1>
178 $ git format-patch origin <2>
179 $ git pull <3>
180 $ git log -p ORIG_HEAD.. arch/i386 include/asm-i386 <4>
181 $ git pull git://git.kernel.org/pub/.../jgarzik/libata-dev.git ALL <5>
182 $ git reset --hard ORIG_HEAD <6>
183 $ git gc <7>
184 $ git fetch --tags <8>
185 ------------
186 +
187 <1> repeat as needed.
188 <2> extract patches from your branch for e-mail submission.
189 <3> `git pull` fetches from `origin` by default and merges into the
190 current branch.
191 <4> immediately after pulling, look at the changes done upstream
192 since last time we checked, only in the
193 area we are interested in.
194 <5> fetch from a specific branch from a specific repository and merge.
195 <6> revert the pull.
196 <7> garbage collect leftover objects from reverted pull.
197 <8> from time to time, obtain official tags from the `origin`
198 and store them under `.git/refs/tags/`.
199
200
201 Push into another repository.::
202 +
203 ------------
204 satellite$ git clone mothership:frotz frotz <1>
205 satellite$ cd frotz
206 satellite$ git config --get-regexp '^(remote|branch)\.' <2>
207 remote.origin.url mothership:frotz
208 remote.origin.fetch refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*
209 branch.master.remote origin
210 branch.master.merge refs/heads/master
211 satellite$ git config remote.origin.push \
212 master:refs/remotes/satellite/master <3>
213 satellite$ edit/compile/test/commit
214 satellite$ git push origin <4>
215
216 mothership$ cd frotz
217 mothership$ git checkout master
218 mothership$ git merge satellite/master <5>
219 ------------
220 +
221 <1> mothership machine has a frotz repository under your home
222 directory; clone from it to start a repository on the satellite
223 machine.
224 <2> clone sets these configuration variables by default.
225 It arranges `git pull` to fetch and store the branches of mothership
226 machine to local `remotes/origin/*` tracking branches.
227 <3> arrange `git push` to push local `master` branch to
228 `remotes/satellite/master` branch of the mothership machine.
229 <4> push will stash our work away on `remotes/satellite/master`
230 tracking branch on the mothership machine. You could use this as
231 a back-up method.
232 <5> on mothership machine, merge the work done on the satellite
233 machine into the master branch.
234
235 Branch off of a specific tag.::
236 +
237 ------------
238 $ git checkout -b private2.6.14 v2.6.14 <1>
239 $ edit/compile/test; git commit -a
240 $ git checkout master
241 $ git format-patch -k -m --stdout v2.6.14..private2.6.14 |
242 git am -3 -k <2>
243 ------------
244 +
245 <1> create a private branch based on a well known (but somewhat behind)
246 tag.
247 <2> forward port all changes in `private2.6.14` branch to `master` branch
248 without a formal "merging".
249
250
251 Integrator[[Integrator]]
252 ------------------------
253
254 A fairly central person acting as the integrator in a group
255 project receives changes made by others, reviews and integrates
256 them and publishes the result for others to use, using these
257 commands in addition to the ones needed by participants.
258
259 * linkgit:git-am[1] to apply patches e-mailed in from your
260 contributors.
261
262 * linkgit:git-pull[1] to merge from your trusted lieutenants.
263
264 * linkgit:git-format-patch[1] to prepare and send suggested
265 alternative to contributors.
266
267 * linkgit:git-revert[1] to undo botched commits.
268
269 * linkgit:git-push[1] to publish the bleeding edge.
270
271
272 Examples
273 ~~~~~~~~
274
275 My typical GIT day.::
276 +
277 ------------
278 $ git status <1>
279 $ git show-branch <2>
280 $ mailx <3>
281 & s 2 3 4 5 ./+to-apply
282 & s 7 8 ./+hold-linus
283 & q
284 $ git checkout -b topic/one master
285 $ git am -3 -i -s -u ./+to-apply <4>
286 $ compile/test
287 $ git checkout -b hold/linus && git am -3 -i -s -u ./+hold-linus <5>
288 $ git checkout topic/one && git rebase master <6>
289 $ git checkout pu && git reset --hard next <7>
290 $ git merge topic/one topic/two && git merge hold/linus <8>
291 $ git checkout maint
292 $ git cherry-pick master~4 <9>
293 $ compile/test
294 $ git tag -s -m "GIT 0.99.9x" v0.99.9x <10>
295 $ git fetch ko && git show-branch master maint 'tags/ko-*' <11>
296 $ git push ko <12>
297 $ git push ko v0.99.9x <13>
298 ------------
299 +
300 <1> see what I was in the middle of doing, if any.
301 <2> see what topic branches I have and think about how ready
302 they are.
303 <3> read mails, save ones that are applicable, and save others
304 that are not quite ready.
305 <4> apply them, interactively, with my sign-offs.
306 <5> create topic branch as needed and apply, again with my
307 sign-offs.
308 <6> rebase internal topic branch that has not been merged to the
309 master, nor exposed as a part of a stable branch.
310 <7> restart `pu` every time from the next.
311 <8> and bundle topic branches still cooking.
312 <9> backport a critical fix.
313 <10> create a signed tag.
