Documentation: update "stale" links for 1.5.2.2
[git/git.git] / Documentation / git.txt
1 git(7)
2 ======
3
4 NAME
5 ----
6 git - the stupid content tracker
7
8
9 SYNOPSIS
10 --------
11 [verse]
12 'git' [--version] [--exec-path[=GIT_EXEC_PATH]] [-p|--paginate]
13 [--bare] [--git-dir=GIT_DIR] [--help] COMMAND [ARGS]
14
15 DESCRIPTION
16 -----------
17 Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
18 unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
19 and full access to internals.
20
21 See this link:tutorial.html[tutorial] to get started, then see
22 link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of commands, and
23 "man git-commandname" for documentation of each command. CVS users may
24 also want to read link:cvs-migration.html[CVS migration]. See
25 link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] for a more in-depth
26 introduction.
27
28 The COMMAND is either a name of a Git command (see below) or an alias
29 as defined in the configuration file (see gitlink:git-config[1]).
30
31 Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest git
32 documentation can be viewed at
33 `http://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/`.
34
35 ifdef::stalenotes[]
36 [NOTE]
37 ============
38
39 You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
40 unreleased) version of git, that is available from 'master'
41 branch of the `git.git` repository.
42 Documentation for older releases are available here:
43
44 * link:v1.5.2.2/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.2]
45
46 * release notes for
47 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
48 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
49 link:RelNotes-1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
50
51 * link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
52
53 * release notes for
54 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
55 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
56 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
57 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
58 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
59 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
60 link:RelNotes-1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
61
62 * link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
63
64 * release notes for
65 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
66 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
67 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
68 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
69 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
70 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
71 link:RelNotes-1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
72
73 * documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
74 link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
75 link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
76 link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
77
78 ============
79
80 endif::stalenotes[]
81
82 OPTIONS
83 -------
84 --version::
85 Prints the git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
86
87 --help::
88 Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
89 commands. If a git command is named this option will bring up
90 the man-page for that command. If the option '--all' or '-a' is
91 given then all available commands are printed.
92
93 --exec-path::
94 Path to wherever your core git programs are installed.
95 This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
96 environment variable. If no path is given 'git' will print
97 the current setting and then exit.
98
99 -p|--paginate::
100 Pipe all output into 'less' (or if set, $PAGER).
101
102 --git-dir=<path>::
103 Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
104 setting the GIT_DIR environment variable.
105
106 --bare::
107 Same as --git-dir=`pwd`.
108
109 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
110 ---------------------
111
112 See the references above to get started using git. The following is
113 probably more detail than necessary for a first-time user.
114
115 The <<Discussion,Discussion>> section below and the
116 link:core-tutorial.html[Core tutorial] both provide introductions to the
117 underlying git architecture.
118
119 See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
120 examples.
121
122 GIT COMMANDS
123 ------------
124
125 We divide git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
126 ("plumbing") commands.
127
128 High-level commands (porcelain)
129 -------------------------------
130
131 We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some
132 ancillary user utilities.
133
134 Main porcelain commands
135 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
136
137 include::cmds-mainporcelain.txt[]
138
139 Ancillary Commands
140 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
141 Manipulators:
142
143 include::cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt[]
144
145 Interrogators:
146
147 include::cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt[]
148
149
150 Interacting with Others
151 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
152
153 These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other
154 people via patch over e-mail.
155
156 include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
157
158
159 Low-level commands (plumbing)
160 -----------------------------
161
162 Although git includes its
163 own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
164 development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
165 might start by reading about gitlink:git-update-index[1] and
166 gitlink:git-read-tree[1].
167
168 The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics)
169 to these low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable
170 than Porcelain level commands, because these commands are
171 primarily for scripted use. The interface to Porcelain commands
172 on the other hand are subject to change in order to improve the
173 end user experience.
174
175 The following description divides
176 the low-level commands into commands that manipulate objects (in
177 the repository, index, and working tree), commands that interrogate and
178 compare objects, and commands that move objects and references between
179 repositories.
180
181
182 Manipulation commands
183 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
184
185 include::cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt[]
186
187
188 Interrogation commands
189 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
190
191 include::cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt[]
192
193 In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
194 the working tree.
195
196
197 Synching repositories
198 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
199
200 include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
201
202 The following are helper programs used by the above; end users
203 typically do not use them directly.
204
205 include::cmds-synchelpers.txt[]
206
207
208 Internal helper commands
209 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
210
211 These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end
212 users typically do not use them directly.