314 <11> make sure I did not accidentally rewind master beyond what I
315 already pushed out. `ko` shorthand points at the repository I have
316 at kernel.org, and looks like this:
317 +
318 ------------
319 $ cat .git/remotes/ko
320 URL: kernel.org:/pub/scm/git/git.git
321 Pull: master:refs/tags/ko-master
322 Pull: next:refs/tags/ko-next
323 Pull: maint:refs/tags/ko-maint
324 Push: master
325 Push: next
326 Push: +pu
327 Push: maint
328 ------------
329 +
330 In the output from `git show-branch`, `master` should have
331 everything `ko-master` has, and `next` should have
332 everything `ko-next` has.
333
334 <12> push out the bleeding edge.
335 <13> push the tag out, too.
336
337
338 Repository Administration[[Repository Administration]]
339 ------------------------------------------------------
340
341 A repository administrator uses the following tools to set up
342 and maintain access to the repository by developers.
343
344 * linkgit:git-daemon[1] to allow anonymous download from
345 repository.
346
347 * linkgit:git-shell[1] can be used as a 'restricted login shell'
348 for shared central repository users.
349
350 link:howto/update-hook-example.txt[update hook howto] has a good
351 example of managing a shared central repository.
352
353
354 Examples
355 ~~~~~~~~
356 We assume the following in /etc/services::
357 +
358 ------------
359 $ grep 9418 /etc/services
360 git 9418/tcp # Git Version Control System
361 ------------
362
363 Run git-daemon to serve /pub/scm from inetd.::
364 +
365 ------------
366 $ grep git /etc/inetd.conf
367 git stream tcp nowait nobody \
368 /usr/bin/git-daemon git-daemon --inetd --export-all /pub/scm
369 ------------
370 +
371 The actual configuration line should be on one line.
372
373 Run git-daemon to serve /pub/scm from xinetd.::
374 +
375 ------------
376 $ cat /etc/xinetd.d/git-daemon
377 # default: off
378 # description: The git server offers access to git repositories
379 service git
380 {
381 disable = no
382 type = UNLISTED
383 port = 9418
384 socket_type = stream
385 wait = no
386 user = nobody
387 server = /usr/bin/git-daemon
388 server_args = --inetd --export-all --base-path=/pub/scm
389 log_on_failure += USERID
390 }
391 ------------
392 +
393 Check your xinetd(8) documentation and setup, this is from a Fedora system.
394 Others might be different.
395
396 Give push/pull only access to developers.::
397 +
398 ------------
399 $ grep git /etc/passwd <1>
400 alice:x:1000:1000::/home/alice:/usr/bin/git-shell
401 bob:x:1001:1001::/home/bob:/usr/bin/git-shell
402 cindy:x:1002:1002::/home/cindy:/usr/bin/git-shell
403 david:x:1003:1003::/home/david:/usr/bin/git-shell
404 $ grep git /etc/shells <2>
405 /usr/bin/git-shell
406 ------------
407 +
408 <1> log-in shell is set to /usr/bin/git-shell, which does not
409 allow anything but `git push` and `git pull`. The users should
410 get an ssh access to the machine.
411 <2> in many distributions /etc/shells needs to list what is used
412 as the login shell.
413
414 CVS-style shared repository.::
415 +
416 ------------
417 $ grep git /etc/group <1>
418 git:x:9418:alice,bob,cindy,david
419 $ cd /home/devo.git
420 $ ls -l <2>
421 lrwxrwxrwx 1 david git 17 Dec 4 22:40 HEAD -> refs/heads/master
422 drwxrwsr-x 2 david git 4096 Dec 4 22:40 branches
423 -rw-rw-r-- 1 david git 84 Dec 4 22:40 config
424 -rw-rw-r-- 1 david git 58 Dec 4 22:40 description
425 drwxrwsr-x 2 david git 4096 Dec 4 22:40 hooks
426 -rw-rw-r-- 1 david git 37504 Dec 4 22:40 index
427 drwxrwsr-x 2 david git 4096 Dec 4 22:40 info
428 drwxrwsr-x 4 david git 4096 Dec 4 22:40 objects
429 drwxrwsr-x 4 david git 4096 Nov 7 14:58 refs
430 drwxrwsr-x 2 david git 4096 Dec 4 22:40 remotes
431 $ ls -l hooks/update <3>
432 -r-xr-xr-x 1 david git 3536 Dec 4 22:40 update
433 $ cat info/allowed-users <4>
434 refs/heads/master alice\|cindy
435 refs/heads/doc-update bob
436 refs/tags/v[0-9]* david
437 ------------
438 +
439 <1> place the developers into the same git group.
440 <2> and make the shared repository writable by the group.
441 <3> use update-hook example by Carl from Documentation/howto/
442 for branch policy control.
443 <4> alice and cindy can push into master, only bob can push into doc-update.
444 david is the release manager and is the only person who can
445 create and push version tags.
446
447 HTTP server to support dumb protocol transfer.::
448 +
449 ------------
450 dev$ git update-server-info <1>
451 dev$ ftp user@isp.example.com <2>
452 ftp> cp -r .git /home/user/myproject.git
453 ------------
454 +
455 <1> make sure your info/refs and objects/info/packs are up-to-date
456 <2> upload to public HTTP server hosted by your ISP.