213
214 include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
215
216
217 Configuration Mechanism
218 -----------------------
219
220 Starting from 0.99.9 (actually mid 0.99.8.GIT), `.git/config` file
221 is used to hold per-repository configuration options. It is a
222 simple text file modeled after `.ini` format familiar to some
223 people. Here is an example:
224
225 ------------
226 #
227 # A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
228 #
229
230 ; core variables
231 [core]
232 ; Don't trust file modes
233 filemode = false
234
235 ; user identity
236 [user]
237 name = "Junio C Hamano"
238 email = "junkio@twinsun.com"
239
240 ------------
241
242 Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
243 their operation accordingly.
244
245
246 Identifier Terminology
247 ----------------------
248 <object>::
249 Indicates the object name for any type of object.
250
251 <blob>::
252 Indicates a blob object name.
253
254 <tree>::
255 Indicates a tree object name.
256
257 <commit>::
258 Indicates a commit object name.
259
260 <tree-ish>::
261 Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
262 command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
263 operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
264 <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
265
266 <commit-ish>::
267 Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
268 command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to
269 operate on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences
270 <tag> objects that point at a <commit>.
271
272 <type>::
273 Indicates that an object type is required.
274 Currently one of: `blob`, `tree`, `commit`, or `tag`.
275
276 <file>::
277 Indicates a filename - almost always relative to the
278 root of the tree structure `GIT_INDEX_FILE` describes.
279
280 Symbolic Identifiers
281 --------------------
282 Any git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
283 symbolic notation:
284
285 HEAD::
286 indicates the head of the current branch (i.e. the
287 contents of `$GIT_DIR/HEAD`).
288
289 <tag>::
290 a valid tag 'name'
291 (i.e. the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags/<tag>`).
292
293 <head>::
294 a valid head 'name'
295 (i.e. the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads/<head>`).
296
297 For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
298 "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in gitlink:git-rev-parse[1].
299
300
301 File/Directory Structure
302 ------------------------
303
304 Please see link:repository-layout.html[repository layout] document.
305
306 Read link:hooks.html[hooks] for more details about each hook.
307
308 Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
309 `$GIT_DIR`.
310
311
312 Terminology
313 -----------
314 Please see link:glossary.html[glossary] document.
315
316
317 Environment Variables
318 ---------------------
319 Various git commands use the following environment variables:
320
321 The git Repository
322 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
323 These environment variables apply to 'all' core git commands. Nb: it
324 is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
325 git so take care if using Cogito etc.
326
327 'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
328 This environment allows the specification of an alternate
329 index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
330 is used.
331
332 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
333 If the object storage directory is specified via this
334 environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
335 underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
336 directory is used.
337
338 'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
339 Due to the immutable nature of git objects, old objects can be
340 archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
341 specifies a ":" separated list of git object directories which
342 can be used to search for git objects. New objects will not be
343 written to these directories.
344
345 'GIT_DIR'::
346 If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it
347 specifies a path to use instead of the default `.git`
348 for the base of the repository.
349
350 git Commits
351 ~~~~~~~~~~~
352 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
353 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
354 'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
355 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
356 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
357 'GIT_COMMITTER_DATE'::
358 'EMAIL'::
359 see gitlink:git-commit-tree[1]
360
361 git Diffs
362 ~~~~~~~~~
363 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
364 Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
365 number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
366 This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
367 value passed on the git diff command line.
368
369 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
370 When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
371 program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
372 described above. For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
373 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
374
375 path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
376 +
377 where:
378
379 <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
380 contents of <old|new>,
381 <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA1 hashes,
382 <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
383
384 +
385 The file parameters can point at the user's working file
386 (e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
387 when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
388 index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
389 temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
390 +
391 For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
392 parameter, <path>.
393
394 other
395 ~~~~~
396 'GIT_PAGER'::
397 This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`.
398
399 'GIT_TRACE'::
400 If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
401 is case insensitive), git will print `trace:` messages on
402 stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
403 execution and external command execution.
404 If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1
405 and lower than 10 (strictly) then git will interpret this
406 value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
407 trace messages into this file descriptor.
408 Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path
409 (starting with a '/' character), git will interpret this
410 as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
411 into it.
412
413 Discussion[[Discussion]]
414 ------------------------
415 include::core-intro.txt[]
416
417 Authors
418 -------
419 * git's founding father is Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>.
420 * The current git nurse is Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>.
421 * The git potty was written by Andres Ericsson <ae@op5.se>.
422 * General upbringing is handled by the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
423
424 Documentation
425 --------------
426 The documentation for git suite was started by David Greaves
427 <david@dgreaves.com>, and later enhanced greatly by the
428 contributors on the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
429
430 GIT
431 ---
432 Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite